Daniel 4:17
New International Version
"'The decision is announced by messengers, the holy ones declare the verdict, so that the living may know that the Most High is sovereign over all kingdoms on earth and gives them to anyone he wishes and sets over them the lowliest of people.'

New Living Translation
For this has been decreed by the messengers; it is commanded by the holy ones, so that everyone may know that the Most High rules over the kingdoms of the world. He gives them to anyone he chooses— even to the lowliest of people.”

English Standard Version
The sentence is by the decree of the watchers, the decision by the word of the holy ones, to the end that the living may know that the Most High rules the kingdom of men and gives it to whom he will and sets over it the lowliest of men.’

Berean Study Bible
This decision is the decree of the watchers, the verdict declared by the holy ones, so that the living will know that the Most High is ruler over the kingdom of mankind, and gives it to whom He wishes, setting over it the lowliest of men.’

New American Standard Bible
"This sentence is by the decree of the angelic watchers And the decision is a command of the holy ones, In order that the living may know That the Most High is ruler over the realm of mankind, And bestows it on whom He wishes And sets over it the lowliest of men."

King James Bible
This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men.

Christian Standard Bible
This word is by decree of the watchers, and the decision is by command from the holy ones. This is so that the living will know that the Most High is ruler over human kingdoms. He gives them to anyone he wants and sets the lowliest of people over them.

Contemporary English Version
This punishment is given at the command of the holy angels. It will show to all who live that God Most High controls all kingdoms and chooses for their rulers persons of humble birth.'

Good News Translation
This is the decision of the alert and watchful angels. So then, let all people everywhere know that the Supreme God has power over human kingdoms and that he can give them to anyone he chooses--even to those who are least important.'

Holman Christian Standard Bible
This word is by decree of the observers; the matter is a command from the holy ones. This is so the living will know that the Most High is ruler over the kingdom of men. He gives it to anyone He wants and sets the lowliest of men over it.

International Standard Version
This order is announced by the observers, and the holy ones declare the verdict, so that the living may know that the Most High is sovereign over human kingdoms and grants them to whomever he desires, and he places the least important of men over them.'

NET Bible
This announcement is by the decree of the sentinels; this decision is by the pronouncement of the holy ones, so that those who are alive may understand that the Most High has authority over human kingdoms, and he bestows them on whomever he wishes. He establishes over them even the lowliest of human beings.'

New Heart English Bible
The sentence is by the decree of the watchers, and the decision is a command of the holy ones; so that the living may know that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to anyone he wants, and sets up over it the lowliest of men.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The guardians have announced this decision. The holy ones have announced this so that every living creature will know that the Most High has power over human kingdoms. He gives them to whomever he wishes. He can place the lowest of people in charge of them.'"

JPS Tanakh 1917
The matter is by the decree of the watchers, And the sentence by the word of the holy ones; To the intent that the living may know That the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, And giveth it to whomsoever He will, And setteth up over it the lowest of men.

New American Standard 1977
“This sentence is by the decree of the angelic watchers, And the decision is a command of the holy ones, In order that the living may know That the Most High is ruler over the realm of mankind, And bestows it on whom He wishes, And sets over it the lowliest of men.”

Jubilee Bible 2000
By sentence of the watchmen is the matter resolved, and the case by the word of the holy ones to the intent that the living may know that the most High takes rule over the kingdom of men and gives it to whoever he will and sets up over it the man who is the lowest.

King James 2000 Bible
This sentence is by the decree of the watchers, and the decision by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to whomever he will, and sets up over it the lowliest of men.

American King James Version
This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to whomsoever he will, and sets up over it the basest of men.

American Standard Version
The sentence is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones; to the intent that the living may know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the lowest of men.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
The matter is by the decree of the watcher, and the demand is a word of the holy ones; that the living may known that the Lord is most high over the kingdom of men, and he will give it to whomsoever he shall please, and will set up over it that which is set at nought of men.

Douay-Rheims Bible
This is the decree by the sentence of the watchers, and the word And demand of the holy ones; till the living know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men; and he will give it to whomsoever it shall please him, and he will appoint the basest man over it.

Darby Bible Translation
This sentence is by the decree of the watchers, and the decision by the word of the holy ones: that the living may know that the Most High ruleth over the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men.

English Revised Version
The sentence is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the lowest of men.

Webster's Bible Translation
This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men.

World English Bible
The sentence is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones; to the intent that the living may know that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to whomever he will, and sets up over it the lowest of men.

Young's Literal Translation
by the decree of the sifters is the sentence, and by the saying of the holy ones the requirement, to the intent that the living may know that the Most High is ruler in the kingdom of men, and to whom He willeth He giveth it, and the lowest of men He doth raise up over it.
Study Bible
Nebuchadnezzar's Dream of a Great Tree
16Let his mind be changed from that of a man, and let him be given the mind of a beast till seven times pass him by. 17This decision is the decree of the watchers, the verdict declared by the holy ones, so that the living will know that the Most High is ruler over the kingdom of mankind, and gives it to whom He wishes, setting over it the lowliest of men.’ 18This is the dream that I, King Nebuchadnezzar, saw. Now, Belteshazzar, tell me the interpretation, because none of the wise men of my kingdom can interpret it for me. But you are able, because the spirit of the holy gods is in you.”…
Cross References
Romans 13:1
Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which is from God. The authorities that exist have been appointed by God.

1 Samuel 2:8
He raises the poor from the dust and lifts the needy from the ash heap. He seats them among princes and bestows on them a throne of honor. For the foundations of the earth are the LORD's, and upon them He has set the world.

Psalm 9:16
The LORD is known by the justice He brings; the wicked are ensnared by the work of their hands. Higgaion Selah

Psalm 83:18
May they know that You alone, whose name is the LORD, are Most High over all the earth.

Psalm 103:19
The LORD has established His throne in heaven, and His kingdom rules over all.

Jeremiah 27:5
By My great power and outstretched arm, I made the earth and the men and beasts on the face of it, and I give it to whom I please.

Daniel 2:21
He changes the times and seasons; He removes kings and establishes them. He gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to the discerning.

Daniel 4:2
I am pleased to declare the signs and wonders that the Most High God has performed for me:

Daniel 4:13
As I lay on my bed, I also saw in the visions of my mind a watcher, a holy one, coming down from heaven.

Daniel 4:25
You will be driven away from mankind, and your dwelling will be with the beasts of the field. You will feed on grass like cattle and be drenched with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass you by, until you acknowledge that the Most High is ruler over the kingdom of mankind, and He gives it to anyone He wishes.

Daniel 4:32
You will be driven away from mankind to live with the beasts of the field, and you will feed on grass like cattle. And seven times will pass you by, until you acknowledge that the Most High is ruler over the kingdom of men, and He gives it to anyone He wishes."

Daniel 5:18
As for you, O king, the Most High God gave your father Nebuchadnezzar sovereignty and greatness, glory and honor.

Daniel 5:19
Because of the greatness that He bestowed on him, all peoples, nations, and men of every language trembled in fear before him. He killed whom he wished and kept alive whom he wished; he exalted whom he wished and humbled whom he wished.

Daniel 5:21
He was driven away from mankind, and his mind was like that of a beast. He lived with the wild donkeys and ate grass like cattle, and his body was drenched with the dew of heaven until he acknowledged that the Most High God is ruler over the kingdom of mankind, and He sets over it whom He wishes.

Daniel 7:25
He will speak out against the Most High and oppress the saints of the Most High, intending to change the set times and laws, and the saints will be given into his hand for a time, and times, and half a time.

Daniel 11:21
In his place a despicable person will arise; royal honors will not be given to him, but he will come in a time of peace and seize the kingdom by intrigue.

Treasury of Scripture

This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to whomsoever he will, and sets up over it the basest of men.

by the.

Daniel 4:13,14
I saw in the visions of my head upon my bed, and, behold, a watcher and an holy one came down from heaven; …

1 Kings 22:19,20
And he said, Hear thou therefore the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left…

1 Timothy 5:21
I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality.

the holy.

Daniel 4:8,9,13
But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name was Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom is the spirit of the holy gods: and before him I told the dream, saying, …

Isaiah 6:3,8
And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory…

Revelation 4:8
And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come.

that the living.

Psalm 9:16
The LORD is known by the judgment which he executeth: the wicked is snared in the work of his own hands. Higgaion. Selah.

Psalm 83:17,18
Let them be confounded and troubled for ever; yea, let them be put to shame, and perish: …

Ezekiel 25:17
And I will execute great vengeance upon them with furious rebukes; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I shall lay my vengeance upon them.

the most High.

Daniel 4:25,32-35
That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will…

Daniel 2:21
And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding:

Daniel 5:18-21
O thou king, the most high God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and majesty, and glory, and honour: …

giveth.

Psalm 75:6,7
For promotion cometh neither from the east, nor from the west, nor from the south…

the basest.

Daniel 4:25
That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.







Lexicon
This decision
פִּתְגָמָ֔א (piṯ·ḡā·mā)
Noun - masculine singular determinate
Strong's Hebrew 6600: A word, answer, letter, decree

is the decree
בִּגְזֵרַ֤ת (biḡ·zê·raṯ)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1510: A decree

of the watchers,
עִירִין֙ (‘î·rîn)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5894: Waking or wakeful one

the verdict
שְׁאֵֽלְתָ֑א (šə·’ê·lə·ṯā)
Noun - feminine singular determinate
Strong's Hebrew 7595: A question, judicial decision, mandate

declared
וּמֵאמַ֥ר (ū·mê·mar)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3983: Something, said, an edict

by the holy ones,
קַדִּישִׁ֖ין (qad·dî·šîn)
Adjective - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 6922: Sacred, God, an angel, a saint, a sanctuary

so that
עַד־ (‘aḏ-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5705: Even to, until

the living
חַ֠יַּיָּא (ḥay·yay·yā)
Adjective - masculine plural determinate
Strong's Hebrew 2417: Alive, life

will know
יִנְדְּע֣וּן (yin·də·‘ūn)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3046: To know

that
דִּֽי־ (dî-)
Pronoun - relative
Strong's Hebrew 1768: Who, which, that, because

the Most High
עִלָּאָ֜ה (‘il·lā·’āh)
Adjective - masculine singular determinate
Strong's Hebrew 5943: highest', a name of God

is ruler
שַׁלִּ֨יט (šal·lîṭ)
Adjective - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7990: Mighty, permission, a premier

over the kingdom
בְּמַלְכ֣וּת (bə·mal·ḵūṯ)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 4437: Royalty, reign, kingdom

of mankind,
אֲנָשָׁ֗א‪‬ (’ă·nā·šā)
Noun - masculine singular determinate
Strong's Hebrew 606: Man, mankind

and gives it
יִתְּנִנַּ֔הּ (yit·tə·nin·nah)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - third person masculine singular | third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5415: To give

to whom
וּלְמַן־ (ū·lə·man-)
Conjunctive waw, Preposition-l | Interrogative
Strong's Hebrew 4479: Who, what

He wishes,
יִצְבֵּא֙ (yiṣ·bê)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6634: To be inclined, desire, be pleased

setting
יְקִ֥ים (yə·qîm)
Verb - Hifil - Imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6966: To arise, stand

over it
עֲלַֽהּ׃ (‘ă·lah)
Preposition | third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

the lowliest
וּשְׁפַ֥ל (ū·šə·p̄al)
Conjunctive waw | Adjective - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 8215: Low (in station)

of men.?
אֲנָשִׁ֖ים (’ă·nā·šîm)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 606: Man, mankind
(17) By the decree--i.e., the message to the king rests on this decree or sentence, and it is ascribed to the "watcher," because to him pertained the execution of the decree.

The demand.--Comp. Isaiah 44:26. According to the use of the word in Chaldee elsewhere, this can be the only true meaning. The "holy one" makes this request of God, and the carrying out of His decree pertains to the "watcher." "This," says Dr. Pusey, "gives another glimpse into the interest of the holy angels in ourselves. They, too, longed that oppression should cease, and joining in the cry which for ever is going up from the oppressed to the throne of mercy and judgment, prayed for that chastisement which was to relieve the oppressed and convert the oppressor" (Lectures on Daniel, p. 525).

Ruleth . . .--i.e., Almighty God disposes of human empires as He pleases. (Comp. Daniel 5:21.)

Verse 17. - This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy odes: to the intent that the living may know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men. In this verse the difference between the Septuagint text - we mean the text behind that version - and that of the Massoretes is great. It is as follows: "Until he know the Lord of heaven to have power over all things which are in heaven and on the earth, and such things as he willeth to do, he doeth." This, as may be observed, is very much briefer than the Massoretic, and hence, to a certain extent, to be preferred. It is, however, difficult to imagine the genesis of the one from the other, as they have only two words in common in a similar connection, שַׁלִּיּט (shaleet) and ינְדְּעוּן (yinedeoon)' If we start with the supposition that the Massoretic text is the primary, we have a difficulty in seeing what reason induced this peculiar form of condensation. Had it been to get rid of the decree of the watchers, and the demand of the holy ones, that clause might have been simply omitted, and the sense would have given no sign of anything having been omitted. If, again, we start with the Septuagint text as our basis, it is difficult to understand what led to the insertion of "the decree of the watchers" and "the demand of the holy ones." Of course, the period of the Persian domination and that of the early Greek supremacy was one in which the angelic hierarchy was enormously increased and made vastly more complex than it had been before. Further, it is to be noted that "the watchers," עירין ('ereen), are here distinguished absolutely from "the holy ones," קַדִישִׁין (gad-deesbeen), whereas in ver. 10 (13) "the watchers" and "the holy ones" are identified. This distinction is made in later Jewish commentators, and therefore its. presence here, fin contradistinction to ver. 13, is proof of a relatively late origin for this clause. Zockler would avoid this by asserting a parallelism of members in this sentence; but, in the first place, this is not verse, but prose, and therefore parallelism need not be expected. Further, גְזֵדֵת (gezayrath) is "a decree" given by a person in authority, and צּצּצּ (sh'alayth) is "a petition" presented to one in authority. So far from the two being identified in the verse before us, the watchers and the holy ones are as absolutely contrasted as they can be. Bevan simply appeals to ver. 10 (13) to prove their identity - sense has no influence with him. When we turn to Theodotion, we find that, in his practical identity with the Massoretic text, he has preserved the contrast between "decree" and "petition," the former word being represented by σύγκριμα, and the second by ἐπερώτημα. These two words represent fairly well the distinction between גְצֵרֵת (gezayrath), and שְׁאַלֵת (sh'alayth). It is probable that σύγκριμα is used instead of κρίμα in order to show that εἴρ is to be regarded as genitive plural. The Peshitta follows the Massoretic, but less closely. It has עיר, "watcher," in the singular. This clause in the Syriac should be rendered, "according to the decrees of the watcher is this order, and according to the word of the holy one is the request;" it retains the distinction in question much as it is in the received text, but with a distinct difference of meaning in regard to the ether words of the clause. So, too, Jerome in the Vulgate translates, "In sententia vigilum decretum eat et sermo sanctorum et petitio," thus maintaining, in all the confusion there is in this rendering, the distinction we have referred to. In the final clause, the Vulgate is further astray from the Massoretic. translating, super eum. The theology of this passage is singular, so singular that, were it not for the omission of the passage from the Septuagint. and its contradiction of ver. 13, we might be inclined to think it must be genuine. (For a similar statement, see Galatians 3:19, "The Law... was ordained by angels;" Hebrews 2:2, "If the word spoken by angels was steadfast.") The view seems to be that the Almighty had a council of angels, and before them was every question discussed ere it was decreed. In short, that there was a heavenly sanhedrin, corresponding to that on earth - an idea which was developed by the Talmudists. It appears in Enoch, not vet fully developed. In Enoch 12. certain of the watchers are denounced as having defiled themselves with women; in ch. 20. we have the name of the holy angels who watch, and in this chapter we have the different provinces assigned to each of them. Six are enumerated. They have thus no collective function. In the portion of Enoch preserved in Syncellus, men are represented as calling to the heavens, and addressing them; and the four angels, Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel, give answer by looking down upon the earth, and they see the blood that is being shed by violence. Then follows the statement, "And the four archangels came before the Lord, and said." They may be here said to act in a collective capacity, but they have no deliberative function, still less have they any power to decree. The interpolated verse before us thus represents an angelo-logy more developed than that of the date of the Book of Enoch. And setteth up over it the basest of men. This phrase suggests the "vile person," נִבְּזֶה (nibezeh), of Daniel 11:21, who is probably Epiphanes - the reference in this interpolated verse is not unlikely the same. The Syriac form of עליה in the K'thib has to be observed. One peculiarity which points to interpolation is the Hebrew plural here used, אֶנָשִׁים (anasheem). Were it not that our suspicions of this verse are deepened by examination of it, we should be inclined to see a reference to that usurpation of Nebuchadnezzar's throne, which Lenormant thinks is implied in the title Neriglissar gives to his father. There seems to be a reference to something like this in ver. 24 of this chapter, according to the version of the LXX. 4:1-18 The beginning and end of this chapter lead us to hope, that Nebuchadnezzar was a monument of the power of Divine grace, and of the riches of Divine mercy. After he was recovered from his madness, he told to distant places, and wrote down for future ages, how God had justly humbled and graciously restored him. When a sinner comes to himself, he will promote the welfare of others, by making known the wondrous mercy of God. Nebuchadnezzar, before he related the Divine judgments upon him for his pride, told the warnings he had in a dream or vision. The meaning was explained to him. The person signified, was to be put down from honour, and to be deprived of the use of his reason seven years. This is surely the sorest of all temporal judgments. Whatever outward affliction God is pleased to lay upon us, we have cause to bear it patiently, and to be thankful that he continues the use of our reason, and the peace of our consciences. Yet if the Lord should see fit by such means to keep a sinner from multiplying crimes, or a believer from dishonouring his name, even the dreadful prevention would be far preferable to the evil conduct. God has determined it, as a righteous Judge, and the angels in heaven applaud. Not that the great God needs the counsel or concurrence of the angels, but it denotes the solemnity of this sentence. The demand is by the word of the holy ones, God's suffering people: when the oppressed cry to God, he will hear. Let us diligently seek blessings which can never be taken from us, and especially beware of pride and forgetfulness of God.
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Alphabetical: a and angelic announced anyone bestows by command decision declare decree gives he High holy In is it kingdoms know living lowliest mankind may men men' messengers Most of on ones order over realm ruler sentence sets so sovereign that The them This to verdict watchers whom wishes

OT Prophets: Daniel 4:17 The sentence is by the decree (Dan. Da Dn) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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