Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.
And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard.Mark 12:2. Τῷ καιρῷ, at the season) Of fruits, Matthew 21:34 [“the time of the fruit”].—ἀπὸ, [a portion of) A portion of the fruits was allowed to the husbandmen. This particle is appropriate to the first-sent servants, who were expected to bring a specimen of the fruits.
And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.
And again he sent unto them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled.Mark 12:4. Ἐκεφαλαίωσαν, wounded him in the head) So γναθοῦν, γυιοῦν, similarly constructed forms of verb, occur in Hesychius.
And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some.
Having yet therefore one son, his wellbeloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son.Mark 12:6. Ἔτι, as yet) Construe with having.—ἕνα ἀγαπητὸν, one—His well-beloved) These two words do not altogether signify the same thing.
But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours.
And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.
What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others.
And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner:Mark 12:10. Οὐδὲ, Have ye not even) The adverb gives Epitasis. [See Append., Increase of force.]
This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?
And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.Mark 12:12. [Ἔγνωσαν γὰρ, for they knew) Their conscience supplying the testimony to its being so.—V. g.]—πρὸς, [Engl. Ver., against] in reference to) So πρὸς is used, Hebrews 1:7; Hebrews 11:18.
And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words.
And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?Mark 12:14. Ἀλλʼ, but) The truth is not consistent with having respect to persons.
Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it.Mark 12:15. Ἵνα ἴδω, that I may see) The Saviour seems [judging by the ἵνα ἴδω, as if He had not looked at one before] then for the first time to have handled and looked at a denarius [penny].
And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Caesar's.
And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.[17. Τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, the things that are God’s) All things are GOD’S, heaven and earth, all men, and therefore Cæsar himself. Yet nevertheless He hath made a wise distribution as regards His goods. On that account the less ought He to be defrauded of those things which He hath peculiarly reserved to Himself.—V. g.]
Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying,
Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.Mark 12:19. Ἔγραψεν, wrote) The Sadducees, though sceptics, acknowledged Moses to be the writer of the law.—ὅτι—ἵνα) A rare phraseology; comp. ch. Mark 5:23.
Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed.
And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise.
And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the woman died also.Mark 12:22. Ἑπτὰ, seven) The fact of there being no seed left, even by the seventh, increases the plausibility of the question.
In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife.Mark 12:23. Ὅταν ἀναστῶσι, when they shall rise again) viz. the brothers and the wife.
And Jesus answering said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God?Mark 12:24. Διὰ τοῦτο, on this account) The particle strengthens the refutation: your very words betray your error, Lat. atqui. Psalms 66(65):19.
For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven.Mark 12:25. Ἐκ νεκρῶν, out from the dead) The ἐκ, out from among, implies the new condition of the saints when they rise again out of the state of the dead, at the same time that it does not set aside the universality of the resurrection.
And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?Mark 12:26 Βίβλῳ, the book) The volume of Moses is mentioned in this passage; that of Isaiah in Luke 3:4; that of the Prophets, Acts 7:42; that of the Psalms, Acts 1:20.—Μωσέως, of Moses) concerning whom you have spoken, Mark 12:19.—ἐπὶ τοῦ βάτου, in the bush) A formula of quoting a section or division of Scripture, frequent with the Rabbins [Comp. Michaëlis in der Einleitung, etc., T. i. p. m. 87.—E. B.] So Pliny, “Molybdænam in plumbo dicendam,” i.e. in the chapter concerning lead [plumbus]. Furthermore, ὁ βάτος is the measure, bath; ὁ or ἡ βάτος (as ὁ or ἡ θάμνος) not an unproductive bramble, but a valuable shrubbery [place of bushes], at least in Exodus. A noble image is derived from this, Deuteronomy 33:16 [the good-will of Him, that dwelt in the bush].
He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err.Mark 12:27. Οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ Θεὸς νεκρῶν, ἀλλὰ ζώντων) This is a reading midway between the extremes. Starting from it, some have repeated Θεὸς before νεκρῶν, others after ἀλλὰ.—[ὑμεῖς οὖν, ye therefore) viz. ye Sadducees, the doctrine of the resurrection is the primary one.—V. g.]—πολὺ greatly) An antithesis to this follows at Mark 12:34, not far [from the kingdom of God].
 The margin of Ed. 2 supports this reading, as also the Germ. Vers., although the larger Ed. does not approve of it.—E. B.
BDLΔ omit the ὁ before Θεος. A supports it, as does the Rec. Text. Orig. in different passages gives it differently. ABCDabc Vulg. Orig. 3, 829; 4, 69; 341 omit the θεὸς, inserted in Rec. Text before ζὼντων without any adequate authority.—ED. and TRANSL.
And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all?Mark 12:28. Καλῶς, well) Admirably. The admirable character of Christ’s teaching is often conspicuous, even to those who do not comprehend it wholly [in all its parts]. To this we are to refer Mark 12:32, καλῶς, well.
And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:Mark 12:29. Πρώτη πασῶν ἐντολή) This is a reading midway between extremes, and answers to Mark 12:28. The editions read πρώτη πασῶν τῶν ἐντολῶν, and so the Syr Vers., as also Greek MSS.: however, for πασῶν, Al. Byz. Gehl. Mosc. Wo. 1, 2, and many others, have πάντων, though some of them retain πασῶν at Mark 12:28. πάντων has originated by an alliteration to [an assimilation of letters to those of] πρώτη, and ἐντολὴ, as in the same Al. ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐντολῶν in Leviticus 4:13; Leviticus 4:27 [instead of the genuine reading, πασῶν]. Furthermore ἐντολὴ, not τῶν ἐντολῶν, is the reading of Al. Gehl., along with many MSS., and the same Nomin. case is defended by the Goth. and Lat. versions.—[ἌΚΟΥΕ, hear) Even this word is a portion belonging to the first commandment.—V. g.]—Κύριος, the Lord) This is the foundation of the first commandment, nay, rather of all the commandments. The Subject of the proposition is, THE LORD our God: the Lord, I say (the God of all); the Predicate, = “is One (God)” [not as Engl. Vers., “The Lord our God is one Lord”]; comp. Mark 12:32, in order that the proper name employed twice [Κυριος—Κύριος] may signify the two great revelations of Jehovah, of which the one embraced the Jewish people, the other the Gentiles also; comp. Psalm 72:18, where the proper name is put once, the appellative twice, “Jehovah God, the God of Israel” [Engl. Vers., The Lord God, the God of Israel], the position of the accents being the same as occurs also in 1 Chronicles 12:18, Peace, peace he unto thee! From this unity of God it flows as a consequence, that we owe the whole of our love to Him alone.
 yr. the Peschito Syriac Version: second cent.: publ. and corrected by Cureton, from MS. of fifth cent.
 Tisch. omits παντ. or πας. τῶν ἐντολῶν, and reads only ὅτι πρώτη ἐστίν, with BLΔ Memph. Lachm., ὅτι πρώτη πάντων [ἐντολὴ ἐστίν] with ACc Vulg. (save that c omits πάντων; A omits ἐστίν; C reads ἔστιν ἀυτὴ. Therefore he brackets ἐντολὴ ἐστίν). Dabc omit ὅτι, which is supported by AB Vulg. Dab also read πάντων πρώτη.—ED. and TRANSL.
And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.Mark 12:30. Καρδίας, with all thy heart) Which lives and loves.—ψυχῆς, with all thy soul) which enjoys and relishes.—διανοίας, with all thy mind) which is that ever-continuing power which engages itself in thoughts. σύνεσις is employed in Mark 12:33; in Luke 10:27, ἰσχύος—διανοίας.—ἰσχύος, with all thy strength) the ability which carries into effect the volition throughout the whole body.
 Tisch. omits διανοίας here in Mark, as perhaps interpolated by harmonies from Luke, with Dc, Cypr. 199, 213, 264. But AB Vulg. support it.—ED. and TRANSL.
And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.
And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he:Mark 12:32. Κακῶς, excellently [well]) Construe with. Thou hast said: for His “saying well” is made to rest on the truth, ἐπʼ ἀληθείας, as in Luke 4:25 [ἐπʼ ἀληθείας λέγω, I say, resting on the truth, “I say of a truth”], εἷς ἐστι καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος πλὴν αὐτοῦ, there is One, and there is none other but He) There is One [or rather He is One], an absolute phraseology, is repeated from Mark 12:29, that is, from Moses’ writings; comp. Zechariah 14:9. The subject, Θεὸς, God, is left to be supplied, by a striking εὐλάβεια of language [reverent caution is needlessly repeating God’s name], although many have inserted this very word, Θεὸς, after ἐστί. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.
 AB Vulg. omit Θεὸς. D abc and Rec. Text (which prefixes ὁ) insert Θεὸς.—ED. and TRANSL.
And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.Mark 12:33. Ὁλοκαυτωμάτων, whole burnt-offerings) The most noble species of sacrifices.—θυσιῶν, victims in sacrifice) of which very many commandments treat.
And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question.Mark 12:34. Οὐ μακρὰν εἶ, thou art not far) They therefore axe far from the kingdom who have not νοῦς, intelligent perception. [Such, for instance, were they who were still clinging to sacrifices.—V. g.] Seeing that thou art not far from it, enter into the kingdom: otherwise it would have been better for thee to have been far off.
 Referring to νουνεκως, having intelligence, Th. νοῦν ἔκειν, to have intelligence.—ED. and TRANSL.
And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the Son of David?
For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.Mark 12:36. Ἀυτὸς,) Himself.
David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly.Mark 12:37. Πολὺς) The people, who were many [But Engl. Vers., “The common people.”]
And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and love salutations in the marketplaces,Mark 12:38. Αὐτοῖς, unto them) Especially to the disciples, Luke 20:45. [βλέπετε, beware) lest ye incur the same condemnation, Mark 12:40.—V. g.]—γραμματέων, the Scribes) An open accusation.—θελόντων, who wish) The wish or intention often make an act, which is in itself indifferent [neither good nor bad], a bad one: but the verb θέλω, I will, or wish, often includes the act in it, whether good, Matthew 20:14, or bad, Galatians 4:9. And it is a characteristic, even in the present day, of false theologians, to be captivated with splendour of robes, with sustaining the leading parts as to celebrity, with a display of offices and honours, as also of their intercessory prayers before others.
And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts:
Which devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation.Mark 12:40. Οἱ κατεσθίοντες, who devour) Construe with the following words.
And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much.Mark 12:41. Ἐθεώρει, beheld) Christ, in our worship at even the present day, beholds all.—πολλοὶ, πλούσιοι, many rich men) The state was then flourishing.
And there came a certain poor widow, and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing.Mark 12:42. Ἐλθοῦσα, having come) Jesus had His eye chiefly on her.—δύο, two) one of which the widow might have retained. [This had been enacted by no commandment: but the intention in her mind, by which she was moved was good.—V. g.]
And he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury:Mark 12:43. Προσκαλεσάμενος, having called unto Him) As being about to speak of a momentous subject. He thus gives us a specimen of the judgment which He will hereafter exercise, according to the state of hearts.—τοὺς μαθητὰς, the disciples) who had not estimated the widow’s gift so highly. [It is for this reason the καρδιογνώστης, Knower of hearts, prefaces His words with Amen, verily.—V. g.]—πλεῖον, more) not in mere geometrical proportion, but in mind [intention, motive], to which the Lord had regard. If any rich man had contributed all his resources, the act, viewed extrinsically, would have been greater, in so far as two pieces of money are more readily acquired again, than many: but yet he would not thereby have surpassed the mind [influencing motive] of this poor woman. [That praise, wherewith Jesus honoured the poor widow, altogether exceeds (to what an amazing degree!) all the acclamations of the world.—V. g.]
For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living.