Amos 1:3
New International Version
This is what the LORD says: "For three sins of Damascus, even for four, I will not relent. Because she threshed Gilead with sledges having iron teeth,

New Living Translation
This is what the LORD says: "The people of Damascus have sinned again and again, and I will not let them go unpunished! They beat down my people in Gilead as grain is threshed with iron sledges.

English Standard Version
Thus says the LORD: “For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not revoke the punishment, because they have threshed Gilead with threshing sledges of iron.

Berean Study Bible
This is what the LORD says: “For three transgressions of Damascus, even four, I will not revoke My judgment, because they threshed Gilead with sledges of iron.

New American Standard Bible
Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Damascus and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they threshed Gilead with implements of sharp iron.

King James Bible
Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

Christian Standard Bible
The LORD says: I will not relent from punishing Damascus for three crimes, even four, because they threshed Gilead with iron sledges.

Contemporary English Version
The LORD said: I will punish Syria for countless crimes, and I won't change my mind. They dragged logs with spikes over the people of Gilead.

Good News Translation
The LORD says, "The people of Damascus have sinned again and again, and for this I will certainly punish them. They treated the people of Gilead with savage cruelty.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The LORD says: I will not relent from punishing Damascus for three crimes, even four, because they threshed Gilead with iron sledges.

International Standard Version
This is what the LORD says: "For three transgressions of Damascus —and now for a fourth— I will not turn away; because they have trampled down Gilead with ironclad threshing sleds.

NET Bible
This is what the LORD says: "Because Damascus has committed three crimes--make that four!--I will not revoke my decree of judgment. They ripped through Gilead like threshing sledges with iron teeth.

New Heart English Bible
Thus says the LORD: "For three transgressions of Damascus, yes, for four, I will not turn away its punishment; because they have threshed the pregnant women of Gilead with threshing instruments of iron;

GOD'S WORD® Translation
This is what the LORD says: Because Damascus has committed three crimes, and now a fourth crime, I will not change my plans. The Arameans have crushed [the people of] Gilead with iron-spiked threshing sledges.

JPS Tanakh 1917
For thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of Damascus, yea, for four, I will not reverse it: because they have threshed Gilead with sledges of iron.

New American Standard 1977
Thus says the LORD, “For three transgressions of Damascus and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they threshed Gilead with implements of sharp iron.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Thus hath the LORD said: For three transgressions of Damascus and for the fourth, I will not convert her because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron.

King James 2000 Bible
Thus says the LORD; For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away its punishment; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

American King James Version
Thus said the LORD; For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

American Standard Version
Thus saith Jehovah: For three transgressions of Damascus, yea, for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And the Lord said, For three sins of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away from it; because they sawed with iron saws the women with child of the Galaadites.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Thus saith the Lord: For three crimes of Damascus, and for four I will not convert it: because they have thrashed Galaad with iron wains.

Darby Bible Translation
Thus saith Jehovah: For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not revoke [my sentence], because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron.

English Revised Version
Thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of Damascus, yea, for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

Webster's Bible Translation
Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away its punishment; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

World English Bible
Thus says Yahweh: "For three transgressions of Damascus, yes, for four, I will not turn away its punishment; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron;

Young's Literal Translation
And thus said Jehovah: For three transgressions of Damascus, And for four, I do not reverse it, Because of their threshing Gilead with sharp-pointed irons,
Study Bible
Judgment on Israel's Neighbors
2He said: “The LORD roars from Zion and raises His voice from Jerusalem; the pastures of the shepherds mourn, and the summit of Carmel withers.” 3This is what the LORD says: “For three transgressions of Damascus, even four, I will not revoke My judgment, because they threshed Gilead with sledges of iron. 4So I will send fire upon the house of Hazael to consume the citadels of Ben-hadad.…
Cross References
2 Kings 10:33
from the Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead (the region of Gad, Reuben, and Manasseh), and from Aroer by the Arnon Valley through Gilead to Bashan.

2 Kings 13:7
Jehoahaz had no army left, except fifty horsemen, ten chariots, and ten thousand foot soldiers, because the king of Aram had destroyed them and made them like the dust at threshing.

2 Kings 16:9
So the king of Assyria listened to him, marched up to Damascus, and captured it. He took its people to Kir as captives and put Rezin to death.

Isaiah 7:16
For before the boy knows enough to reject evil and choose good, the land of the two kings you dread will be laid waste.

Isaiah 8:4
For before the boy knows how to cry 'Father' or 'Mother,' the wealth of Damascus and the plunder of Samaria will be carried off to the king of Assyria."

Isaiah 17:1
This is an oracle concerning Damascus: "Behold, Damascus is no longer a city; it has become a heap of ruins.

Isaiah 28:27
Surely caraway is not threshed with a sledge, and the wheel of a cart is not rolled over the cumin. But caraway is beaten out with a stick, and cumin with a rod.

Jeremiah 49:23
Concerning Damascus: "Hamath and Arpad are put to shame, for they have heard a bad report; they are agitated like the sea; their anxiety cannot be calmed.

Jeremiah 49:27
"I will set fire to the walls of Damascus; it will consume the fortresses of Ben-Hadad."

Amos 2:1
This is what the LORD says: "For three transgressions of Moab, even four, I will not revoke My judgment, because he burned the bones of the king of Edom to lime.

Amos 2:4
This is what the LORD says: "For three transgressions of Judah, even four, I will not revoke My judgment, because they have rejected the law of the LORD and have not kept His statutes; they have been led astray by the lies in which their forefathers walked.

Zechariah 9:1
An Oracle: The word of the LORD is against the land of Hadrach and will rest upon Damascus--for the eyes of men and of all the tribes of Israel are upon the LORD--

Treasury of Scripture

Thus said the LORD; For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

For.

Amos 1:6,9,11,13
Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Gaza, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they carried away captive the whole captivity, to deliver them up to Edom: …

Amos 2:1,4,6
Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Moab, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because he burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime: …

Job 5:19
He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee.

Damascus.

Isaiah 7:8
For the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rezin; and within threescore and five years shall Ephraim be broken, that it be not a people.

Isaiah 8:4
For before the child shall have knowledge to cry, My father, and my mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria shall be taken away before the king of Assyria.

Isaiah 17:1
The burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is taken away from being a city, and it shall be a ruinous heap.

and for four.

Amos 1:6,9-2:16
Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Gaza, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they carried away captive the whole captivity, to deliver them up to Edom: …

because.

1 Kings 19:17
And it shall come to pass, that him that escapeth the sword of Hazael shall Jehu slay: and him that escapeth from the sword of Jehu shall Elisha slay.

2 Kings 8:12
And Hazael said, Why weepeth my lord? And he answered, Because I know the evil that thou wilt do unto the children of Israel: their strong holds wilt thou set on fire, and their young men wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt dash their children, and rip up their women with child.

2 Kings 10:32,33
In those days the LORD began to cut Israel short: and Hazael smote them in all the coasts of Israel; …







Lexicon
This is what
כֹּ֚ה (kōh)
Adverb
Strong's Hebrew 3541: Like this, thus, here, now

the LORD
יְהוָ֔ה (Yah·weh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

says:
אָמַ֣ר (’ā·mar)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 559: To utter, say

“For
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

three
שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ (šə·lō·šāh)
Number - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7969: Three, third, thrice

transgressions
פִּשְׁעֵ֣י (piš·‘ê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 6588: Transgression

of Damascus,
דַמֶּ֔שֶׂק (ḏam·me·śeq)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1834: Damascus -- a city in Aram (Syria)

even
וְעַל־ (wə·‘al-)
Conjunctive waw | Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

four,
אַרְבָּעָ֖ה (’ar·bā·‘āh)
Number - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 702: Four

I will not
לֹ֣א (lō)
Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's Hebrew 3808: Not, no

revoke [My judgment],
אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ (’ă·šî·ḇen·nū)
Verb - Hifil - Imperfect - first person common singular | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7725: To turn back, in, to retreat, again

because
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

they threshed
דּוּשָׁ֛ם (dū·šām)
Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 1758: To trample, thresh

Gilead
הַגִּלְעָֽד׃ (hag·gil·‘āḏ)
Article | Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1568: Gilead -- a region in Palestine, also the name of several Israelites

with sledges
בַּחֲרֻצ֥וֹת (ba·ḥă·ru·ṣō·wṯ)
Preposition-b, Article | Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 2742: Incised, incisive, a trench, gold, a threshing-sledge, determination, eager

of iron.
הַבַּרְזֶ֖ל (hab·bar·zel)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1270: Iron, an iron implement
CURSE ON DAMASCUS.

(3) Three transgressions . . .--This form of transgression, which occurs eight times in the prologue, is not an arithmetical, but a strongly idiomatic phrase, signifying "multiplied or repeated delinquencies" (Henderson).

Turn away . . .--Rather, will not turn it back--i.e., the sore judgment I have purposed. (Comp. 2Kings 10:32-33.)

Verses 3-5. - Before announcing the judgment on Israel, Amos proclaims the punishment on neighbouring heathen nations for their injurious treatment of the chosen people, thus showing God's care for his elect, and leading them to fear vengeance for their own greater sins towards him. The order observed in denouncing these nations is not geographical, but is regulated by the nature of each people's relation to Israel, and the degree in which they have sinned against her. The denunciation begins with Syria, her hitherto most oppressive enemy, and the least akin. Verse 3. - For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four. This form of expression is repeated in each of the following strophes, and some critics have taken the terms literally, and have tried to identify that particular number of transgressions in each case; but this is trifling. The phrase and others similar to it are not uncommon, and are used to signify a great number, the last mentioned being supposed to fill up the measure and make it overflow. Thus Job 5:19, "He shall deliver thee in six troubles, yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee" (comp. Job 33:29; Proverbs 30:15, 18, 21; Ecclesiastes 11:2). So Hom., 'Od.,' 5:306, Τρισμάκαρες Δαναοὶ καὶ τετράκισ: and Virg., 'AEn.,' 1:94, "O terque quaterque beati;" comp. Hor., 'Carm,' 1:31, 13. Damascus had been an active enemy of Israel since the time that Rezon threw off his allegiance (1 Kings 11:23, etc.), and seized Damascus, which had been tributary to David (2 Samuel 8:5). The history of the wars carried on by Syria against the Jews may be read in the sacred books (see 1 Kings 15:19, etc.; 2 Chronicles 16:2, etc.; 1 Kings 20; 1 Kings 22; 2 Kings 7; 2 Kings 9:14, etc.; 2 Kings 10:32, etc.; 2 Kings 12:18; 13:5, 25; 2 Chronicles 24:23, etc.; 2 Kings 14:28). I will not turn away the punishment thereof. So in the following strophes. Literally, I will not reverse it. Amos does not expressly say what; but he means the sentence or judgment (comp. Numbers 23:20, "I cannot reverse it," where the same word is used). The Latin Vulgate gives, Non convertam eum, i.e. Damascum, which Knabenbauer explains, "I will not avert its destruction, will not turn it aside from its downward course." The LXX. renders, Οὐκ ἀποστραφήσομαι αὐτόν, "I will not turn away from it," i.e., as explained by Theodoret, "I will no longer disregard its sins." Because they have threshed Gilead. This is the culminating offence of the Syrians. The word rendered "threshing instrument" (charutz) signifies a kind of corn drag made of heavy planks fastened together and armed beneath with sharp stones or iron points. This machine, weighted with the driver who sat or stood upon it, was drawn by oxen over the corn (comp. Isaiah 28:27; Isaiah 41:15). A representation of it is given by Smith, 'Dict. of Bible,' 1:31, and Kitto, 'Cyclop.,' 1:86. Such an instrument, set with sharp flints in rows, was to be seen in the Indian and Colonial Exhibition of the year 1886, in the Cyprus department. Another kind of instrmuent (moreg) is thus described by Jerome: "Est autem genus plaustri, quod rotis subter ferreis atque dentatis volvitur, ut excussis frumentis stipulam in areis conterat, et in cibos jumentorum propter foeni sterilitatem paleas comminuat." Such an implement was used in the infliction of capital punishment by David (2 Samuel 12:31; comp. Proverbs 20:26). Gilead is here put for all the country east of Jordan (Joshua 22:9). The cruel treatment referred to in the text occurred in the time of Hazael during the reign of Jehu (2 Kings 10:32, etc.; comp. 13:7). The Septuagint has, "Because with iron saws they sawed asunder women with child." This is doubtless a reminiscence of Elisha's words to Hazael (2 Kings 8:12). 1:18-21 There shall be abundant Divine influences, and the gospel will spread speedily into the remotest corners of the earth. These events are predicted under significant emblems; there is a day coming, when every thing amiss shall be amended. The fountain of this plenty is in the house of God, whence the streams take rise. Christ is this Fountain; his sufferings, merit, and grace, cleanse, refresh, and make fruitful. Gospel grace, flowing from Christ, shall reach to the Gentile world, to the most remote regions, and make them abound in fruits of righteousness; and from the house of the Lord above, from his heavenly temple, flows all the good we daily taste, and hope to enjoy eternally.
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Alphabetical: and back Because Damascus even For four Gilead having I implements iron is its LORD my not of punishment revoke says sharp she sins sledges teeth the they This three threshed Thus transgressions turn what will with wrath

OT Prophets: Amos 1:3 Thus says Yahweh: For three transgressions (Amo. Am) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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