Ephesians 2:3
New International Version
All of us also lived among them at one time, gratifying the cravings of our flesh and following its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature deserving of wrath.

New Living Translation
All of us used to live that way, following the passionate desires and inclinations of our sinful nature. By our very nature we were subject to God’s anger, just like everyone else.

English Standard Version
among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind.

Berean Study Bible
At one time we all lived among them, fulfilling the cravings of our flesh and indulging its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature children of wrath.

Berean Literal Bible
among whom we all also once lived in the desires of our flesh, doing the things willed of the flesh and of its thoughts; and we were by nature children of wrath even as the rest.

New American Standard Bible
Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

King James Bible
Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Christian Standard Bible
We too all previously lived among them in our fleshly desires, carrying out the inclinations of our flesh and thoughts, and we were by nature children under wrath as the others were also.

Contemporary English Version
Once we were also ruled by the selfish desires of our bodies and minds. We had made God angry, and we were going to be punished like everyone else.

Good News Translation
Actually all of us were like them and lived according to our natural desires, doing whatever suited the wishes of our own bodies and minds. In our natural condition we, like everyone else, were destined to suffer God's anger.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
We too all previously lived among them in our fleshly desires, carrying out the inclinations of our flesh and thoughts, and we were by nature children under wrath as the others were also.

International Standard Version
Indeed, all of us once behaved like them in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of our flesh and senses. By nature we were destined for wrath, just like everyone else.

NET Bible
among whom all of us also formerly lived out our lives in the cravings of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath even as the rest

New Heart English Bible
among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
We also were employed in those works from the first in the desires of our flesh, and we were doing the will of our flesh and of our minds, and we were entirely children of rage, as the rest.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
All of us once lived among these people, and followed the desires of our corrupt nature. We did what our corrupt desires and thoughts wanted us to do. So, because of our nature, we deserved God's anger just like everyone else.

New American Standard 1977
Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

Jubilee Bible 2000
among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind and were by nature the children of wrath, even as all the others.

King James 2000 Bible
Among whom also we all had our behavior in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

American King James Version
Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

American Standard Version
among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:--

Douay-Rheims Bible
In which also we all conversed in time past, in the desires of our flesh, fulfilling the will of the flesh and of our thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:

Darby Bible Translation
among whom we also all once had our conversation in the lusts of our flesh, doing what the flesh and the thoughts willed to do, and were children, by nature, of wrath, even as the rest:

English Revised Version
among whom we also all once lived in the lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:--

Webster's Bible Translation
Among whom also we all had our manner of life in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Weymouth New Testament
Among them all of us also formerly passed our lives, governed by the inclinations of our lower natures, indulging the cravings of those natures and of our own thoughts, and were in our original state deserving of anger like all others.

World English Bible
among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

Young's Literal Translation
among whom also we all did walk once in the desires of our flesh, doing the wishes of the flesh and of the thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath -- as also the others,
Study Bible
Alive with Christ
2in which you used to walk when you conformed to the ways of this world and of the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit who is now at work in the sons of disobedience. 3We all lived among them at one time in the cravings of our flesh, indulging its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature children of wrath. 4But because of His great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy,…
Cross References
Psalm 51:5
Surely I was brought forth in iniquity; I was sinful when my mother conceived me.

Romans 1:24
Therefore God gave them over in the desires of their hearts to impurity for the dishonoring of their bodies with one another.

Romans 2:14
Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the Law, do by nature what the Law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the Law,

Romans 5:9
Therefore, since we have now been justified by His blood, how much more shall we be saved from wrath through Him!

Romans 5:10
For if, when we were enemies of God, we were reconciled to Him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!

Romans 5:12
Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, so also death was passed on to all men, because all sinned.

Galatians 2:15
We who are Jews by birth and not Gentile 'sinners'

Galatians 5:16
So I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not gratify the desires of the flesh.

Ephesians 2:2
in which you used to walk when you conformed to the ways of this world and of the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit who is now at work in the sons of disobedience.

Colossians 1:21
Once you were alienated from God and were hostile in your minds because of your evil deeds.

1 Thessalonians 4:13
Brothers, we do not want you to be uninformed about those who sleep in death, so that you will not grieve like the rest, who are without hope.

1 Thessalonians 5:6
So then, let us not sleep as the others do, but let us remain awake and sober.

2 Peter 2:14
Their eyes are full of adultery; their desire for sin is never satisfied; they seduce the unstable. They are accursed children with hearts trained in greed.

1 John 2:16
For all that is in the world--the desires of the flesh, the desires of the eyes, and the pride of life--is not from the Father but from the world.

Treasury of Scripture

Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

we.

Isaiah 53:6
All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.

Isaiah 64:6,7
But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away…

Daniel 9:5-9
We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments: …

in times.

Ephesians 4:17-19
This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind, …

Acts 14:16
Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.

Acts 17:30,31
And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commandeth all men every where to repent: …

in the.

Ephesians 4:22
That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;

Mark 4:19
And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.

John 8:44
Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

fulfilling.

Romans 8:7,8
Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be…

2 Corinthians 7:1
Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

Galatians 5:19-21
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, …

desires.

John 1:13
Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

by.

Genesis 5:3
And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth:







Lexicon
We
ἡμεῖς (hēmeis)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Nominative 1st Person Plural
Strong's Greek 1473: I, the first-person pronoun. A primary pronoun of the first person I.

all
πάντες (pantes)
Adjective - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3956: All, the whole, every kind of. Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.

lived
ἀνεστράφημέν (anestraphēmen)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Passive - 1st Person Plural
Strong's Greek 390: From ana and strepho; to overturn; also to return; by implication, to busy oneself, i.e. Remain, live.

among
ἐν (en)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1722: In, on, among. A primary preposition denoting position, and instrumentality, i.e. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc.

[them]
οἷς (hois)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3739: Who, which, what, that.

at one time
ποτε (pote)
Particle
Strong's Greek 4218: At one time or other, at some time, formerly. From the base of pou and te; indefinite adverb, at some time, ever.

in
ἐν (en)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1722: In, on, among. A primary preposition denoting position, and instrumentality, i.e. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc.

the
ταῖς (tais)
Article - Dative Feminine Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

cravings
ἐπιθυμίαις (epithymiais)
Noun - Dative Feminine Plural
Strong's Greek 1939: Desire, eagerness for, inordinate desire, lust. From epithumeo; a longing.

of our
ἡμῶν (hēmōn)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Genitive 1st Person Plural
Strong's Greek 1473: I, the first-person pronoun. A primary pronoun of the first person I.

flesh,
σαρκὸς (sarkos)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 4561: Flesh, body, human nature, materiality; kindred.

indulging
ποιοῦντες (poiountes)
Verb - Present Participle Active - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 4160: (a) I make, manufacture, construct, (b) I do, act, cause. Apparently a prolonged form of an obsolete primary; to make or do.

[its]
τὰ (ta)
Article - Accusative Neuter Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

desires
θελήματα (thelēmata)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Plural
Strong's Greek 2307: An act of will, will; plur: wishes, desires. From the prolonged form of ethelo; a determination, i.e. choice or inclination.

and
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 2532: And, even, also, namely.

thoughts.
διανοιῶν (dianoiōn)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Plural
Strong's Greek 1271: From dia and nous; deep thought, properly, the faculty, by implication, its exercise.

Like
ὡς (hōs)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 5613: Probably adverb of comparative from hos; which how, i.e. In that manner.

the
οἱ (hoi)
Article - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

rest,
λοιποί (loipoi)
Adjective - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3062: Left, left behind, the remainder, the rest, the others. Masculine plural of a derivative of leipo; remaining ones.

we were
ἤμεθα (ēmetha)
Verb - Imperfect Indicative Middle - 1st Person Plural
Strong's Greek 1510: I am, exist. The first person singular present indicative; a prolonged form of a primary and defective verb; I exist.

by nature
φύσει (physei)
Noun - Dative Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 5449: From phuo; growth, i.e. natural production; by extension, a genus or sort; figuratively, native disposition, constitution or usage.

children
τέκνα (tekna)
Noun - Nominative Neuter Plural
Strong's Greek 5043: A child, descendent, inhabitant. From the base of timoria; a child.

of wrath.
ὀργῆς (orgēs)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 3709: From oregomai; properly, desire, i.e., violent passion (justifiable) abhorrence); by implication punishment.
(3) Among whom also we all . . .--Up to this point St. Paul had addressed himself especially to the Ephesians as Gentiles: now he extends the description of alienation to "all," Jews and Gentiles alike, as formerly reckoned among the children of disobedience. It is indeed the great object of this chapter to bring out the equality and unity of both Jews and Gentiles in the Church of Christ; and this truth is naturally introduced by a statement of their former equality in alienation and sin.

In the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind.--The parallelism of these two clauses illustrates very clearly the extended sense in which the word "flesh" is used by St. Paul, as may indeed be seen by the catalogue of the works of the flesh in Galatians 5:19-20. For here "the flesh," in the first clause, includes both "the flesh and the mind" (or, more properly, the thoughts) of the second; that is, it includes both the appetites and the passions of our fleshly nature, and also the "thoughts" of the mind itself, so far as it is devoted to this visible world of sense, alienated from God, and therefore under the influence of the powers of evil. In fact, in scriptural use the sins of "the flesh," "the world," and "the devil" are not different classes of sins, but different aspects of sin, and any one of the three great enemies is made at times to represent all.

And were by nature the children of wrath, even as others (or rather, the others--that is, the heathen).--From this passage the phrase "children of wrath" has passed into Christian theology as an almost technical description of the unregenerate state. Hence it needs careful examination. (1) Now the phrase "children of wrath" (corresponding almost exactly to "children of a curse," in 2Peter 2:14) seems borrowed from the Hebrew use in the Old Testament, by which (as in 1Samuel 20:30; 2Samuel 12:5) a "son of death" is one under sentence of death, and in Isaiah 57:4 (the Greek translation) "children of destruction" are those doomed to perish. In this sense we have, in John 17:12, "the son of perdition;" and in Matthew 23:15, "the son of hell." It differs, therefore, considerably from the phrase "children of disobedience" (begotten, as it were, of disobedience) above. But it is notable that the word for "children" here used is a term expressing endearment and love, and is accordingly properly, and almost invariably, applied to our relation to God. When, therefore, it is used as in this passage, or, still more strikingly, in 1John 3:10, "children of the devil" (comp. John 8:44), there is clearly an intention to arrest the attention by a startling and paradoxical expression. "We were children," not of God, not of His love, but "of wrath"--that is, His wrath against sin; "born (see Galatians 3:10-22; Galatians 4:4) under the law," and therefore "shut up under sin," and "under the curse." (2) Next, we have the phrase "by nature," which, in the true reading of the original, is interposed, as a kind of limitation or definition, between "children" and "of wrath." In the first instance it was probably suggested by the reference to Israel, who were by covenant, not by nature, the chosen people of God. Now the word "nature," applied to humanity, indicates what is common to all, as opposed to what is individual, or what is inborn, as opposed to what is acquired. But whether it refers to humanity as it was created by God, or to humanity as it has become by "fault and corruption of nature," must always be determined by the context. Here the reference is clearly to the latter. "Nature" is opposed to "grace"--that is, the nature of man as alienated from God, to the nature of man as restored to his original birthright, the "image of God," in Jesus Christ. (See Romans 5:12-21.) The existence of an inborn sinfulness needs no revelation to make it evident to those who have eyes to see. It needs a revelation--and such a revelation the gospel gives--to declare to us that it is not man's true nature, and that what is really original is not sin, but righteousness. (3) The whole passage, therefore, describes the state of men before their call to union with Christ, as naturally "under wrath," and is well illustrated by the full description, in Romans 1:18; Romans 2:16, of those on whom "the wrath of God is revealed." There man's state is depicted as having still some knowledge of God (Romans 1:19-21), as having "the work of the law written on the heart" (Romans 2:14-15), and accordingly as being still under a probation before God (Romans 2:6-11). Elsewhere we learn that Christ, "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world," died for all, even "the ungodly" (Romans 5:6-8; Revelation 13:1); and that none are wholly excluded from His atonement but those who "tread under foot the Son of God, and count the blood of the covenant an unholy thing" (Hebrews 10:29). Hence that state is not absolutely lost or hopeless. But yet, when the comparison, as here, is with the salvation of the gospel, they are declared "children of wrath" who are "strangers to the new covenant of promise," with its two supernatural gifts of justification by faith and sanctification in the Spirit, and their condition is described, comparatively but not absolutely, as "having no hope, and without God in the world."

Verse 3. - Among whom we also all once spent our life in the lusts of our flesh. The apostle here brings Jews and Gentiles together. "We also," as well as you - we were all in the same condemnation, all in a miserable plight, not merely occasionally dipping into sin, but spending our very lives in the lusts or desires of our flesh, living fro' no noble ends, but in an element of carnal desire, as if there were nothing higher than to please the carnal nature. Fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind. Desires of the flesh, the grosser and more animal propensities (the flesh, in Scripture, has often a wider sense; see Galatians 5:19-21); and of the mind or thoughts, διανοιῶν, the objects that we thought about, whatever they might be, - the waywardness of our thoughts seems to be denoted, the random roaming of the mind hither and thither, towards this pleasure and that, sometimes serious, sometimes frivolous, but all marked by the absence of any controlling regard to the will of God. The life indicated is a life of indulgence in whatever natural feelings may arise in us-be they right or be they wrong. And we were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. This is a substantive clause, standing on its own basis, a separate fact, not merely an inference from the previous statements. The life described would have exposed us to wrath; but beyond and before this we were by nature children of wrath. "By nature" denotes something in our constitution, in our very being; and "even as the rest" denotes that this was universal, not a peculiarity affecting some, but a general feature applicable to all. "Children of wrath" denotes that we belonged to a race which had incurred the wrath of God; our individuality was so far absorbed by the social body that we shared the lot under which it had come. If there be something in this that seems contrary to justice, that seems to condemn men for the sins of others, we remark

(1) that in actual life we constantly find individuals suffering for the sin of the corporation, domestic, social, or national, with which they are identified;

(2) that apart from this altogether, our individual offenses would expose us to God's wrath; and

(3) that the moral and legal relations of the individual to the corporation is a subject of difficulty, and in this case makes a strong demand on our faith. We should accept the teaching of the Word of God upon it, and leave our righteous Judge to vindicate himself. "Wrath," as applied to God, must be regarded as essentially different from the same word when used of man. In the latter case it usually indicates a disorderly, excited, passionate feeling, as of one who has lost self-control; when used of God, it denotes the holy, calm, deep opposition of his nature to sin, compelling him to inflict the appropriate punishment. 2:1-10 Sin is the death of the soul. A man dead in trespasses and sins has no desire for spiritual pleasures. When we look upon a corpse, it gives an awful feeling. A never-dying spirit is now fled, and has left nothing but the ruins of a man. But if we viewed things aright, we should be far more affected by the thought of a dead soul, a lost, fallen spirit. A state of sin is a state of conformity to this world. Wicked men are slaves to Satan. Satan is the author of that proud, carnal disposition which there is in ungodly men; he rules in the hearts of men. From Scripture it is clear, that whether men have been most prone to sensual or to spiritual wickedness, all men, being naturally children of disobedience, are also by nature children of wrath. What reason have sinners, then, to seek earnestly for that grace which will make them, of children of wrath, children of God and heirs of glory! God's eternal love or good-will toward his creatures, is the fountain whence all his mercies flow to us; and that love of God is great love, and that mercy is rich mercy. And every converted sinner is a saved sinner; delivered from sin and wrath. The grace that saves is the free, undeserved goodness and favour of God; and he saves, not by the works of the law, but through faith in Christ Jesus. Grace in the soul is a new life in the soul. A regenerated sinner becomes a living soul; he lives a life of holiness, being born of God: he lives, being delivered from the guilt of sin, by pardoning and justifying grace. Sinners roll themselves in the dust; sanctified souls sit in heavenly places, are raised above this world, by Christ's grace. The goodness of God in converting and saving sinners heretofore, encourages others in after-time, to hope in his grace and mercy. Our faith, our conversion, and our eternal salvation, are not of works, lest any man should boast. These things are not brought to pass by any thing done by us, therefore all boasting is shut out. All is the free gift of God, and the effect of being quickened by his power. It was his purpose, to which he prepared us, by blessing us with the knowledge of his will, and his Holy Spirit producing such a change in us, that we should glorify God by our good conversation, and perseverance in holiness. None can from Scripture abuse this doctrine, or accuse it of any tendency to evil. All who do so, are without excuse.
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Alphabetical: All also among and as at by children cravings desires even flesh following formerly gratifying in indulging its Like lived lusts mind nature objects of one our rest sinful the them thoughts time too us we were wrath

NT Letters: Ephesians 2:3 Among whom we also all once lived (Ephes. Eph. Ep) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
Ephesians 2:2
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