Galatians 4:29
New International Version
At that time the son born according to the flesh persecuted the son born by the power of the Spirit. It is the same now.

New Living Translation
But you are now being persecuted by those who want you to keep the law, just as Ishmael, the child born by human effort, persecuted Isaac, the child born by the power of the Spirit.

English Standard Version
But just as at that time he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now.

Berean Study Bible
At that time, however, the son born by the flesh persecuted the son born by the Spirit. It is the same now.

Berean Literal Bible
But just as at that time the one having been born according to flesh was persecuting the one born according to Spirit, so also it is now.

New American Standard Bible
But as at that time he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so it is now also.

King James Bible
But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.

Christian Standard Bible
But just as then the child born as a result of the flesh persecuted the one born as a result of the Spirit, so also now.

Contemporary English Version
But the child who was born in the natural way made trouble for the child who was born because of the Spirit. The same thing is happening today.

Good News Translation
At that time the son who was born in the usual way persecuted the one who was born because of God's Spirit; and it is the same now.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
But just as then the child born according to the flesh persecuted the one born according to the Spirit, so also now.

International Standard Version
But just as then the son who was conceived according to the flesh persecuted the son who was conceived according to the Spirit, so it is now.

NET Bible
But just as at that time the one born by natural descent persecuted the one born according to the Spirit, so it is now.

New Heart English Bible
But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And as then, he who was born by the flesh did persecute him who was of the Spirit, so it is now also.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Furthermore, at that time the son who was conceived in a natural way persecuted the son conceived in a spiritual way. That's exactly what's happening now.

New American Standard 1977
But as at that time he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so it is now also.

Jubilee Bible 2000
But as then he that was born according to the flesh persecuted him that was born according to the Spirit, even so it is now.

King James 2000 Bible
But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.

American King James Version
But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.

American Standard Version
But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, so also it is now.

Douay-Rheims Bible
But as then he, that was born according to the flesh, persecuted him that was after the spirit; so also it is now.

Darby Bible Translation
But as then he that was born according to flesh persecuted him [that was born] according to Spirit, so also [it is] now.

English Revised Version
But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.

Webster's Bible Translation
But as then he that was born according to the flesh persecuted him that was born according to the Spirit, even so it is now.

Weymouth New Testament
Yet just as, at that time, the child born in the common course of nature persecuted the one whose birth was due to the power of the Spirit, so it is now.

World English Bible
But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now.

Young's Literal Translation
but as then he who was born according to the flesh did persecute him according to the spirit, so also now;
Study Bible
Hagar and Sarah
28Now you, brothers, like Isaac, are children of the promise. 29At that time, however, the son born by the flesh persecuted the son born by the Spirit. It is the same now. 30But what does the Scripture say? “Expel the slave woman and her son, for the slave woman’s son will never share in the inheritance with the free woman’s son.”…
Cross References
Genesis 21:9
But Sarah saw that the son whom Hagar the Egyptian had borne to Abraham was mocking her son,

Galatians 4:23
His son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh, but his son by the free woman was born because of the promise.

Galatians 5:11
Now, brothers, if I am still preaching circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? In that case the offense of the cross has been abolished.

Treasury of Scripture

But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.

he that.

Genesis 21:9
And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking.

after the Spirit.

John 3:5
Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

John 15:9
As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love.

Romans 8:1,13
There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit…

even.

Galatians 5:11
And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased.

Galatians 6:12-14
As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ…

Matthew 23:34-37
Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: …







Lexicon
At that time,
τότε (tote)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 5119: Then, at that time. From ho and hote; the when, i.e. At the time that.

however,
ἀλλ’ (all’)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 235: But, except, however. Neuter plural of allos; properly, other things, i.e. contrariwise.

the [son]
(ho)
Article - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

born
γεννηθεὶς (gennētheis)
Verb - Aorist Participle Passive - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 1080: From a variation of genos; to procreate; figuratively, to regenerate.

by
κατὰ (kata)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 2596: A primary particle; down, in varied relations (genitive, dative or accusative) with which it is joined).

[the] flesh
σάρκα (sarka)
Noun - Accusative Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 4561: Flesh, body, human nature, materiality; kindred.

persecuted
ἐδίωκεν (ediōken)
Verb - Imperfect Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 1377: To pursue, hence: I persecute. A prolonged form of a primary verb dio; to pursue; by implication, to persecute.

the [son born]
τὸν (ton)
Article - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

by
κατὰ (kata)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 2596: A primary particle; down, in varied relations (genitive, dative or accusative) with which it is joined).

[the] Spirit.
Πνεῦμα (Pneuma)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 4151: Wind, breath, spirit.

[It is] the same
οὕτως (houtōs)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 3779: Thus, so, in this manner. Or (referring to what precedes or follows).

now.
νῦν (nyn)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 3568: A primary particle of present time; 'now'; also as noun or adjective present or immediate.
(29) Persecuted.--The expression used in Genesis 21:9 is translated in our version "mocking." It seems doubtful whether the Hebrew can really mean more than "playing." The Jewish traditions added that Ishmael took out the child Isaac and "shot at him with arrows under pretence of sport." The Arab tribes, Ishmael's descendants, had always been a thorn in the side of their Israelite neighbours.

Him that was born after the Spirit.--A miraculous agency intervened in the birth of Isaac, and the Christian Church was inaugurated and inspired by the same agency--that of the Spirit. The Messianic reign was realised through the Spirit; and their participation in this reign made all Christians true and spiritual descendants of Abraham.

Even so it is now.--This seems to have especial reference to the behaviour of the Judaising party in Galatia, but would also apply to the relations between Jews and Christians generally.

Verse 29. - But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit (ἀλλ ὥσπερ τότε ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθεὶς ἐδίωκε τὸν κατὰ Πνεῦμα). (For the phrase, "after," or "according to, the Spirit," see note on ver. 23.) It must be conceded that the apostle somewhat strains the expression in applying it to the case of Isaac; but he does it for the purpose of exhibiting the manner of his birth as homogeneous with that of his antitypes; for these are they of whom it is the more characteristically true; for they are begotten through the Spirit's agency, into the Spirit's kingdom, to be to the uttermost perfected by the Spirit. The imperfect ἐδίωκε, was persecuting, points to the scene presented to our view in Genesis 21:9, in the midst of which intervenes the injunction," Cast out," etc.; or possibly the apostle regards what then took place as one among other incidents exhibiting the same animus on the part of Ishmael. We cannot doubt that St. Paul points to the word "mocking," which occurs in the passage referred to. At the feast held in honour of Isaac's being weaned, "Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking." The same Hebrew verb is used of insult and disrespect in Genesis 39:14, "He hath brought in an Hebrew unto us to mock us;" so again ver. 17. The Septuagint, as we now have it, instead of "mocking," has παίζοντα μετὰ Ἰσαὰκ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτῆς, "at play with Isaac her son;" which would indicate no unkindness on Ishmael's part, but suggest the idea that Sarah's resentment was simply a movement of jealous feeling, roused by her seeing Ishmael assuming a position of equality with a child of hers. But the apostle disregards this interpretation, if indeed the words, "with Isaac her sons" had already then been interpolated into the passage. As those words are not in the Hebrew, the participles lacking any such explanatory adjunct, would fail of itself to express this idea. It is further rendered improbable by the disparity in age between the two lads; for Isaac, having been just weaned, would be only two or three years old, whilst Ishmael would be sixteen or seventeen. It is much more likely that Ishmael, having arrived at these years, participated in Hagar's feelings of jealousy and disappointment that this child should have come to supersede him in the position which, but for this, he might have held in the family; and that, on the occasion of this "great feast," by which the aged pair were celebrating their pious joy ever this "child of promise" as well as very markedly signalizing his peculiar position as Abraham's heir, the elder-born indulged himself in ill-natured and very possibly profane ridicule of the circumstances under which Isaac was born. Hagar's feelings towards her mistress had of old been those of upstart insubordination (Genesis 16:4). That both mother and son were very greatly in the wrong is evidenced by the sanction which Heaven accorded to the punishment with which they were visited. The critics (see Wetstein) quote the following passage from the rabbinical treatise, 'Bereshith rabb.,' 53, 15. "Rabbi Asaria said: Ishmael said to Isaac, 'Let us go and see our portion in the field;' and Ishmael took bow and arrows, and shot at Isaac, and pretended that he was in sport." St. Paul's view, therefore, of the import of the Hebrew participle rendered "mocking" is corroborated by the rabbinical interpretation of the word - a consideration which in such a case is of no small weight. The particular word, "persecuted," with which the apostle describes Ishmael's behaviour to his half-brother, was, no doubt, like the expression, "born after the Spirit," suggested by the antitypal case to which he is comparing it. But the features justifying its application to Ishmael viewed as typical were these - spiteful jealousy; disregard of the will of God; antipathy to one chosen of God to be Abraham's seed; abuse of superior power. Even so it is now (οὕτω καὶ νῦν); even so he does now. The full sentence represented by this elliptic one is: "even so now does he that is born after the flesh persecute him that is born after the Spirit." This was a fact with which the apostle's experience was but too familiar. In Asia Minor itself, as the Acts abundantly testifies, from city to city had he been dogged by the animosity of the "children of Hagar." No doubt something of this had been witnessed even in the Galatian towns, of the evangelization of which we have no equally full particulars; there, too, we may believe, St. Paul's converts had had to note the abhorrence with which their master was regarded by the adherents of the old religion; and it was natural that this should have a tendency to lessen his hold upon their minds; for were not the Jews the ancient Israel of God, the depositaries of his revelations? Moreover, the hostility which harassed him would also alight more or less upon them as being disciples of his (see Jerusalem that is above; etc. Galatians 6:12, and note). All this might make some of them the more ready to listen to Judaizing suggestions. In this verse, therefore, St. Paul is not merely breathing out a sorrow of his own but is fortifying the Galatian believers against a temptation assaulting themselves. 4:28-31 The history thus explained is applied. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bond-woman, but of the free. If the privileges of all believers were so great, according to the new covenant, how absurd for the Gentile converts to be under that law, which could not deliver the unbelieving Jews from bondage or condemnation! We should not have found out this allegory in the history of Sarah and Hagar, if it had not been shown to us, yet we cannot doubt it was intended by the Holy Spirit. It is an explanation of the subject, not an argument in proof of it. The two covenants of works and grace, and legal and evangelical professors, are shadowed forth. Works and fruits brought forth in a man's own strength, are legal. But if arising from faith in Christ, they are evangelical. The first covenant spirit is of bondage unto sin and death. The second covenant spirit is of liberty and freedom; not liberty to sin, but in and unto duty. The first is a spirit of persecution; the second is a spirit of love. Let those professors look to it, who have a violent, harsh, imposing spirit, towards the people of God. Yet as Abraham turned aside to Hagar, so it is possible a believer may turn aside in some things to the covenant of works, when through unbelief and neglect of the promise he acts according to the law, in his own strength; or in a way of violence, not of love, towards the brethren. Yet it is not his way, not his spirit to do so; hence he is never at rest, till he returns to his dependence on Christ again. Let us rest our souls on the Scriptures, and by a gospel hope and cheerful obedience, show that our conversation and treasure are indeed in heaven.
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