Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones and what buildings are here![Mark 13:1. Λίθοι—οἰκοδομαὶ, stones—buildings) The very work of building was at that time going forward briskly: therefore many stones were lying scattered apart on this, and on that side.—V. g.]
And Jesus answering said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately,Mark 13:3. Εἰς, upon) The mountain. The wall of the temple was rather sunk towards the Mount of Olives: in consequence of which the interior of the temple could be conveniently seen.—Πέτρος, κ.τ.λ., Peter, etc.) James and Peter were about to die sooner than the rest: and yet the subject of inquiry appertains even to them: yet still more to John.
Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled?Mark 13:4. Ταῦτα, these things) viz. as concerns the temple.—πάντα ταῦτα, all these things) viz. as concerns not only the temple, but also all other things, that is, the whole world.
And Jesus answering them began to say, Take heed lest any man deceive you:Mark 13:5. Ἤρξατο, He began) Previously He had not spoken much concerning these things.
For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.Mark 13:6. Ἐγὼ εἰμι, I am) The Predicate is to be supplied, viz. the Christ; Matthew 24:5. Hebrew אני הוא, Isaiah 43:10.
And when ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, be ye not troubled: for such things must needs be; but the end shall not be yet.
For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and troubles: these are the beginnings of sorrows.Mark 13:8. Ταραχαὶ, troubles) in the great and lesser world [macrocosmo et microcosmo].
But take heed to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye shall be beaten: and ye shall be brought before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them.Mark 13:9. Δὲ, but) Do not concern yourselves about other matters, Mark 13:11 : only take heed to yourselves.—παραδώσουσι, they shall deliver you up) From this verse to Mark 13:13, the words are parallel to Matthew 10:17-18. Therefore Mark is not an epitomizer of Matthew.—εἰς) An abbreviated mode of expression: ye shall be brought into the synagogues, amidst stripes. See Glass. canon 2 de verbo. Or rather εἰς is for ἐν, as in Mark 13:16. At all events the mention of stripes is consonant with the synagogues. Matthew 10:17; Matthew 23:34.—αὐτοῖς, to them [against them]) viz. the Jews.
And the gospel must first be published among all nations.Mark 13:10. Καὶ εἰς, and among) The preaching of the Gospel was helped forward by the very persecutions, Mark 13:9; 2 Timothy 4:17.—πρῶτον, previously) before that the end shall come, Mark 13:7. [When Jerusalem was being destroyed, already a church was collected from among the Gentiles.—V. g.]
But when they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye: for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost.Mark 13:11. Μηδὲ μελετᾶτε, neither do ye meditate) Not merely you have need of no anxiety, but not even of premeditation.—τοῦτο, this very thing) the whole of it, and without fear. [For it is with that aim it is supplied to you.—V. g.]
Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall cause them to be put to death.
And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.
But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:Mark 13:14. Ὅπου οὐ δεῖ, where it ought not) Language adapted to His hearers’ modes of thought. The Jews’ mode of thinking was, that it ought not. And indeed it ought not, in so much as the place was the holy place; so, “speaking things which they ought not,” 1 Timothy 5:13. Comp. also Jeremiah 49:12. [It was from that place that the Romans invaded the city.—V. g.]
And let him that is on the housetop not go down into the house, neither enter therein, to take any thing out of his house:
And let him that is in the field not turn back again for to take up his garment.
But woe to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!
And pray ye that your flight be not in the winter.
For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be.
And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect's sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days.Mark 13:20. Οὓς ἐξελέξατο, whom He hath chosen) Herein is illustrated the power of prayer.—ἐκολοβωσε, He hath shortened) by His decree.
And then if any man shall say to you, Lo, here is Christ; or, lo, he is there; believe him not:
For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect.Mark 13:22. Ἀποπλανᾶν, to seduce) by error [πλάνη, wandering] from the right path.
But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things.
But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light,Mark 13:24. Ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις μετὰ τὴν θλίψιν ἐκείνην, in those days after that tribulation) After that tribulation shall come those days. Therefore the ἐκείνην, that, refers to a different thing from ἐκείναις, those. That refers back to the whole preceding discourse; but those, looks forward to the last events of all, as in Mark 13:32. For the question of the disciples, to which the Lord replies, in Mark also, Mark 13:4 [as in Matthew], had reference by implication, to the end of the world.
And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the powers that are in heaven shall be shaken.Mark 13:25. Ἔσονται ἐκπίπτοντες, shall be falling) A metaphor from a flower, Jam 1:11. [The flower thereof falleth.]
And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory.Mark 13:26. Μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς καὶ δόξης, with great power and glory) The adjective in the middle, applying to both nouns. Mark frequently employs a Zeugma of this kind, so as to put some word in the middle, which is intended to be connected with the preceding, and also with the subsequent word or words, See ch. Mark 3:26, Mark 4:21, Mark 5:40; Mark 5:42, Mark 6:13, Mark 7:2; Mark 7:21, Mark 10:7.
And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven.Mark 13:27. Ἀπʼ ἄκρου) This is an abbreviated mode of expression, in this sense, from the uttermost part of the heaven (sky) and earth in the east, even to the uttermost part of the heaven and earth in the west. [O blessed general assembly, of which who would not desire to form a member?—V. g.]
Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is near:
So ye in like manner, when ye shall see these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors.
Verily I say unto you, that this generation shall not pass, till all these things be done.[30. Ἡ γενεὰ, generation) These words were spoken in the 30th year of the Dion. Era, and it was in A.D. 70 that they came to pass. Comp. on Matthew 24:34.]
Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away.
But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.Mark 13:32. Οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός, neither the Son) This, which had been omitted in Matthew, has been recorded by Mark, inasmuch as believers being by this time confirmed in the faith, could now more readily bear it [than they could have borne it in Matthew’s early time]. [It is also omitted by Luke, who seems to have softened down several passages of Mark, with which Theophilus, an excellent person, but a νεόφυτος, novice, might have been readily offended.—Harm., p. 481.] Moreover, both in the twelfth year of His age and subsequently, “Jesus increased in wisdom,” [Luke 2:52]: and the accessions of wisdom which He then gained, He had not had before. Since this was not unworthy of Him, it was also not even necessary for Him in teaching to know already at that time the one secret reserved to the Father. Moreover the assertion is not to be taken absolutely (comp. John 16:15), but in reference to the human nature of Christ, independently of [as separated from] which, however, He is not denominated, even in this passage, where there is a climax, which sets Him even as man above the angels: it is also to be taken with reference to His state of humiliation, whence the language which He employs subsequently, after the resurrection, is different, see notes, Acts 1:7 : in fine, both the human nature and the state of humiliation in respect to the office of the Christ being supposed, His words may be understood to mean, without mental reservation, that He knows not, because He had it not among His instructions, to declare that day; as also in order to deter His disciples from requiring to know it. An apostle was able both to know and not to know one and the same thing, according to the different point of view, see note, Php 1:25 : how much more Christ? There is an admirable variety in the motions of the soul of Christ. Sometimes He had an elevated feeling, so as hardly to seem to remember that He was a man walking on the earth: sometimes He had a lowly feeling, so that He might almost have seemed to forget that He was the Lord from heaven. And He was wont always to express Himself according to His mental feeling for the time being: at one time as He who was one with the Father: at another time again in such a manner, as if He were only of that condition, in which are all ordinary and human saints. Often these two are blended together in wonderful variety. He speaks most humbly in this passage, and thereby qualifies [modifies] the feeling of His glory, which His discourse concerning the judgment was carrying with it. You may say, Why is He in this passage called the Son, a denomination which is not taken from His human nature? The answer is: In enunciations concerning the Saviour, He is wont to join a lowly Subject with a glorious Predicate: Matthew 16:28; John 1:51; John 3:13; and vice versa, a glorious Subject (as here) with a lowly Predicate: Matthew 21:3; 1 Corinthians 2:8; moreover, in this passage, the Son is in antithesis to the Father.—εἰ μὴ ὁ Πατὴρ, but the Father) Illustrating the great glory of His omniscience. Comp. Acts 1:7.
Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is.
For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch.[34. Ὡς ἄνθρωπος) D. Hauber has ably proved that this passage is parallel, not to Matthew 25:14, but to Matthew 24:45.—Harm., p. 484].—τὴν ἐξουσίαν, authority) This He gave to His servants conjointly, as is evident from the antithesis, and to every man) καὶ ἑκάστῳ. The authority so assigned was a great authority: Matthew 21:33.—καὶ) also [even].—τῷ θυρωρῷ, to the porter) [He gave charge], inasmuch as the porter is one who keeps watch even for others, and whose duty it is to rouse them up.
Watch ye therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning:Mark 13:35. Γρηγορεῖτε, watch) Watchfulness, the foundation of all duties, is enjoined not only on the porter, but on all the servants.—μεσονυκτίον, at midnight) Matthew 25:6.
Lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping.
And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.Mark 13:37. Πᾶσι, unto all) Even to those of after ages. [ὑμῖν, unto you) In antithesis to πᾶσι, viz., the Apostles, and their contemporaries.—V. g.]