Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death.Mark 14:1. Τὸ πάσχα, the passover) This is said in a strict sense, as in Mark 14:12; for τὰ ἄζυμα, “the feast of unleavened bread,” is added.—μετὰ δυὸ ἡμέρας) That is to say on the following day.
 Two days before the Passover.—ED. and TRANSL.
But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people.
And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head.Mark 14:3. Πιστικῆς, genuine) French veritable [So marg. of Eng. Vers., pure, or else liquid; but its text, ointment of spikenard”]. Pliny, on the contrary, mentions Pseudo-nardum. Nonnus lengthens the middle syllable in πιστικῆς; viz. as if formed from Pista, a city of the Indians in the region of Cabul; a region from which most of the aromatic perfumes even already at that time used to be derived; see Lud. de Dieu, in Act, p. 133. But πιστᾶιος; would rather be the form, if derived from the proper name, [συντρίψασα, having broken) That none of the ointment might remain in the vessel, which, had it been of glass, would have burst asunder into a number of fragments.—V. g.]
And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the ointment made?
For it might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and have been given to the poor. And they murmured against her.Mark 14:5. Ἐπάνω τριακοσίων, above three hundred) It may be doubted whether they could have accurately estimated its value. It is a phrase, resembling an adage [At all events almost 5000 men might have been fed for two hundred denarii; therefore one may judge that that sum was to be estimated as of much higher value.—V. g.]
And Jesus said, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good work on me.
For ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good: but me ye have not always.Mark 14:7. Τοὺς πτωχοὺς, the poor) Whom ye speak of.—ὅταν, if [whensoever]) ye will, as ye here show [by your very remark as to the poor].—δύνασθε, ye can) Never is there any one so needy, as to be able to give nothing.—ἔχετε ye have) thus present with you as now. It is not always that such an honour can be conferred on me.
She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying.Mark 14:8. Ὅ, What) An abbreviated mode of expression; i.e. What she had, she has freely bestowed; and what she could, she hath done; or else, what she had [it in her power] to do, she hath done.—αὕτη, she, emphatically coheres with ἔσχεν, she had. Hardly any one else of those, who were in attendance on Jesus, had so costly ointment. It was divinely designed and appointed for the purpose of this being done.—προέλαβε, she has anticipated [she is come aforehand] to) It would not have been becoming for the body of Christ, which knew not corruption, to have been anointed after death; on this account it was anointed beforehand.
Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her.Mark 14:9. Εἰς ὅλον, throughout the whole) In all its wide extent.—ἅυτη, she) Demonstratively.
And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the chief priests, to betray him unto them.
And when they heard it, they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.Mark 14:11. Ἐχάρησαν, they were glad) They felt joy, and they testified it.
And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover?Mark 14:12. Τὸ πάσχα ἔθυον, they killed [sacrificed] the passover) viz. The Jews, according to the commandment of the law, and therefore so also the disciples, were killing it.—V. g.]
And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him.Mark 14:13. Ἀπαντήσει, there shall meet) A wonderful sign: 1) that a person is about to meet them: 2) that person a man: 3) that man alone: 4) that too, immediately: 5) he should be bearing a vessel: 6) and that vessel, one of earthenware [κεράμιον]: 7) and containing water: 8) and that, too, going to the house which the disciples were looking for [It was in deep humiliation, even like as an ordinary Israelite, that Christ ate the Passover Lamb; wherefore He put forth His glory into exercise in the preparation for it.—V. g.]
And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?Mark 14:14. Ποῦ ἐστι, where is) It is taken for granted in this question, that there is some guest chamber already prepared through the providence of the Lord.
And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us.Mark 14:15. Ἀνάγαιον μέγα, a large supper-room [upper room]) It is probable, that Jesus had before this kept the passover in the houses of other inhabitants of the city; but this Passover Himself celebrated [marking it] with greater solemnity.—ἐστρωμένον, laid out) with carpets. This householder had been guided by Divine Providence. This circumstance illustrates the omniscience of Jesus, more than if it had been laid out (paved) with precious stones.—ἑτοιμάσατε, make ready). The verb is neuter; Luke 9:52.
And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.Mark 14:16. Εὗρον, they found) Attended with [having the effect of] the confirmation of their faith, their admiring wonder and joy.
And in the evening he cometh with the twelve.
And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me.
And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I?Mark 14:19. Εἷς καθεῖς) So John 8:9, and ὁ δὲ καθεῖς; Romans 12:5.—ὁ καθεὶς δὲ τὼν φίλων; 3Ma 5:31. From κατὰ (not καὶ εἶτα) and εἷς comes καθεὶς, of similar formation to ὀυδεὶς, μηδεὶς, unless you prefer accenting it καθεῖς, in order to distinguish it from the participle καθεὶς; κατὰ is used adverbially, as ἀνὰ μετά.
And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish.Mark 14:20. Ἐμβαπτόμενος, that teas dipping [but Eng. Vers., that dippeth in]) With his own hand; this is the force of the middle voice. The participle is in the imperfect tense, as ὢν is used in John 9:25, and ἐρχόμενος in 2 John v. 7.
The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born.
And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.Mark 14:22. Ἄρτον, bread) Mark does not add the article.—μον, my) Understand, which is given for you, to be supplied by implication from Mark 14:24 [My blood, which is shed for many].
And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it.Mark 14:23. Καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες, and they all drank of it) This clause interposed between the words of the Lord is an argument, that the words, This is My body, this is My blood, were said, during the time whilst they were eating, and whilst they were drinking. Whence the evangelists either prefix or else subjoin those words; comp. note, Matthew 3:7. All drank, even Judas; for who is there that will say that Judas might have stolen away from the company in the midst of the supper? [Comp. Mark 14:17-18; Mark 14:22] [Nay, even in Mark 14:31, we may suppose that, under the word all, Judas is even still included. It is not unlikely that he crossed the brook Kedron along with the Saviour and the disciples, and after that acted as conductor to the armed band which was waiting for Him in the neighbourhood.—Harm. p. 528.]
And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many.
Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God.
And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.
And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.Mark 14:27. Γέγραπται, it is written) Comp. Matthew 26:31, note.
But after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee.
But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I.
And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.Mark 14:30. Σὺ, thou) In antithesis to “yet will not I,” Mark 14:29.—ἢ δὶς, before that twice) A very striking circumstance, that Peter would not collect [recover] himself at the first cock-crowing. [Comp. note on Matthew 26:34.]
But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Likewise also said they all.Mark 14:31. Ἐκ περισσοῦ μᾶλλον, the rather, the more exceedingly). Comp. ch. Mark 7:36, note. Peter, in this passage, rather (μᾶλλον) spake of his own stedfastness, than trusted [believed] in the words of Jesus.
And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray.
And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy;Mark 14:33. Ἐκθαμβεῖσθαι, Hesychius writes, ἔκθαυβος, ἔκπληκτος. Eustathius, θαμβεῖν, τὸ ἐπὶ θέᾳ τινὸς ἐκπλήττεσθαι.
 θάμβος is akin to θήπω θεαομαι, wonder at some amazing sight being the connecting idea; as in Lat. suspicio.—ED. and TRANSL.
And saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch.
And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him.[35. Παρέλθῃ ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ ἡ ὥρα, the hour might pass from Him) The hour, He saith. Jesus knew that the cup would speedily be drained, and His passion speedily be terminated; and as heretofore He had been sure of the issue being good, so not even now had He any room for doubting it. This certainty of the issue does not in any degree detract from the love either of the Son delivering Himself up, or even of the Father delivering His Son up for us. Yet the cup and the hour struck Jesus with anguish; for which reason He prayed for their passing from Him, subject to the condition of the Father’s will, and the possibility of the case.—Harm. p. 527.]
And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt.Mark 14:36. Ἀββᾶ ὁ πατὴρ, Abba Father) Mark seems to have added Father, by way of interpretation: For Matthew, ch. Matthew 26:39; Matthew 26:42, says that what was said by Jesus was simply, “My Father:” Luke, ‘Father,’ Matthew 22:42. on the cross, He said Eli, Eli.—τὶ, what) The question in the case, saith He, is not what I will, but what Thou wilt.
And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest not thou watch one hour?
Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak.
And again he went away, and prayed, and spake the same words.
And when he returned, he found them asleep again, (for their eyes were heavy,) neither wist they what to answer him.
And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.Mark 14:41. Καὶ ἔρχεται, and He cometh) The third departure [Mark 14:39, “He went away”] is taken for granted, as well as the third offering of the same prayer.—καθεύδετε, sleep on) Matthew 26:45, note.—ἀπέχει, it is enough) Sleep has its turn [the office which it sustains] by this time fully served: now there is another business before us [And though ye do not regard my efforts to awaken and rouse you, yet your rest is being (must now be) broken.—V. g.]
Rise up, let us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at hand.
And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders.
And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely.Mark 14:44. Ἀσφαλῶς, with due precaution [safety]) The traitor was afraid, lest Jesus should slip from their hands [Therefore the wretched man was now no longer anxious merely about gaining the thirty pieces of silver, but was hurried along by a deadly hatred against Jesus.—V. g.]
And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him.
And they laid their hands on him, and took him.
And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear.
And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me?
I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the scriptures must be fulfilled.
And they all forsook him, and fled.
And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him:Mark 14:51. Σινδόνα, a linen cloth) He was therefore rich, Matthew 11:8.—ἐπὶ γυμνοῦ, upon his naked) viz. body. He had perhaps by this time gone to bed.—κρατοῦσιν, lay hold) He had not been desired to follow. No one tried to apprehend the disciples: this young man was apprehended by either the armed men or others.
 The Germ. Vers. approves of the omission of the subject οἱ νεανίσκο., though that omission has been less approved of by the margin of the larger Ed. and of Ed. 2.—E. B. It is omitted in BC corrected later, DLΔac Memph. Syr. Vulg. However AP supports the words with Rec. Text.—ED. and TRANSL.
And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.Mark 14:52. Γυμνὸς ἔφυγεν, fled naked) He fled, the night not being without the light of the moon: fear overcame shame, in the case of such great danger.
And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes.Mark 14:53. Συνέρχονται αὐτῷ, are assembled with him) By his edict.
And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire.Mark 14:54. Μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν, with the attendants) Often a fall is incurred more easily in the presence of such as servants, who are less feared, than among their masters, [the great].—θερμαινόμενος, warming himself) Often under care for the body the soul is neglected.—φῶς, the light) Appropriately light is the expression used instead of fire: Peter was recognised by the light, when under other circumstances he might have been safer: comp. Mark 14:67.
And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none.
For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together.
And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying,
We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.
But neither so did their witness agree together.
And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee?Mark 14:60. Οὐκ; τί; answerest thou not? What is it that, etc.?) Two distinct interrogations.
 But Tischend, has but one interrogation at the end of καταμαρτυροῦσιν; Lachm. says in his Preface that to introduce an interrogation after οὐδεν (;) here, where the τί is used for the relative, is subversive of the sense. Breads ὅ τι. But ADPd, τι. Vulg. “non respondes quicquam ad ea quœ tibi objiciuntur.”—ED. and TRANSL.
But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?Mark 14:61. Εὐλογητοῦ, of the Blessed) ברוך, the Blessed God.
And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.[62. Ἐγώ ἐιμι, I am) Jesus, when His enemies spake false witness against Him, and when His disciples withdrew themselves from the confession of the truth, Himself made an open profession of the truth.—V. g.]
Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses?
Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be guilty of death.
And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.Mark 14:65. Ἤρξαντο, began) A new step in their dealings with Him.—ὑπηρέται, the servants) who used to have in their hands ῥάβδοι, rods,
 So marg. of Engl. Ver. translates Matthew 26:67, ἐῤῥάπισαν, they smote Him with rods, instead of “with the palms of their hands.”—ED. and TRANSL.
And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest:Mark 14:66. Κάτω, beneath) There seem to have been a flight of steps there.
And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.
But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew.
And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them.Mark 14:69. Ἡ παιδίσκη, the maid [not as Engl. Ver.  maid]) That same maid: or else a second one, so that the πάλιν, again, may be connected with the participle alone, ἰδοῦσα, having seen him.—τοῖς παρεστηκόσιν, to them that stood by) She said it then in the spirit of joking, not with intent to hurt him [Comp. note on Matthew 26:69].—ἐξ αὐτῶν, of them) The expression, of them, shows, that speaking against Jesus and His disciples was most common and frequent.
 Vercellensis of the old ‘Itala,’ or Latin Version before Jerome’s, probably made in Africa, in the second century: the Gospels.
 Tischend. omits πάλιν with B, Memph. and Theb. But Lachm. reads it with A Dac Vulg.—ED. and TRANSL.
And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilaean, and thy speech agreeth thereto.
But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak.
And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.Mark 14:72. Ἐπιβαλὼν ἔκλαιε, he betook himself) To weeping, or, as Stapulensis interprets it, He broke forth into weeping. The French happily express it, il sc mit à pleurer Theophr. charact., περὶ λογοποιΐας· εὐθὺς ἐρωτῆσαι—καὶ ἐπιβαλὼν ἐρωτᾶν: as to which see Casaubon [Engl. Ver., When he thought thereon.]
Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel
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