Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.Mark 16:1. Ἠγόρασαν, they [had] bought) On the day before the Sabbath they prepared the sweet spices, Luke 23:56; Luke 24:1. Therefore it must have been then also that they had bought them: for on the day following the Sabbath they could not have bought them so early in the morning. Accordingly, either διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου must, by Hyperbaton [the transposition of words contrary to the natural order.—See Append.], be joined with they come [ἔρχονται], Mark 16:2; or else the sense is, the Sabbath having been kept in the interim, viz. between the preparation and the first day of the week.—ἀρώματα, sweet spices;—ἀλείψωσιν, they might anoint) There is a Synecdoche [see Append.] in both words. They were wishing to sprinkle the body with the sweet spices, and to anoint it with ointments, or else to mix together the sweet spices and ointments.
 The ἀρώματα, sweet spices, including also ointments: the ἁλείψωσιν, anoint, including also the mixing together of sweet spices and ointments.—ED. and TRANSL.
And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.Mark 16:2. Λίαν πρωῒ, very early in the morning.—ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου, the sun having arisen) The one [the first] clause applies to Mary Magdalene, John 20:1; the other clause to the rest of the women.
And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?Mark 16:3. Ἐκ, from) Therefore the sepulchre had been very securely guarded. The women, however, were not aware that it had been also sealed [Matthew 27:66].
And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.Mark 16:4. Γὰρ, for) The particle intimates both the reason why the women were in anxiety [Mark 16:3], and the reason why they perceived that the stone must have been rolled away with an unusually great power.
And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.Mark 16:5. Νεανίσκον, a young man) A style of appearance appropriate to angels. For the most part, they appeared in the form of a man, and that a youthful human form in this case [Matthew 28:2].—ἐν τοῖς δεξίοις, on the right side) The minister [attendant angel] is thus ready at hand to his Lord, fitly ministering to Him.
And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.
But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.Mark 16:7. Ἀλλʼ ὑπάγετε, but go your way) in antithesis to [Mark 16:6] He is not here; [Mark 16:7] there shall ye see Him.—καὶ τῷ Πέτρῳ, and Peter) who subsequently proclaimed this testimony in his Acts and Epistles. [How great must have been the refreshment of spirit, as we may suppose, afforded by this to that disciple, overwhelmed as he was by sorrow!—V. g.]
And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.Mark 16:8. Τρόμος, trembling) of body. Comp. 1 Corinthians 2:3, note.—ἔκστασις, stupor [amazement]) of mind.
Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.Mark 16:9. Πρωῒ, early in the morning) Construe with ἐφάνη, He appeared. Comp. Mark 16:12. However, it was on that very day the Lord arose, before the dawn.
And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.
And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.Mark 16:12. Ἑτέρᾳ, another [different]) This is the intermediate step of His revelation between His announcement of the fact by messengers, and His manifest appearance: just as the number two [viz. of those to whom He here appears] is intermediate between the one single female messenger and the many witnesses.—[εἰς ἀγρὸν, into the country) towards Emmaus.—V. g.]
And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.Mark 16:13. Ἀπήγγειλαν) They brought back word.—οὐδὲ ἐκείνοις, not even them) Luke 24:34, affirms they did believe. Both statements are true. They did believe: but presently there recurred to them a suspicion as to the truth, and even positive unbelief. The faith suddenly arising in them, and entertained at first with a joy which had still in it something of an unwonted and ecstatic character blended with it, was not faith, as compared with the faith which followed, cleared as the latter was of all dregs of unbelief, and fully satisfied as to all difficulties, and suitable to the exigencies of the apostleship. Luke 24:37-38; John 20:25; Matthew 28:17.
Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.Mark 16:14. Ὕστερον, lastly) The last of His appearances, not absolutely, but of those which Mark describes; [and which occurred on the very day of the resurrection. For Mark adds: When the eleven sat at meat; and therefore he does not speak of the appearance on the mountain of Galilee, which He Himself touches on most briefly, in Mark 16:7, and Matthew 28:16, expressly records.—Harm., p. 604.]—ἀνακειμένοις, as they sat at meat) At the time when men are most exhilarated by the coming of those whom they were earnestly wishing for.—αὐτοῖς, themselves) together.—ὠνείδισε, He upbraided) This takes for granted that the proofs of the resurrection were undoubted. [A wholesome putting of them to shame.—V. g.]—καὶ σκληροκαρδίαν, and hardness of heart) Faith and a tender heart are always conjoined.
And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.Mark 16:15. Κόσμον, the world) Jesus Christ, the Lord of all, [is the fitting Giver of this command to preach in all the world].—πάσῃ, all), Mark 16:20 [everywhere]. This is said without limitation. If all men, of all places and ages, have not heard the Gospel, [the blame lies with] the successors of the first preachers, and those whose duty it was to have heard it, [who] have not answered the intention of the Divine will.—κτίσει, creature) to men primarily, Mark 16:16; to the rest of creatures secondarily. As widely extended as was the curse, so widely extended is the blessing. The creation of the world by the Son is the foundation of its redemption and His [coming] kingdom [reign] over it.
He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.Mark 16:16. Πιστεύσας, he that believeth) the Gospel. The close of this Gospel corresponds to its opening: ch. Mark 1:15.—καὶ βαπτισθεὶς, and that is baptized) Whosoever once believes, is wont to receive baptism.—σωθήσεται, shall be saved: κατακριθήσεται, shall be condemned) There is a Synecdoche in both verbs: shall have righteousness [the antithetic term to κατακρίμα involved in κατακριθήσεται], and salvation; shall be condemned, and perish [the antithesis of σωθήσεται].—ἀπιστήσας, he who believeth not) Those who did not believe, did not receive baptism. The want of baptism does not condemn, unless it be through unbelief [that baptism is refused]. The penalty of neglecting circumcision is more expressly indicated, Genesis 17:14.
And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues;Mark 16:17. Τοῖς πιστεύσασι, in the case of them that believe) by the instrumentality of that very faith, of which Mark 16:16 treats: comp. Hebrews 11:33, etc. The state of mind [faith] whereby Paul was saved, was not different from that whereby he performed miracles. Even in our day, faith has in every believer a hidden power of a miraculous character: every effect resulting from our prayers is really miraculous, even though that miraculous character be not apparent; although in many, both on account of their own feebleness, and on account of the unworthiness of the world,—not merely because [as some say] the Church, being once planted, needs not the continuance of miracles, though no doubt the early miracles of the New Testament have ‘made’ for the Lord Jesus “an everlasting name” (comp. Isaiah 63:12),—that power does not exert itself in our day. Signs were in the beginning the props and stays of faith: now they are also the object of faith. At Leonberg, a town of Wirtemberg [A.C. 1644, thirteenth Sunday after Trinity], a girl of twenty years of age was so disabled in her limbs, as hardly to be able to creep along by the help of crutches; but whilst the Dean [Raumeier was his name] was, from the pulpit, dwelling on the miraculous power of Jesus’ name, she suddenly was raised up and restored to the use of her limbs.—ταῦτα, these) Miracles are here alluded to of a most palpable kind, and such as are altogether removed from every suspicion of trickery.—παρακολουθήσει, shall follow in the train of) The word and faith precede the signs, Mark 16:20.—ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί Μου, in My name) which believers call upon.—καιναῖς, new) Such as they themselves had not previously known: or even such as no nation had previously spoken: 1 Corinthians 12:10. For in Acts 2:4, the tongues of the Parthians, Medes, etc., are called other tongues, not new tongues. Ἕτεραι, other tongues, were such as were used before, viz., by the various nations: but καιναὶ, new tongues: for instance, as at Corinth, where one spake in the tongue, and another had to interpret it, although there was no one present who used the foreign tongue; a proceeding which was as it were a kind of prophetical exercise.
 This happened in the presence of Duke Eberhard III. and his courtiers, and was committed to the public records, which are above all suspicion. However D. Ernesti, Bibl. Theol. T. ii. 416, regards the whole affair as not worthy to be dignified with the name of miracle. The very words of the Dean are given by E. B. in his Ed. of Beng. Gnom., which the curious reader can consult. The girl had been for nine years continuously disabled. E. B. tells a marvellous tale in addition. At Lavingen, in the year 1606, Nov. 26, Joseph Jenisch was born of the noble stock of the Kellers; he was destitute of a tongue from his birth, but in consequence of the earnest prayers of his parents and family, when he had not yet finished his first year, he was able to name distinctly the several members of the family, and was, therefore, dedicated to the service of the ministry, which for forty years he discharged at Böblingen and Münchingen: he died on the 10th of April 1675.—ED. and TRANSL.
They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.Mark 16:18. Θανάσιμον, deadly) The resurrection of dead men is not here mentioned: Jesus Christ performed more than He promised. But we read of only Tabitha being raised by Peter, and Eutychus by Paul: for now that the Saviour has entered His glory, it is more desirable [more to be wished for] to wing one’s flight by faith out of this world into the other, than to return to this life.
So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.Mark 16:19. Ὁ Κύριος, the Lord) A magnificent and suitable appellation, Mark 16:20 [ch. Mark 12:36].—μετὰ τὸ λαλῆσαι αὐτοῖς, after He had spoken to them) He furnished them with His instructions, not only on the very day of the resurrection, which has been so copiously described by Mark, but even throughout the succeeding days [Comp. note on Matthew 23:19-20].
And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.Mark 16:20. Πανταχοῦ, everywhere) Mark 16:15. At the time when Mark wrote his Gospel, even then already the apostles had gone forth into all the world; Romans 10:18 : on this account it is that, excepting Peter, James the Elder, John, James the Less, and Jude, we read no mention in the books of the New Testament of any apostle, save Paul, after the second or fifteenth chapter of the Acts. Each one became most known in that place and country where he preached. The name of no apostle was celebrated throughout the whole world, but the name of Jesus Christ alone.
 Bengel, J. A. (1860). Vol. 1: Gnomon of the New Testament (M. E. Bengel & J. C. F. Steudel, Ed.) (J. Bandinel & A. R. Fausset, Trans.) (491–577). Edinburgh: T&T Clark.