Precious
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Easton's Bible Dictionary
Stones, Precious

Frequently referred to (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chronicles 3:6; 9:10; Revelation 18:16; 21:19). There are about twenty different names of such stones in the Bible. They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability (Cant. 5:14; Isaiah 54:11, 12; Lamentations 4:7).

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (a.) Of great price; costly; as, a precious stone.

2. (a.) of great value or worth; very valuable; highly esteemed; dear; beloved; as, precious recollections.

3. (a.) Particular; fastidious; overnice.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
PRECIOUS

presh'-us (stands for 17 different words, chief of which are yaqar; timios):

(1) Generally in the literal sense, "of great price," "costly," "expensive," of material things (e.g. Proverbs 1:13 Jeremiah 20:5 Mark 14:3 the King James Version), especially of precious stones (2 Samuel 12:30 2 Chronicles 3:6 1 Corinthians 3:12 the King James Version, etc.).

(2) Sometimes "of great moral (non-material) value." "Precious in the sight of Yahweh is the death of his saints" (Psalm 116:15); "his precious and exceeding great promises" (2 Peter 1:4); compare Psalm 139:17 2 Peter 1:1.

The literal and the moral senses are both involved in the expression, "knowing that ye were redeemed, not with corruptible things,.... but with precious blood" (1 Peter 1:18, 19). "Preciousness" (time) occurs in 1 Peter 2:7 the American Standard Revised Version, the English Revised Version, for the King James Version "precious."

D. Miall Edwards

STONES, PRECIOUS

" 1. Ancient and Modern Names

2. Change of Signification of Names

3. Three Important Lists of Stones

4. Interpretation of Greek Names Used by John

5. Interpretation of Hebrew Names

6. Greek and Latin Equivalents of Hebrew Names

7. Inconsistencies of Text or Translation

8. Vulgate and Septuagint

9. Hebrew Texts of Septuagint and English Versions of the Bible

10. Equivalence of Hebrew and Greek Names

11. Interpretation of Greek Names Used by Septuagint

12. List of Names with Biblical References

1. Ancient and Modern Names:

Great difficulty is met with in any attempt to translate the Greek and Hebrew names mentioned in the Bible into names that would be used for the same minerals in a particular country at the present day. It is only within the last century, through the development of the sciences of chemistry and crystallography, that it has become possible to define mineral species with any considerable approach to precision. In ancient times various minerals were regarded as belonging to a single kind, and indicated by a single name, that are now distributed into different kinds and mentioned under different names.

For example, 2,000 years ago the Greek term anthrax was used to signify various hard, transparent, red stones that are now known to differ much from one another in chemical composition, and are therefore assigned to different species and given different names; among them are oriental ruby (red corundum), balas ruby (red spinel), almandine and pyrope (red garnets); a stone designated anthrax by the ancient Greeks might thus belong to any one of a number of various kinds to the assemblage of which no name is now given, and the word anthrax has no simple equivalent in a modern language.

2. Change of Signification of Names:

Confusion is introduced in another way. The English names of most of the precious stones mentioned in the Bible are adaptations of Greek names through the Latin; for instance, the English word "topaz" is a modification of the Latin word topazius, itself merely a Latin form of the Greek word topazion. It would at first sight appear that the Greek word topazion must be translated into English by the word "topaz"; but, strangely, although the words are virtually identical, the stones indicated by the words are quite different. The topazion of the ancient Greeks was a green stone yielding to the action of a file and said to be brought from an island in the Red Sea, whereas the topaz of the present day is not a green stone, does not yield to the action of a file, and has not been brought from an island in the Red Sea. The topazion of the ancient Greeks is really the peridot, not the topaz, of modern mineralogy; topazion and topaz are different kinds of stone. For the interpretation of the Bible it is thus necessary to ascertain, if possible, the kind of stone to which a Greek or Hebrew name was applied at the time when the word was written.

3. Three Important Lists of Stones:

Most of the names of the precious stones mentioned in the Bible are contained in the Hebrew description of the breastplate of the high priest and the Greek description of the foundations of the New Jerusalem. The ornaments assigned to the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13) included only stones that had been used in the breastplate; indeed, in the Septuagint, they are the same twelve, mentioned in precisely the same order.

The stones of the breastplate according to our Hebrew text (Exodus 28:17-21) were:

The foundations of the New Jerusalem are (Revelation 21:19, 20):

1 iaspis

2 sappheiros

3 chalkedon

4 smaragdos

5 sardonux

6 sardion

7 chrusolithos

8 berullos

9 topazion

10 chrusoprasos

11 huakinthos

12 amethustos

Only 4 of the latter stones are mentioned elsewhere in the New Testament, also in the Book of Revelation, namely: iaspis (4:3; 21:18), smaragdos (4:3), sardion (4:3) and huakinthos (9:17).

4. Interpretation of Greek Names Used by John:

For the interpretation of the Greek names used by John, much help is given by Pliny's great work on Natural History, published 77 A.D., for it records what was known about precious stones at the very time when John himself was living. The Greek names of stones and their Latin verbal equivalents had presumably the same signification for both these writers; it is thus possible, in some cases at least, to ascertain what name is now assigned to a stone mentioned in the New Testament if the name and description are recorded in the treatise of Pliny; the results are given in the alphabetical list below. All twelve stones, except chalkedon, are mentioned by Pliny; the few important stones described by him, but not mentioned by John as foundations, are crystallum and adamas, both of them colorless; onyx, remarkable rather for structure than color; electrum (amber), a soft material; carbunculus, fiery red; callaina, pale green, probably turquoise; cyanus, dark blue; and opalus (opal); ranked in Pliny's time immediately after smaragdus in value. Achates (agate) is omitted, but was no longer precious.

5. Interpretation of Hebrew Names:

In the interpretation of the Hebrew names of the stones of the breastplate there is much greater difficulty, for no Hebrew literature other than the Old Testament has been preserved, and little help is afforded by the contexts of other verses in which some of the Hebrew names of precious stones occur. If we could assume that the Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions of the description of the breastplate were made from Hebrew texts absolutely identical in respect of the names of the stones with those used for the preparation of the English Versions of the Bible, and that the versions were correctly made, the Greek equivalents of the Hebrew terms for the time of the Septuagint translators (about 280 B.C.) and their Latin equivalents for the time of Jerome (about 400 A.D.) would be directly determinable by collation of the Hebrew original with the Greek and Latin translations.

It must be remembered, however, that a Hebrew writer, in describing the arrangement of a row of stones, began with that on his right and mentioned them in the order right to left, while a western writer begins with the stone on his left and mentions them in the reverse order. Hence, in translating a Hebrew statement of arrangement into a western language, one may either translate literally word by word, thus adopting the Hebrew direction of reading, or, more completely, may adopt the western direction for the order in the row. As either method may have been adopted by the Septuagint translators, it follows that 'odhem and bareqeth, the first and last stones of the 1st row according to our Hebrew text, may respectively be equivalent either to sardion and smaragdos, or, conversely, to smaragdos and sardion; and similarly for the other rows. The number of the middle stone of any row is the same whichever direction of reading is adopted. 'Odhem being red, and sardion and smaragdos respectively red and green (see below), 'odhem must be equivalent to the former, not the latter, and the Septuagint translators must have adopted the Hebrew direction of reading the rows.

6. Greek and Latin Equivalents of Hebrew Names:

Other sets of possible equivalents are derivable by collation of the Biblical description with each of the two descriptions given by Josephus (Ant., III, vii, 5; BJ, V, v, 7). The possible Greek and Latin equivalents of Hebrew names are thus as follows:

It may be remarked, as regards the 1st stone of the 1st row, that in the time of Josephus the stone sardonux could be signified also by the more general term sardion; and, as regards the 1st stone of the 2nd row, that anthrax and carbo being respectively Greek and Latin for "glowing coal," anthrax and carbunculus, diminutive of carbo, were used as synonyms for certain red stones.

7. Inconsistencies of Text or Translations

From the inconsistencies of the above table of possible equivalents it may be inferred that either

(1) essentially different translations were given in several cases for the same Hebrew word, or

(2) the Hebrew texts used in the preparation of the Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions were, in respect of the precious stones, different from each other and from that used in the preparation of English Versions of the Bible, or

(3) the breastplate differed at different epochs, or

(4) one or other, or both, of the descriptions by Josephus are incorrect. Conceivably differences may have arisen in all the above-mentioned ways.

(1) Inconsistency of Septuagint Translators

That the Septuagint translators were uncertain as to the correct translation of the Hebrew names used for the precious stones into the Greek names used in their time, and that they translated the Hebrew name of a stone in more than one way may be shown as follows. In the Hebrew text corresponding to English Versions of the Bible the word shoham, designating the 2nd stone of the 4th row of the breastplate, occurs also in several verses where there is no mention of other stones, and where there is thus no risk of accidental interchange, such as may easily occur when technical terms, more especially if unintelligible to the transcriber, are near to one another in the text. Now, for our versions shoham has been systematically translated "onyx," and for the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) the Hebrew word having the same position in the text has been systematically translated by a Latin synonym of onyx, namely, lapis onychinus (except in Job 28:16, where lapis sardonychus is the rendering). Hence, it is probable that the word in these particular verses was shoham in the Hebrew original of the Vulgate, and therefore also of the Hebrew original of the Septuagint. Yet in the Septuagint the Hebrew word is translated soom (1 Chronicles 29:2, indicating that the translator, not knowing the Greek word for shoham, gave merely its Greek transliteration) as well as smaragdos (Exodus 28:9; Exodus 35:27; Exodus 39:6 or Septuagint LXX Exodus 36:13), prasinos (Genesis 2:12), sardion (Exodus 25:7; Exodus 35:9 or Septuagint LXX Exodus 35:8), onux (Job 28:16).

These differences suggest that there were different Septuagint translators, even for different chapters of the same book, and that little care was taken by them to be consistent with one another in the translation of technical terms.

(2) Differences of Hebrew Texts

That the Hebrew texts used for the Septuagint, Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) and English Versions of the Bible were not identical in all the verses in which there is mention of precious stones is especially clear from an analysis of the respective descriptions of the ornaments of the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13). In the Septuagint 12 stones are mentioned; as already stated, they have precisely the same names and are mentioned in precisely the same order as the stones of the breastplate described in that version, the only difference being that gold and silver are inserted in the middle of the list. On the other hand, in Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) and English Versions of the Bible descriptions of the ornaments, only 9 of the 12 stones of the breastplate are mentioned; they are not in the same order as the corresponding stones in the breastplate as described in those VSS, silver is not mentioned at all, while gold is placed, not in the middle, but at the end of the list. Further, the order of mention of the stones in English Versions of the Bible differs from that of mention in Vulgate.

(3) Changes in the Breastplate

That the breastplate in use in the time of the Septuagint translators (about 280 B.C.) may have been different from the one described in the Book of Exodus is manifest if we have regard to the history of the Jewish nation; for Jerusalem was captured by Shishak, king of Egypt, about 973 B.C., by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, about 586 B.C., and by Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, about 320 B.C. The original breastplate may have been part of the spoil on one or other of these occasions, and have then disappeared forever.

Again, between the times of the Septuagint translators and Josephus, Jerusalem was more than once in the hands of its enemies; in 198 B.C. the city was captured by Antiochus the Great; in 170 B.C. it was stormed, and its temple plundered, by Antiochus Epiphanes; in 54 B.C. the temple was desecrated by Crassus. The breastplate familiar to Josephus (for he was long a priest in the temple of Jerusalem) may thus not have been identical with that in use when the Septuagint version was made.

And if the signification of the Hebrew names of the stones had not been carefully passed down from one generation to another while the breastplate was no longer in existence (for instance, during the Babylonian captivity), or if stones like those of the original breastplate were not available when a new breastplate was being made, there would inevitably be differences in the breastplate at different times.

The probability of this hypothesis of one or more replacements of the breastplate is still further increased if we have regard to the large stones that were set in gold buttons and fastened to the shoulderpieces of the ephod, the vestment to which the breastplate itself was attached (Exodus 28:9; Exodus 39:6 or Septuagint LXX Exodus 36:13). According to the Septuagint, the material was smaragdos (and therefore green); according to Josephus it was sardonux (and therefore red with a layer of white). Though the Septuagint translators may never have had opportunities of looking closely at the stones, they might be expected to know the color of the material; Josephus must have seen them often. But the complete difference of colors of smaragdos and sardonux suggests that the difference of the names is due, not to a Septuagint mistranslation of the Hebrew name shoham, but to an actual difference of the material; it may have been smaragdos (and green) at the time when the Septuagint translation was made, and yet sardonux (and red with a layer of white) in the time of Josephus.

(4) Descriptions Given by Josephus

That in respect of the breastplate it is unsafe to collate the Hebrew texts of the various versions with that of Josephus may be demonstrated as follows. The 2nd stone of the 2nd row, termed cappir in our Hebrew text, is termed sappheiros in the Septuagint and sapphirus in the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) Wherever else cappir occurs in our Hebrew text, sappheiros occurs in the corresponding place in the Septuagint and sapphirus in the Vulgate; it may thus be inferred that in respect of the word cappir our Hebrew text and the Hebrew texts used for the Septuagint and Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions were in complete accord with one another. Also, it is certain that the Latin word sapphirus was derived from the Greek word sappheiros, and that either the latter had its origin in the Hebrew word cappir or that both words had the same source. There is no reason to think that from the time of the Septuagint translators to that of Jerome the word sappheiros was ever used to signify any other than one kind of stone or that the kind was ever called iaspis. But in both the descriptions given by Josephus the middle stone of the 2nd row is given as iaspis, not as sappheiros, which he makes the last stone of the row. Hence, for the middle stone of the 2nd row, the Hebrew texts were concordant in giving the name cappir, but they fundamentally differed from that of Josephus whose two descriptions agree in giving the name iaspis; it is not a difference of mere nomenclature or translation, but of the kind of stone set in a definite part of the breastplate. This being the case, collation of the Hebrew, Septuagint and Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) descriptions of the breastplate with those given by Josephus cannot be relied on to give a true Greek or a true Latin equivalent for the Hebrew name of any of the stones.

It may be added that the two descriptions given by Josephus differ from each other only as regards the order of the stones in the last two rows; in the 3rd row, the order is precisely reversed; in the 4th row the order is chrusolithos, onuchion, berullion for Ant, and onuchion, berullion, chrusolithos for BJ. Josephus, Antiquities was written at greater leisure than BJ, and was not completed till 18 years later; Josephus had thus more time for the consultation of old manuscripts. Speaking generally, it is more accurate than his earlier treatise as regards the history of those times of which he had no direct knowledge; its description of the breastplate is more precise as regards the arrangement of the stones, and is therefore the one to which the greater weight must be given. It differs from the Septuagint only through the interchange of the 2nd and 3rd stones in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th rows; and possibly Josephus gave the order from his memory either of the Septuagint or of the actual breastplate.

The only difference between the descriptions given in the Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) is that the last two stones, namely berullion (beryllus) and onuchion (onychinus), are interchanged.

8. Vulgate and Septuagint:

As already pointed out, the Hebrew texts of the Septuagint and English Versions of the Bible must have differed completely as regards the descriptions of the ornaments of the king of Tyre; it is thus not at all certain that they were in complete accord as regards the descriptions of the breastplate. In fact, it is generally accepted that the Hebrew word yashepheh and the Greek word iaspis are virtually identical, and that they were used to signify the same kind of stone.

9. Hebrew Texts of Septuagint and English Versions of the Bible:

Hence, it follows that the Hebrew text of English Versions of the Bible is not identical with the Hebrew texts of the Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions in respect of the stones in the 2nd and 4th rows; if our Hebrew text is correct as regards yashepheh, that stone was the last stone in the last row; if the Hebrew texts of the Septuagint and Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) versions were correct, yashepheh, which had for its Greek equivalent iaspis, must have been the last stone in the 2nd row; further, onuchion (Septuagint) and beryllus (Vulgate) must be equivalent, not to yashepheh, but to some other stones of the breastplate.

10. Equivalence of Hebrew and Greek Names:

Taking these matters into consideration, the following have considerable claims to be regarded as equivalents:

The remaining three stones, tarshish, shoham and yahalom, are thus equivalent to chrusolithos, onuchion and berullion, but it is uncertain which Greek name corresponds to any of those Hebrew names.

11. Interpretation of Greek Names Used by Sepuagint:

For the interpretation of the Greek names of stones mentioned in the Septuagint (and thus of the Hebrew names in the original text), the work of Theophrastus, a contemporary of the Septuagint translators, is very useful. That author mentions, besides krustallos and margarites which occur elsewhere than in the description of the breastplate, nine of the Septuagint names of the breastplate stones, namely: achates, amethustos (as amethuson), anthrax, iaspis, ligurion (as lugkurion), onuchion, sappheiros, sardion, smaragdos. The three stones mentioned in the Septuagint but not by Theophrastus are berullion, chrusolithos, and topazion. Since he mentions only four stones that are not referred to in the Septuagint, namely chrusokolla, hualoeides, kuanos and omphax, it follows that the Septuagint translators at Alexandria introduced every important name that was then in use at Athens for a precious stone.

In the following alphabetical list references are given to all the verses in which each name of a precious stone occurs, and for each use of a translated name the corresponding word in the original text.

12. List of Names with Biblical References:

Achates (achates): probably Septuagint translation of shebho (Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12). It is not mentioned in Apocrypha or the New Testament.

Adamant (see also special article): in Ezekiel 3:9 Zechariah 7:12, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew shamir.

Agate: in Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew shebho; in Isaiah 54:12 Ezekiel 27:16, the King James Version translation of Hebrew kadhkodh.

'Achlamah: in Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12: 3 rd stone, 3rd row, of the breastplate. Septuagint translates amethustos; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates amethystus; English Versions of the Bible "amethyst."

The Septuagint rendering amethustos is generally accepted as correct, but the late Professor N. S. Maskelyne, F.R.S., formerly (1857-80) Keeper of Minerals in the British Museum, gave reasons for regarding the 'achlamah of breastplate times as possibly an onyx in which white bands alternated with waxy-yellow to reddish-yellow bands.

Amber: in Ezekiel 1:4, 27; Ezekiel 8:2, the King James Version, the English Revised Version and the American Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew chashmal; in Exodus 28:19, the Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew leshem.

Amethustos (amethustos): in Revelation 21:20: the 12th foundation of the New Jerusalem; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates amethystus; English Versions of the Bible "amethyst." Four varieties of amethystus were recognized by Pliny as precious; all of them were transparent, and of purple tint or of tints derived from purple. According to the Septuagint, amethustos was the 3rd stone, 3rd row, of the breastplate, and the stone occupying this position is given in our Hebrew text as 'achlamah. Amethustos is mentioned under the name amethuson by Theophrastus; he describes it as a transparent stone resembling wine in color and as used by the gem engravers of his day. Amethystus and amethuson were doubtless identical with the amethyst of the present day, a purple variety of quartz (silica). Beads and other ornaments of amethyst found in old Egyptian tombs show that the stone was regarded as precious in very ancient times.

Amethyst: in Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew 'achlamah; in Revelation 21:20, English Versions of the Bible translation of Greek amethustos.

Anthrax (anthrax): in Tobit 13:17; Ecclesiasticus 32:5, English Versions of the Bible translates "carbuncle." According to the Septuagint, anthrax was also a stone of the breastplate, 1st stone, 2nd row, but there is uncertainty as to the Hebrew text of the Septuagint in respect of this word. The anthrax of Theophrastus included different kinds of hard, red stone used by the gem engravers. It is the carbunculus of Pliny's time, and probably included the oriental ruby (corundum, alumina), the balas ruby (spinel, aluminate of magnesium), the almandine (a kind of garnet, alumino-silicate of iron) and pyrope (another kind of garnet, alumino-silicate of magnesium) of the present day.

Bareqeth: in Exodus 28:17; Exodus 39:10 Ezekiel 28:13: 3 rd stone, 1st row, of breastplate. Septuagint probably translates smaragdos, but there is uncertainty as to the Hebrew text of the Septuagint in respect of this word: English Versions of the Bible translates "carbuncle"; the Revised Version margin translates "emerald." The rendering smaragdos may be correct, but no emeralds of very early age have been found in Egypt. From the similarity of the words bareqeth and baraq ("lightning"), it has been suggested that possibly the breastplate stone was not green but of bluish-red color, in which case it may have been an almandine (garnet). English Versions of the Bible has interchanged the names given by Septuagint, to the 3rd stone of the 1st row (smaragdos, "emerald") and the 1st stone of the 2nd row (anthrax, "carbuncle").

Bdellium (see also special article): in Genesis 2:12 Numbers 11:7, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew bedholach.

Bedholach: The Septuagint translates anthrax in Genesis 2:12, and krustallos in Numbers 11:7; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) and English Versions of the Bible translate bdellium. Some commentators, rejecting both the Septuagint translations, interpret the material to be pearl, others to be the gum of an Arabian tree.

Berullos (berullos): in Tobit 13:17; Revelation 21:20: the 8th foundation of the New Jerusalem. Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates beryllus; English Versions of the Bible translates "beryl." According to Septuagint, berullion was a stone of the breastplate, the 2nd stone, 4th row; owing to uncertainty as to their Hebrew text, there is doubt as to the Hebrew word translated berullion. Berullos is not mentioned by Theophrastus, who may have regarded it as included in the smaragdos of his day.

In the time of Pliny 8 varieties were recognized; he says that beryllus was already thought by some to be "of the same nature as the smaragdus, or at least closely analogous. India produces them, and they are rarely to be found elsewhere. The lapidaries cut all beryls of a hexagonal form because the color which is deadened by a dull uniformity of surface is heightened by the reflections resulting from the angles. If they are cut in any other way, these stones have no brilliancy whatever. The most esteemed beryls are those which in color resemble the pure green of the sea. Some are of opinion that beryls are naturally angular."

This description suggests the identity of the seagreen beryllus of Pliny's time with the sea-green beryl (alumino-silicate of beryllium) of the present day.

Beryl: in Exodus 28:20; Exodus 39:13 Songs 5:14 Ezekiel 1:16; Ezekiel 10:9; Ezekiel 28:13 Daniel 10:6, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew tarshish; in Genesis 2:12 Exodus 25:7 margin; 28:9, 20; 35:27 margin; 1 Chronicles 29:2 margin; Job 28:16 margin, the Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew shoham; in Tobit 13:17; Revelation 21:20, English Versions of the Bible translation of Greek berullos.

Carbuncle: in Exodus 28:17; Exodus 39:10 Ezekiel 28:13, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew bareqeth; in Exodus 28:18 margin; 39:11:00; Ezekiel 27:16; Ezekiel 28:13, the Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew nophekh; in Isaiah 54:12, English Versions of the Bible translation of Hebrew 'eqdach; Tobit 13:17; Ecclesiasticus 32:5, English Versions of the Bible translation of Greek anthrax.

Chalcedony: in Exodus 28:20, the Revised Version margin translation of Hebrew tarshish; in Revelation 21:19, English Versions of the Bible translation of Greek chalkedon.

Chalkedon (chalkedon): in Revelation 21:19: the 3rd foundation of the New Jerusalem. Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates calcedonius; English Versions of the Bible translates "chalcedony." Though the name Chalcedon (Latin form) occurs in Pliny, it is not as the name of a stone but as that of a free town then standing on the southern side of the Bosphorus, probably close to the site on which Scutari now stands. Chalcedon had once been noted for its copper mines; but the latter, when Pliny wrote, had been so far exhausted that they were no longer worked.

Pliny refers to a kind of smaragdus (a green stone) as having been found near Chalcedon, but adds that the stones were of very small size and value. They were "brittle, and of a color far from distinctly pronounced; they resembled in their tints the feathers that are seen in the tail of the peacock or on the neck of the pigeon. More or less brilliant, too, according to the angle at which they were viewed, they presented an appearance like that of veins and scales." In another place he refers to a stone from Chalcedon or Calchedon (another reading) as being an iaspis of turbid hue. It is possible that at Patmos or Ephesus, at one of which John was living when he wrote the Book of Revelation, the word chalkedon was used to specify the particular kind of smaragdus or iaspis that had been found near the town of that name. It is uncertain what name would be given to such a stone in the present day, but the signification now attached to the name "chalcedony" (cryptocrystalline silica) cannot be traced farther back than the 15th century.

Chrusolithos (chrusolithos): in Revelation 21:20: the 7th foundation of the New Jerusalem. Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates chrysolithus; the King James Version translates "chrysolyte"; the Revised Version (British and American) translates "chrysolite." According to Septuagint chrusolithos was one of the stones of the breastplate (lst stone, 4th row), but there is uncertainty as to the Hebrew text of the Septuagint in respect of this word; the name is not mentioned by Theophrastus.

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PRECIOUS STONES

See STONES, PRECIOUS.

Greek
1784. entimos -- valued, precious
... valued, precious. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: entimos Phonetic Spelling:
(en'-tee-mos) Short Definition: precious, honored, honorable Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1784.htm - 7k

5093. timios -- valued, precious
... valued, precious. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: timios Phonetic Spelling:
(tim'-ee-os) Short Definition: of great price, precious, honored ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5093.htm - 7k

4186. polutimos -- very precious
... very precious. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: polutimos Phonetic Spelling:
(pol-oot'-ee-mos) Short Definition: of great value Definition: of great ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4186.htm - 6k

5472. chalkedon -- chalcedony (a precious stone)
... chalcedony (a precious stone). Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration:
chalkedon Phonetic Spelling: (khal-kay-dohn') Short Definition: chalcedony ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5472.htm - 6k

4185. poluteles -- very costly
... costly. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: poluteles Phonetic Spelling:
(pol-oo-tel-ace') Short Definition: very costly, very precious Definition: very ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4185.htm - 6k

5092. time -- a valuing, a price
... Word Origin akin to tio (to value, honor) Definition a valuing, a price NASB Word
Usage honor (28), honorable use (1), marks of respect (1), precious value (1 ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5092.htm - 7k

927. barutimos -- of great value
... very precious. From barus and time; highly valuable -- very precious. see GREEK
barus. see GREEK time. (barutimou) -- 1 Occurrence. 926, 927. barutimos. 928 ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/927.htm - 6k

2393. iaspis -- jasper (a translucent stone)
... stone). Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: iaspis Phonetic Spelling:
(ee'-as-pis) Short Definition: jasper Definition: jasper; a precious stone. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2393.htm - 6k

5553. chrusion -- a piece of gold, gold
... to purchase (acquire).". 696 ("silver") was the most precious metal in the
ancient world.]. Word Origin dim. of chrusos Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5553.htm - 7k

4556. sardion -- sard, a sardian (stone)
... Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: sardion Phonetic Spelling:
(sar'-dee-os) Short Definition: carnelian Definition: carnelian, a precious stone. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4556.htm - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
3365. yaqar -- to be precious, prized or appraised
... yaqar. 3366 . to be precious, prized or appraised. Transliteration: yaqar Phonetic
Spelling: (yaw-kar') Short Definition: precious. Word Origin a prim. ...
/hebrew/3365.htm - 6k

3368. yaqar -- precious, rare, splendid, weighty
... 3367, 3368. yaqar. 3369 . precious, rare, splendid, weighty. Transliteration:
yaqar Phonetic Spelling: (yaw-kawr') Short Definition: precious. ...
/hebrew/3368.htm - 6k

3357. yaqqir -- very precious, dear
... yaqqir. 3358 . very precious, dear. Transliteration: yaqqir Phonetic Spelling:
(yak-keer') Short Definition: dear. ... dear. From yaqar; precious -- dear. ...
/hebrew/3357.htm - 6k

4262. machmud -- a desirable or precious thing
... machmud or machmod. 4263 . a desirable or precious thing. Transliteration: machmud
or machmod Phonetic Spelling: (makh-mood') Short Definition: things. ...
/hebrew/4262.htm - 6k

3095. yahalom -- (a precious stone) perhaps jasper or onyx
... 3094, 3095. yahalom. 3096 . (a precious stone) perhaps jasper or onyx.
Transliteration: yahalom Phonetic Spelling: (yah-hal-ome') Short Definition: diamond ...
/hebrew/3095.htm - 6k

3958. leshem -- (a precious stone) perhaps amber or jacinth
... 3957, 3958. leshem. 3959 . (a precious stone) perhaps amber or jacinth.
Transliteration: leshem Phonetic Spelling: (leh'-shem) Short Definition: jacinth. ...
/hebrew/3958.htm - 6k

7618. shebo -- (a precious stone) perhaps agate
... 7617, 7618. shebo. 7619 . (a precious stone) perhaps agate. Transliteration:
shebo Phonetic Spelling: (sheb-oo') Short Definition: agate. ...
/hebrew/7618.htm - 6k

1220. betser -- precious ore, an ingot
... 1219, 1220. betser. 1221 . precious ore, an ingot. Transliteration: betser
Phonetic Spelling: (beh'-tser) Short Definition: gold. ...
/hebrew/1220.htm - 6k

5306. nophek -- (a precious stone) perhaps emerald
... 5305, 5306. nophek. 5307 . (a precious stone) perhaps emerald. Transliteration:
nophek Phonetic Spelling: (no'-fek) Short Definition: turquoise. ...
/hebrew/5306.htm - 6k

8658. tarshish -- (a precious stone) perhaps yellow jasper
... 8657, 8658. tarshish. 8659 . (a precious stone) perhaps yellow jasper.
Transliteration: tarshish Phonetic Spelling: (tar-sheesh') Short Definition: beryl. ...
/hebrew/8658.htm - 6k

Library

Precious Deaths
... Precious Deaths. A Sermon (No.1036). ... At the Metropolitan Tabernacle, Newington.
"Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints.""Psalm 116:15. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 18 1872/precious deaths.htm

The Precious Ointment.
... THE PRECIOUS OINTMENT. In the Bible we learn of a woman who took "a pound
of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the ...
/.../orr/food for the lambs or helps for young christians/the precious ointment.htm

Like Precious Faith
... PETER LIKE PRECIOUS FAITH. ... Them that have obtained like precious faith with us through
the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.'"2 Peter 1:1. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture ephesians peter/like precious faith.htm

Separating the Precious from the Vile
... Separating the Precious From the Vile. A Sermon (No.305). Delivered on Sabbath Morning,
March 25th, 1860, by the. REV. CH SPURGEON. At Exeter Hall, Strand. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 6 1860/separating the precious from the.htm

Christ Precious to Believers
... Christ Precious to Believers. A Sermon (No.242). ... at the Music Hall, Royal Surrey
Gardens. "Unto you therefore which believe he is precious.""1 Peter 2:7. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 5 1859/christ precious to believers.htm

All Manner of Precious Stones
... All Manner of Precious Stones. Gerhard Ter Steegen Malachi 3:17. ... For ever from the
Heart whence flowed the Blood,. They shine with light of every precious gem,. ...
/.../bevan/hymns of ter steegen suso and others/all manner of precious stones.htm

Light of a Stone Most Precious
... Light of a Stone Most Precious. PG 2 Corinthians 4:6, 7. ... Through the hungry ages
on,. Riches given with hand unsparing,. God's great gift, His precious Son. ...
/.../bevan/hymns of ter steegen suso and others/light of a stone most.htm

I Need Thee, Precious Jesus
... No. 41 I need Thee, Precious Jesus. OUR BLESSED LORD I need Thee, Precious
Jesus. (Communion Hymn) For additional Communion Hymns ...
/.../various/the st gregory hymnal and catholic choir book/no 41 i need thee.htm

Of Precious Stones and Pearls.
... Book I. Chapter VI."Of Precious Stones and Pearls. But, in the next place,
what am I to interpret those jewels to be which vie ...
/.../tertullian/on the apparel of women/chapter vi of precious stones and.htm

The Cross. CM The Precious Love.
... 125 The Cross. CM The Precious Love. The Precious Love. (530) ... The hallowed cross
I see; Reminding me of precious blood That once was shed for me. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/lorenz/the otterbein hymnal/125 the cross c m the.htm

Thesaurus
Precious (128 Occurrences)
... Stones, Precious. Frequently referred to (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chronicles 3:6; 9:10;
Revelation 18:16; 21:19). ... 1. (a.) Of great price; costly; as, a precious stone. ...
/p/precious.htm - 71k

Jewel (12 Occurrences)
... 1. (n.) An ornament of dress usually made of a precious metal, and having enamel
or precious stones as a part of its design. 2. (n.) A precious stone; a gem. ...
/j/jewel.htm - 12k

Coral (3 Occurrences)
... It is found of different colours, white, black, and red. The red, being esteemed
the most precious, was used, as noticed above, for ornamental purposes. ...
/c/coral.htm - 12k

Diamond (5 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary. (1.) A precious gem (Hebrews ... 3:9, Zechariah 7:12. It is
the hardest and most valuable of precious stones. Noah Webster's Dictionary. ...
/d/diamond.htm - 9k

Pearl (5 Occurrences)
... Pearls which are round, or nearly round, and of fine luster, are highly esteemed
as jewels, and compare in value with the precious stones. ...
/p/pearl.htm - 10k

Costly (26 Occurrences)
... Her light was like a most precious stone, as if it was a jasper stone, clear as
crystal; (See NAS). ... He also gave precious things to her brother and her mother. ...
/c/costly.htm - 14k

Quantities (13 Occurrences)
... 1 Kings 10:2 She came to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bore
spices, and very much gold, and precious stones; and when she was come to ...
/q/quantities.htm - 10k

Adorned (20 Occurrences)
... Revelation 17:4 The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold
and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of ...
/a/adorned.htm - 12k

Ointment (29 Occurrences)
... This is indicated by Psalm 133:2, where it says that the precious oil ran down
on Aaron's beard and on the collar of his outer garment. ...
/o/ointment.htm - 18k

Onyx (16 Occurrences)
... A hail; claw; hoof, (Hebrews shoham), a precious stone adorning the breast-plate
of the high priest and the shoulders of the ephod (Exodus 28:9-12, 20; 35:27 ...
/o/onyx.htm - 12k

Concordance
Precious (128 Occurrences)

Matthew 6:25
For this reason I charge you not to be over-anxious about your lives, inquiring what you are to eat or what you are to drink, nor yet about your bodies, inquiring what clothes you are to put on. Is not the life more precious than its food, and the body than its clothing?
(WEY)

Matthew 10:31
Away then with fear; you are more precious than a multitude of sparrows.
(WEY)

Matthew 26:7
There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat.
(KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)

Luke 12:7
But the very hairs on your heads are all counted. Away with fear: you are more precious than a multitude of sparrows.'
(WEY)

Luke 12:24
Observe the ravens. They neither sow nor reap, and have neither store-chamber nor barn. And yet God feeds them. How far more precious are you than the birds!
(WEY)

John 10:29
What my Father has given me is more precious than all besides; and no one is able to wrest anything from my Father's hand.
(WEY)

John 12:3
Mary, therefore, took a pound of ointment of pure nard, very precious, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment.
(WEB ASV)

Acts 20:24
but I make account of none of these, neither do I count my life precious to myself, so that I finish my course with joy, and the ministration that I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify fully the good news of the grace of God.
(YLT RSV)

1 Corinthians 3:12
Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;
(KJV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

2 Corinthians 9:15
Thanks be to God for His unspeakably precious gift!
(WEY)

2 Timothy 1:14
That precious treasure which is in your charge, guard through the Holy Spirit who has His home in our hearts.
(WEY)

James 5:7
Be patient therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until it receives the early and late rain.
(WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Peter 1:7
that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ-
(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Peter 1:19
but with precious blood, as of a faultless and pure lamb, the blood of Christ;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Peter 2:4
coming to him, a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God, precious.
(WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Peter 2:6
Because it is contained in Scripture, "Behold, I lay in Zion a chief cornerstone, chosen, and precious: He who believes in him will not be disappointed."
(WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Peter 2:7
Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner,
(KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Peter 3:4
but in the hidden person of the heart, in the incorruptible adornment of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God very precious.
(WEB WEY NAS RSV)

2 Peter 1:1
Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained a like precious faith with us in the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ:
(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NIV)

2 Peter 1:4
by which he has granted to us his precious and exceedingly great promises; that through these you may become partakers of the divine nature, having escaped from the corruption that is in the world by lust.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 15:6
and there came out from the temple the seven angels that had the seven plagues, arrayed with 'precious' stone, pure 'and' bright, and girt about their breasts with golden girdles.
(ASV)

Revelation 17:4
The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of the sexual immorality of the earth.
(WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Revelation 18:12
merchandise of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple, silk, scarlet, all expensive wood, every vessel of ivory, every vessel made of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble;
(WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Revelation 18:16
saying,'Woe, woe, the great city, she who was dressed in fine linen, purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls!
(WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Revelation 21:11
having the glory of God. Her light was like a most precious stone, as if it was a jasper stone, clear as crystal;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NIV)

Revelation 21:19
The foundations of the city's wall were adorned with all kinds of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Genesis 24:53
The servant brought forth jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and clothing, and gave them to Rebekah. He also gave precious things to her brother and her mother.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)

Genesis 30:20
Leah said, "God has endowed me with a good dowry. Now my husband will live with me, because I have borne him six sons." She named him Zebulun.
(See NIV)

Exodus 28:17
You shall set in it settings of stones, four rows of stones: a row of ruby, topaz, and beryl shall be the first row;
(See NIV)

Exodus 39:10
They set in it four rows of stones. A row of ruby, topaz, and beryl was the first row;
(See NIV)

Deuteronomy 33:13
Of Joseph he said, "His land is blessed by Yahweh, for the precious things of the heavens, for the dew, for the deep that couches beneath,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NIV)

Deuteronomy 33:14
for the precious things of the fruits of the sun, for the precious things of the growth of the moons,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)

Deuteronomy 33:15
for the chief things of the ancient mountains, for the precious things of the everlasting hills,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)

Deuteronomy 33:16
for the precious things of the earth and its fullness, the good will of him who lived in the bush. Let the blessing come on the head of Joseph, On the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brothers.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)

1 Samuel 3:1
The child Samuel ministered to Yahweh before Eli. The word of Yahweh was precious in those days; there was no frequent vision.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)

1 Samuel 18:30
And the princes of the Philistines come out, and it cometh to pass from the time of their coming out, David hath acted more wisely than any of the servants of Saul, and his name is very precious.
(YLT)

1 Samuel 26:21
Then said Saul, "I have sinned. Return, my son David; for I will no more do you harm, because my life was precious in your eyes this day. Behold, I have played the fool, and have erred exceedingly."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 26:24
And behold, as thy life was precious this day in my eyes, so let my life be precious in the eyes of the LORD, and let him deliver me out of all tribulation.
(WBS RSV)

2 Samuel 12:30
He took the crown of their king from off his head; and its weight was a talent of gold, and in it were precious stones; and it was set on David's head. He brought forth the spoil of the city, exceeding much.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Kings 5:17
And the king commandeth, and they bring great stones, precious stone, to lay the foundation of the house, hewn stones;
(YLT)

1 Kings 7:9
All these 'are' of precious stone, according to the measures of hewn work, sawn with a saw, within and without, even from the foundation unto the coping, and at the outside, unto the great court.
(YLT)

1 Kings 7:10
And the foundation 'is' of precious stone, great stones, stones of ten cubits, and stones of eight cubits;
(YLT)

1 Kings 7:11
and above 'are' precious stone, according to the measures of hewn work, and cedar;
(YLT)

1 Kings 10:2
She came to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bore spices, and very much gold, and precious stones; and when she was come to Solomon, she talked with him of all that was in her heart.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Kings 10:10
She gave the king one hundred twenty talents of gold, and of spices very great store, and precious stones. There came no more such abundance of spices as these which the queen of Sheba gave to king Solomon.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Kings 10:11
The navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees and precious stones.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Kings 10:21
And all king Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of precious gold: none were of silver, which was not of the least account in the days of Solomon.
(DBY)

2 Kings 1:13
Again he sent the captain of a third fifty with his fifty. The third captain of fifty went up, and came and fell on his knees before Elijah, and begged him, and said to him, "Man of God, please let my life, and the life of these fifty your servants, be precious in your sight.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

2 Kings 1:14
Behold, fire came down from the sky, and consumed the two former captains of fifty with their fifties. But now let my life be precious in your sight."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

2 Kings 20:13
Hezekiah listened to them, and showed them all the house of his precious things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the precious oil, and the house of his armor, and all that was found in his treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominion, that Hezekiah didn't show them.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV)

1 Chronicles 20:2
David took the crown of their king from off his head, and found it to weigh a talent of gold, and there were precious stones in it; and it was set on David's head: and he brought forth the spoil of the city, exceeding much.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Chronicles 29:2
Now I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God the gold for the things of gold, and the silver for the things of silver, and the brass for the things of to be set, stones for inlaid work, and of various colors, and all manner of precious stones, and marble stones in abundance.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Chronicles 29:8
They with whom precious stones were found gave them to the treasure of the house of Yahweh, under the hand of Jehiel the Gershonite.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 3:6
He garnished the house with precious stones for beauty: and the gold was gold of Parvaim.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 9:1
When the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon, she came to prove Solomon with hard questions at Jerusalem, with a very great train, and camels that bore spices, and gold in abundance, and precious stones: and when she was come to Solomon, she talked with him of all that was in her heart.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 9:9
She gave the king one hundred and twenty talents of gold, and spices in great abundance, and precious stones: neither was there any such spice as the queen of Sheba gave to king Solomon.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 9:10
The servants also of Huram, and the servants of Solomon, who brought gold from Ophir, brought algum trees and precious stones.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 20:25
When Jehoshaphat and his people came to take the spoil of them, they found among them in abundance both riches and dead bodies, and precious jewels, which they stripped off for themselves, more than they could carry away: and they were three days in taking the spoil, it was so much.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV)

2 Chronicles 21:3
Their father gave them great gifts, of silver, and of gold, and of precious things, with fortified cities in Judah: but the kingdom gave he to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)

2 Chronicles 32:23
Many brought gifts to Yahweh to Jerusalem, and precious things to Hezekiah king of Judah; so that he was exalted in the sight of all nations from thenceforth.
(WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT RSV)

2 Chronicles 32:27
Hezekiah had exceeding much riches and honor: and he provided him treasuries for silver, and for gold, and for precious stones, and for spices, and for shields, and for all manner of goodly vessels;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 36:10
And at the turn of the year king Nebuchadnezzar sent and had him brought to Babylon, with the precious vessels of the house of Jehovah; and he made Zedekiah his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem.
(DBY RSV)

2 Chronicles 36:19
And they burned the house of God, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem, and burned all the palaces thereof with fire, and all the precious vessels thereof were given up to destruction.
(DBY RSV)

Ezra 1:6
All those who were around them strengthened their hands with vessels of silver, with gold, with goods, and with animals, and with precious things, besides all that was willingly offered.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)

Ezra 8:27
and twenty bowls of gold, of one thousand darics; and two vessels of fine bright brass, precious as gold.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

Esther 1:6
There were hangings of white, green, and blue material, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and marble pillars. The couches were of gold and silver, on a pavement of red, white, yellow, and black marble.
(See NAS RSV)

Job 22:24
And put the precious ore with the dust, and the gold of Ophir among the stones of the torrents,
(DBY)

Job 22:25
The Almighty will be your treasure, and precious silver to you.
(WEB JPS ASV DBY RSV)

Job 28:10
He cuts out channels among the rocks. His eye sees every precious thing.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Job 28:16
It can't be valued with the gold of Ophir, with the precious onyx, or the sapphire.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Job 29:24
I smiled on them when they had no confidence. They didn't reject the light of my face.
(See NIV)

Job 31:26
If I see the light when it shineth, And the precious moon walking,
(YLT)

Psalms 19:10
They are more precious than gold, yea, than much fine gold; and sweeter than honey and the dropping of the honeycomb.
(DBY NIV)

Psalms 22:20
Deliver my soul from the sword, my precious life from the power of the dog.
(WEB NIV)

Psalms 35:17
Lord, how long will you look on? Rescue my soul from their destruction, my precious life from the lions.
(WEB NIV)

Psalms 36:7
How precious is your loving kindness, God! The children of men take refuge under the shadow of your wings.
(WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV)

Psalms 39:11
When you rebuke and correct man for iniquity, You consume his wealth like a moth. Surely every man is but a breath." Selah.
(See NAS)

Psalms 45:9
Daughters of kings 'are' among thy precious ones, A queen hath stood at thy right hand, In pure gold of Ophir.
(YLT)

Psalms 49:8
(For the redemption of their soul is precious, and it ceaseth for ever:)
(KJV WBS YLT)

Psalms 72:14
He will redeem their soul from oppression and violence. Their blood will be precious in his sight.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Psalms 116:15
Precious in the sight of Yahweh is the death of his saints.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Psalms 119:72
The law of your mouth is better to me than thousands of pieces of gold and silver.
(See NIV)

Psalms 126:6
He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him.
(KJV WBS)

Psalms 133:2
It is like the precious oil on the head, that ran down on the beard, even Aaron's beard; that came down on the edge of his robes;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

Psalms 139:17
How precious to me are your thoughts, God! How vast is the sum of them!
(WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Proverbs 1:13
We shall find all precious substance, we shall fill our houses with spoil:
(KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Proverbs 3:15
She is more precious than rubies. None of the things you can desire are to be compared to her.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Proverbs 6:26
For a prostitute reduces you to a piece of bread. The adulteress hunts for your precious life.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)

Proverbs 8:11
For wisdom is better than jewels, and all things which may be desired are nothing in comparison with her.
(See NIV)

Proverbs 12:27
The slothful man roasteth not that which he took in hunting: but the substance of a diligent man is precious.
(KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Proverbs 17:8
A bribe is a precious stone in the eyes of him who gives it; wherever he turns, he prospers.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS)

Proverbs 20:15
There is gold, and a multitude of rubies: but the lips of knowledge are a precious jewel.
(KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Proverbs 21:20
There is precious treasure and oil in the dwelling of the wise; but a foolish man swallows it up.
(WEB ASV NAS RSV)

Proverbs 24:4
And by knowledge shall the chambers be filled with all precious and pleasant riches.
(KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Proverbs 31:10
Who may make discovery of a woman of virtue? For her price is much higher than jewels.
(See RSV)

Ecclesiastes 7:1
A good name is better than precious ointment; and the day of death than the day of one's birth.
(KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV)

Ecclesiastes 10:1
Dead flies cause a perfumer's perfume To send forth a stink; The precious by reason of wisdom -- By reason of honour -- a little folly!
(YLT)

Song of Songs 4:13
Your shoots are an orchard of pomegranates, with precious fruits: henna with spikenard plants,
(WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT)

Song of Songs 4:16
Awake, north wind; and come, you south! Blow on my garden, that its spices may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, and taste his precious fruits.
(WEB JPS ASV DBY)

Song of Songs 7:13
The mandrakes give forth fragrance. At our doors are all kinds of precious fruits, new and old, which I have stored up for you, my beloved.
(WEB JPS ASV)

Subtopics

Lapidary: One Who Cuts Precious Stones

Precious

Precious Stones

Precious Stones of Great Variety

Precious Stones of Many Colours

Precious Stones used for Adorning the Breastplate of Judgment

Precious Stones used for Adorning the High Priest's Ephod

Precious Stones used for Adorning the Temple

Precious Stones used for Decorating the Person

Precious Stones used for Honoring Idols

Precious Stones used for Ornamenting Royal Crowns

Precious Stones used for Setting in Seals and Rings

Precious Stones: A Part of the Treasure of Kings

Precious Stones: Agate

Precious Stones: Amethyst

Precious Stones: Art of Engraving Upon, Early Known to the Jews

Precious Stones: Art of Setting, Known to the Jews

Precious Stones: Beauty and Stability of the Church

Precious Stones: Beryl

Precious Stones: Brilliant and Glittering

Precious Stones: Brought from Ophir

Precious Stones: Brought from Sheba

Precious Stones: Called: Jewels

Precious Stones: Called: Precious Jewels

Precious Stones: Called: Stones of Fire

Precious Stones: Called: Stones to be Set

Precious Stones: Carbuncle

Precious Stones: Chalcedony

Precious Stones: Chrysolite

Precious Stones: Chrysoprasus

Precious Stones: Coral

Precious Stones: Diamond

Precious Stones: Dug out of the Earth

Precious Stones: Emerald

Precious Stones: Extensive Commerce In

Precious Stones: Given by Chief Men for the Temple

Precious Stones: Given by the Jews for the Tabernacle

Precious Stones: Glory of Heavenly Jerusalem

Precious Stones: Highly Prized by the Ancients

Precious Stones: Jacinth

Precious Stones: Jasper

Precious Stones: Often Given As Presents

Precious Stones: Onyx

Precious Stones: Pearl

Precious Stones: Preciousness of Christ

Precious Stones: Prepared by David for the Temple

Precious Stones: Ruby

Precious Stones: Saints

Precious Stones: Sapphire

Precious Stones: Sardine or Sardius

Precious Stones: Sardonyx

Precious Stones: Seductive Splendour and False Glory of the Apostasy

Precious Stones: Stability of Heavenly Jerusalem

Precious Stones: Topaz

Precious Stones: Worldly Glory of Nations

Related Terms

Jewel (12 Occurrences)

Coral (3 Occurrences)

Diamond (5 Occurrences)

Pearl (5 Occurrences)

Costly (26 Occurrences)

Quantities (13 Occurrences)

Adorned (20 Occurrences)

Ointment (29 Occurrences)

Onyx (16 Occurrences)

Jasper (8 Occurrences)

Emerald (8 Occurrences)

Sapphire (11 Occurrences)

Valuable (17 Occurrences)

Treasure-house (6 Occurrences)

Pearls (8 Occurrences)

Breastplate (45 Occurrences)

Carbuncle (6 Occurrences)

Almug (2 Occurrences)

Algum (3 Occurrences)

Scarlet (54 Occurrences)

Finest (23 Occurrences)

Choicest (32 Occurrences)

Purple (54 Occurrences)

Glittering (12 Occurrences)

Expensive (6 Occurrences)

Michtam (12 Occurrences)

Mine (2991 Occurrences)

Malcam (6 Occurrences)

Jewels (54 Occurrences)

Bdellium (2 Occurrences)

Beryl (12 Occurrences)

Sardius (5 Occurrences)

Settings (19 Occurrences)

Ophir (12 Occurrences)

Quantity (18 Occurrences)

Marble (5 Occurrences)

Amount (66 Occurrences)

Treasures (77 Occurrences)

Spices (64 Occurrences)

Articles (78 Occurrences)

Worth (36 Occurrences)

Vessels (210 Occurrences)

Gem (1 Occurrence)

Ruby (5 Occurrences)

Chalcedony (1 Occurrence)

Train (17 Occurrences)

Treasure (66 Occurrences)

Abundance (194 Occurrences)

Fine (184 Occurrences)

Choice (113 Occurrences)

Gold (429 Occurrences)

Exceeding (101 Occurrences)

Desirable (49 Occurrences)

Dominion (72 Occurrences)

Silver (329 Occurrences)

Merchandise (34 Occurrences)

Yield (78 Occurrences)

Riches (118 Occurrences)

Nard (5 Occurrences)

Onycha (1 Occurrence)

Ore (5 Occurrences)

Ouches (8 Occurrences)

Lading (7 Occurrences)

Gilded (2 Occurrences)

Frequent (10 Occurrences)

Traded (16 Occurrences)

Tarshish (24 Occurrences)

Thyne (1 Occurrence)

Reclining (25 Occurrences)

Retinue (4 Occurrences)

Rubies (8 Occurrences)

Realm (23 Occurrences)

Ephod (45 Occurrences)

Dedan (10 Occurrences)

Disallowed (7 Occurrences)

Dear (120 Occurrences)

Decked (10 Occurrences)

Moons (17 Occurrences)

Preciousness (2 Occurrences)

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