Ephesians 2:2
New International Version
in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient.

New Living Translation
You used to live in sin, just like the rest of the world, obeying the devil--the commander of the powers in the unseen world. He is the spirit at work in the hearts of those who refuse to obey God.

English Standard Version
in which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience—

Berean Study Bible
in which you used to walk when you conformed to the ways of this world and of the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit who is now at work in the sons of disobedience.

Berean Literal Bible
in which once you walked according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, the spirit now working in the sons of disobedience,

New American Standard Bible
in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience.

King James Bible
Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:

Christian Standard Bible
in which you previously lived according to the ways of this world, according to the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit now working in the disobedient.

Contemporary English Version
You followed the ways of this world and obeyed the devil. He rules the world, and his spirit has power over everyone who doesn't obey God.

Good News Translation
At that time you followed the world's evil way; you obeyed the ruler of the spiritual powers in space, the spirit who now controls the people who disobey God.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
in which you previously walked according to the ways of this world, according to the ruler who exercises authority over the lower heavens, the spirit now working in the disobedient.

International Standard Version
that you once practiced as you lived according to the ways of this present world and according to the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit that is now active in those who are disobedient.

NET Bible
in which you formerly lived according to this world's present path, according to the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the ruler of the spirit that is now energizing the sons of disobedience,

New Heart English Bible
in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit who now works in the children of disobedience;

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And these things in which you walked from the first, you were in them according to the secular life of this world and according to the will of The Ruler of The Authority of The Air and of this spirit which is diligent in the children of disobedience.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
You followed the ways of this present world and its spiritual ruler. This ruler continues to work in people who refuse to obey God.

New American Standard 1977
in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience.

Jubilee Bible 2000
in which in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the will of the prince of the power of this air, the spirit that now works in the sons of disobedience,

King James 2000 Bible
In which in time past you walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now works in the children of disobedience:

American King James Version
Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now works in the children of disobedience:

American Standard Version
wherein ye once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience;

Douay-Rheims Bible
Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of this air, of the spirit that now worketh on the children of unbelief:

Darby Bible Translation
in which ye once walked according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience:

English Revised Version
wherein aforetime ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience;

Webster's Bible Translation
In which in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:

Weymouth New Testament
which were once habitual to you while you walked in the ways of this world and obeyed the Prince of the powers of the air, the spirits that are now at work in the hearts of the sons of disobedience--to you God has given Life.

World English Bible
in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit who now works in the children of disobedience;

Young's Literal Translation
in which once ye did walk according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience,
Study Bible
Alive with Christ
1As for you, you were dead in your trespasses and sins, 2in which you used to walk when you conformed to the ways of this world and of the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit who is now at work in the sons of disobedience. 3We all lived among them at one time in the cravings of our flesh, indulging its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature children of wrath.…
Cross References
Matthew 13:22
The seed sown among the thorns is the one who hears the word, but the worries of this world and the deceitfulness of wealth choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.

Mark 4:19
but the cares of this life, the deceitfulness of wealth, and the desire for other things come in and choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.

John 12:31
Now judgment is upon this world; now the prince of this world will be cast out.

1 Corinthians 6:11
And that is what some of you were. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.

Ephesians 1:21
far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age, but also in the one to come.

Ephesians 2:3
We all lived among them at one time in the cravings of our flesh, indulging its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature children of wrath.

Ephesians 2:11
Therefore remember that formerly you who are Gentiles in the flesh and called uncircumcised by the so-called circumcision (that done in the body by human hands)--

Ephesians 2:13
But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near through the blood of Christ.

Ephesians 4:17
So I tell you this, and testify to it in the Lord: You must no longer walk as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their thinking.

Ephesians 5:6
Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of such things God's wrath comes on the sons of disobedience.

Ephesians 5:8
For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light,

Ephesians 6:12
For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this world's darkness, and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.

Colossians 3:7
When you lived among them, you also used to walk in these ways.

James 1:27
Pure and undefiled religion before our God and Father is this: to care for orphans and widows in their distress, and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world.

1 Peter 4:3
For you have spent enough time in the past carrying out the same desires as the pagans: living in debauchery, lust, drunkenness, orgies, carousing, and detestable idolatry.

Revelation 16:17
Then the seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air, and a loud voice came from the throne in the temple, saying, "It is done!"

Treasury of Scripture

Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now works in the children of disobedience:

in time.

Ephesians 2:3
Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Ephesians 4:22
That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;

Job 31:7
If my step hath turned out of the way, and mine heart walked after mine eyes, and if any blot hath cleaved to mine hands;

walked according.

Psalm 17:14
From men which are thy hand, O LORD, from men of the world, which have their portion in this life, and whose belly thou fillest with thy hid treasure: they are full of children, and leave the rest of their substance to their babes.

Jeremiah 23:10
For the land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the land mourneth; the pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up, and their course is evil, and their force is not right.

Luke 16:8
And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.

the prince.

Ephesians 6:12
For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

John 8:44
Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

John 12:31
Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out.

of the air.

Job 1:7,16,19
And the LORD said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it…

Revelation 16:17
And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done.

the spirit.

Matthew 12:43-45
When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none…

Luke 11:21-26
When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace: …

Luke 22:2,3,31
And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people…

the children.







Lexicon
in
ἐν (en)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1722: In, on, among. A primary preposition denoting position, and instrumentality, i.e. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc.

which
αἷς (hais)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Dative Feminine Plural
Strong's Greek 3739: Who, which, what, that.

you used to walk
περιεπατήσατε (periepatēsate)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 2nd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 4043: From peri and pateo; to tread all around, i.e. Walk at large; figuratively, to live, deport oneself, follow.

when you conformed to
κατὰ (kata)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 2596: A primary particle; down, in varied relations (genitive, dative or accusative) with which it is joined).

the
τὸν (ton)
Article - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

ways
αἰῶνα (aiōna)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 165: From the same as aei; properly, an age; by extension, perpetuity; by implication, the world; specially a Messianic period.

of this
τούτου (toutou)
Demonstrative Pronoun - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3778: This; he, she, it.

world
κόσμου (kosmou)
Noun - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 2889: Probably from the base of komizo; orderly arrangement, i.e. Decoration; by implication, the world (morally).

[and]
κατὰ (kata)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 2596: A primary particle; down, in varied relations (genitive, dative or accusative) with which it is joined).

of the
τὸν (ton)
Article - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

ruler
ἄρχοντα (archonta)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 758: Present participle of archo; a first.

of the
τῆς (tēs)
Article - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

power
ἐξουσίας (exousias)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 1849: From exesti; privilege, i.e. force, capacity, competency, freedom, or mastery, delegated influence.

of the
τοῦ (tou)
Article - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

air,
ἀέρος (aeros)
Noun - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 109: Air, the lower air we breathe. From aemi; 'air'.

the
τοῦ (tou)
Article - Genitive Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

spirit [who is]
πνεύματος (pneumatos)
Noun - Genitive Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 4151: Wind, breath, spirit.

now
νῦν (nyn)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 3568: A primary particle of present time; 'now'; also as noun or adjective present or immediate.

at work
ἐνεργοῦντος (energountos)
Verb - Present Participle Active - Genitive Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 1754: From energes; to be active, efficient.

in
ἐν (en)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1722: In, on, among. A primary preposition denoting position, and instrumentality, i.e. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc.

the
τοῖς (tois)
Article - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

sons
υἱοῖς (huiois)
Noun - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 5207: A son, descendent. Apparently a primary word; a 'son', used very widely of immediate, remote or figuratively, kinship.

of disobedience.
ἀπειθείας (apeitheias)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 543: Willful unbelief, obstinacy, disobedience. From apeithes; disbelief.
(2) The course (or, age) of this world.--Here again are united the two words often rendered by "world," the former signifying simply "the age," or appointed period of this visible universe, the latter its material and sensuous character. When we are warned against the one (as in Romans 12:2, "Be not conformed to this world;" see also 1Corinthians 1:20; 1Corinthians 2:6; 2Timothy 4:10), it is against the" vanity"--that is, the transitoriness and unreality--of the present life; when against the other (see Galatians 4:3; Galatians 6:14; Colossians 2:8-10), it is against its "pomp," its carnal, material, unspiritual splendour. Here the former life of the Ephesians is described as at once transitory and carnal.

The prince of the power of the air.--The connection of the "world" with the Evil One as its "prince" is not uncommon in Holy Scripture (see John 12:31; John 14:30; John 16:11); and the "power" of this passage is exactly that which Satan claims as "committed" to him in Luke 4:32. But the phrase "the power of the air" is unique and difficult. We note (1) that this phrase signifies not "a power over the air," but "a power dwelling in the region of the air." Now, the word "power" (see Note on Ephesians 1:21), both in the singular and the plural, is used in this Epistle, almost technically, of superhuman power. Here, therefore, the Evil One is described as "the prince," or ruler, of such superhuman power--considered here collectively as a single power, prevailing over the world, and working in the children of disobedience--in the same sense in which he is called the "prince of the devils," the individual spirits of wickedness (Matthew 9:34; Matthew 12:24). Next (2), Why is this spoken of as ruling "in the air"? There may possibly be allusion (as has been supposed) to the speculations of Jewish or Gentile philosophy; but it seems far more probable that the "air" is here meant simply to describe a sphere, and therefore a power, below the heaven and yet above the earth. The "air" is always opposed to the bright "ether," or to the spiritual "heaven"; the word and its derivatives carry with them the ideas of cloudiness, mist, and even darkness. Hence it is naturally used to suggest the conception of the evil power, as allowed invisibly to encompass and move above this world, yet overruled by the power of the true heaven, which it vainly strives to overcloud and hide from earth. In Ephesians 6:12 the powers of evil are described with less precision of imagery, as dwelling "in heavenly places," the opposition being there only between what is human and superhuman; yet even there the "darkness" of this world is referred to, corresponding to the conception of cloudiness and dimness always attaching to "the air."

The spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience.--The Greek here shows that the word "spirit" must be taken in apposition, not to "prince," as an English reader would naturally suppose, but to "power." As the individual demons when considered as working on the human spirit are called spirits--"unclean spirits "in the Gospels, "evil spirits" in Acts 19:12 (comp. Acts 16:16), "deceiving spirits" in 1Timothy 4:1--so here the collective power of evil, considered as working in "the children of disobedience," is called "a spirit," like the "spirit of the world," in 1Corinthians 2:12, but here even more distinctly opposed to the "Spirit of God." In reference to this spiritual power over the soul our Lord's casting out demons is described (Acts 10:28) as a deliverance of those who were "oppressed of the devil;" the apostolic work of conversion (Acts 26:18) as a turning "from the power of Satan to God," and excommunication as "a deliverance to Satan" (1Corinthians 5:5; 1Timothy 1:20); and in 2Thessalonians 2:9 exactly the same word for "inward working" is applied to the action of Satan on the soul. From this half-personal use of the word "spirit" it is easy to pass to the more abstract sense of an inner spiritual principle (as in Romans 8:15; Romans 11:8; 2Timothy 1:7; 1John 4:6).

Verse 2. - Wherein aforetime ye walked according to the course of this world. The idea of a dead creature walking is not altogether incongruous. It implies that a kind of life remained sufficient for walking; but not the true, full, normal life; rather the life of a galvanized corpse, or of one walking in sleep. The figurative use of walking for living, or carrying on our life, is frequent in this Epistle (Ephesians 4:1; Ephesians 5:2, etc.). "The course of this world," elsewhere" the world," denotes the present system of things, as conducted by those who have regard only to things seen and temporal, and no regard to God or to the future life. Where there is spiritual death there is insensibility to these things. According to the prince of the power of the air. It is obvious that this is equivalent to "the god of this world" (2 Corinthians 4:4), but the explanation of the term is difficult. Allusion is made to a corporate body, "the power [or, 'government'] (ἐξουσία) of the air," and to one who is "prince" of this government. There is no difficulty in identifying the evil one and his host, of whom Milton gives such graphic pictures. But why should they be specially connected with the air? The notion, entertained by some of the Fathers and others, that storms and disturbances of the atmosphere are caused by them, is preposterous; it is unscriptural (Psalm 148:8) and quite unscientific. The term seems to denote that evil spirits, who have some power of influencing us by their temptations, have their abode in the atmosphere, or at least haunt it, being invisible like it, yet exercising a real influence on human souls, and drawing them in worldly directions, and contrary to the will of God. The spirit which is now working hi the sons of disobedience. The fact that this spirit is still working in others makes the escape of the Ephesians from him the more striking. He is not destroyed, but vigorously at work even yet. Though Jesus beheld him fall from heaven as lightning, and though he said that the prince of this world had been judged, these expressions denote a prophetic rather than an actual condition. This spirit energizes in the "sons of disobedience." This designation is striking; it denotes persons born of disobedience, bred by disobedience, having disobedience in their very nature; comp. Romans 8:7, "The carnal mind is enmity against God," and passages where fallen man is called a rebel (Isaiah 1:2; Isaiah 63:10; Psalm 68:6; Jeremiah 5:23, etc.). It denotes the essential antagonism of man's will to God's, arising from man's devotion to this world and its interests, and God's regard to what is higher and holier - an antagonism often held in check and suppressed - but bursting out wildly at times in fierce opposition, as at the tower of Babel or the crucifixion of Jesus. The devil inflames man's inherent dislike to God's will, and encourages outbreaks of it. 2:1-10 Sin is the death of the soul. A man dead in trespasses and sins has no desire for spiritual pleasures. When we look upon a corpse, it gives an awful feeling. A never-dying spirit is now fled, and has left nothing but the ruins of a man. But if we viewed things aright, we should be far more affected by the thought of a dead soul, a lost, fallen spirit. A state of sin is a state of conformity to this world. Wicked men are slaves to Satan. Satan is the author of that proud, carnal disposition which there is in ungodly men; he rules in the hearts of men. From Scripture it is clear, that whether men have been most prone to sensual or to spiritual wickedness, all men, being naturally children of disobedience, are also by nature children of wrath. What reason have sinners, then, to seek earnestly for that grace which will make them, of children of wrath, children of God and heirs of glory! God's eternal love or good-will toward his creatures, is the fountain whence all his mercies flow to us; and that love of God is great love, and that mercy is rich mercy. And every converted sinner is a saved sinner; delivered from sin and wrath. The grace that saves is the free, undeserved goodness and favour of God; and he saves, not by the works of the law, but through faith in Christ Jesus. Grace in the soul is a new life in the soul. A regenerated sinner becomes a living soul; he lives a life of holiness, being born of God: he lives, being delivered from the guilt of sin, by pardoning and justifying grace. Sinners roll themselves in the dust; sanctified souls sit in heavenly places, are raised above this world, by Christ's grace. The goodness of God in converting and saving sinners heretofore, encourages others in after-time, to hope in his grace and mercy. Our faith, our conversion, and our eternal salvation, are not of works, lest any man should boast. These things are not brought to pass by any thing done by us, therefore all boasting is shut out. All is the free gift of God, and the effect of being quickened by his power. It was his purpose, to which he prepared us, by blessing us with the knowledge of his will, and his Holy Spirit producing such a change in us, that we should glorify God by our good conversation, and perseverance in holiness. None can from Scripture abuse this doctrine, or accuse it of any tendency to evil. All who do so, are without excuse.
Jump to Previous
Age Air Authority Children Course Disobedience Disobedient Followed Following Habitual Hearts Kingdom Life Obeyed Once Past Pleasure Power Powers Present Prince Purpose Ruler Spirit Spirits Time Used Walk Walked Ways Wherein Work Worketh Working Works World
Jump to Next
Age Air Authority Children Course Disobedience Disobedient Followed Following Habitual Hearts Kingdom Life Obeyed Once Past Pleasure Power Powers Present Prince Purpose Ruler Spirit Spirits Time Used Walk Walked Ways Wherein Work Worketh Working Works World
Links
Ephesians 2:2 NIV
Ephesians 2:2 NLT
Ephesians 2:2 ESV
Ephesians 2:2 NASB
Ephesians 2:2 KJV

Ephesians 2:2 Bible Apps
Ephesians 2:2 Biblia Paralela
Ephesians 2:2 Chinese Bible
Ephesians 2:2 French Bible
Ephesians 2:2 German Bible

Alphabetical: according air and are at course disobedience disobedient followed formerly in is kingdom live now of power prince ruler sons spirit that the this those to used walked ways when which who work working world you

NT Letters: Ephesians 2:2 In which you once walked according (Ephes. Eph. Ep) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
Ephesians 2:1
Top of Page
Top of Page