Judges 18:30
New International Version
There the Danites set up for themselves the idol, and Jonathan son of Gershom, the son of Moses, and his sons were priests for the tribe of Dan until the time of the captivity of the land.

New Living Translation
Then they set up the carved image, and they appointed Jonathan son of Gershom, son of Moses, as their priest. This family continued as priests for the tribe of Dan until the Exile.

English Standard Version
And the people of Dan set up the carved image for themselves, and Jonathan the son of Gershom, son of Moses, and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land.

Berean Study Bible
The Danites set up idols for themselves, and Jonathan son of Gershom, the son of Moses, and his sons were priests for the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

New American Standard Bible
The sons of Dan set up for themselves the graven image; and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land.

King James Bible
And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

Christian Standard Bible
The Danites set up the carved image for themselves. Jonathan son of Gershom, son of Moses, and his sons were priests for the Danite tribe until the time of the exile from the land.

Good News Translation
The Danites set up the idol to be worshiped, and Jonathan, the son of Gershom and grandson of Moses, served as a priest for the Danites, and his descendants served as their priests until the people were taken away into exile.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The Danites set up the carved image for themselves. Jonathan son of Gershom, son of Moses, and his sons were priests for the Danite tribe until the time of the exile from the land.

International Standard Version
The descendants of Dan set up the carved image, and Gershom's son Jonathan, a descendant of Manasseh, served along with his descendants as priests to the tribe of Dan until the land was taken captive.

NET Bible
The Danites worshiped the carved image. Jonathan, descendant of Gershom, son of Moses, and his descendants served as priests for the tribe of Dan until the time of the exile.

New Heart English Bible
The children of Dan set up for themselves the engraved image. And Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Moses, and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the exile from the land.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The people of Dan set up the carved idol for themselves. Jonathan (son of Gershom and grandson of Moses) and his descendants were priests for Dan's tribe until the people living in that land were taken captive.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the children of Dan set up for themselves the graven image; and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land.

New American Standard 1977
And the sons of Dan set up for themselves the graven image; and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the sons of Dan set up the graven image; and Jonathan, the son of Gershon, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

King James 2000 Bible
And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

American King James Version
And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

American Standard Version
And the children of Dan set up for themselves the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Moses, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And the children of Dan set up the graven image for themselves; and Jonathan son of Gerson son of Manasse, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan till the time of the carrying away of the nation.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And they set up to themselves the graven idol, and Jonathan the son of Gersam the son of Moses, he and his sons were priests in the tribe of Dan, until the day of their captivity.

Darby Bible Translation
And the children of Dan set up the graven image; and Jehonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Moses; he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

English Revised Version
And the children of Dan set up for themselves the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Moses, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land.

Webster's Bible Translation
And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

World English Bible
The children of Dan set up for themselves the engraved image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Moses, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land.

Young's Literal Translation
And the sons of Dan raise up for themselves the graven image, and Jonathan son of Gershom, son of Manasseh, he and his sons have been priests to the tribe of the Danite, till the day of the removal of the people of the land.
Study Bible
The Danites Take Micah's Idols
29They named it Dan, after their forefather Dan, who was born to Israel—though the city was formerly named Laish. 30The Danites set up idols for themselves, and Jonathan son of Gershom, the son of Moses, and his sons were priests for the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land. 31So they set up for themselves Micah's graven image, and it was there the whole time the house of God was in Shiloh.…
Cross References
Exodus 2:22
And she gave birth to a son whom he named Gershom, for he said, "I have become a stranger in a strange land."

Exodus 18:3
along with her two sons. One son was named Gershom, for Moses had said, "I have been a foreigner in a foreign land."

Judges 17:3
And when he had returned the eleven hundred shekels of silver to his mother, she said, "I wholly dedicate the silver to the LORD for my son's benefit to make a graven image and a molten idol. Therefore I will now return it to you."

Judges 17:5
Now this man Micah had a shrine, and he made an ephod and some household idols, and installed one of his sons to be his priest.

Treasury of Scripture

And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

set up

Exodus 20:4
Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:

Leviticus 26:1
Ye shall make you no idols nor graven image, neither rear you up a standing image, neither shall ye set up any image of stone in your land, to bow down unto it: for I am the LORD your God.

Deuteronomy 17:2-7
If there be found among you, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that hath wrought wickedness in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing his covenant, …

Psalm 105:44,45
And gave them the lands of the heathen: and they inherited the labour of the people; …

Judges 13:1
And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD delivered them into the hand of the Philistines forty years.

1 Samuel 4:2,3,10,11
And the Philistines put themselves in array against Israel: and when they joined battle, Israel was smitten before the Philistines: and they slew of the army in the field about four thousand men…

Psalm 78:60-62
So that he forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh, the tent which he placed among men; …

the land.







Lexicon
The Danites
בְּנֵי־ (bə·nê-)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 1121: A son

set up
וַיָּקִ֧ימוּ (way·yā·qî·mū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Hifil - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 6965: To arise, stand up, stand

idols
הַפָּ֑סֶל (hap·pā·sel)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6459: An idol, image

for themselves,
לָהֶ֛ם (lā·hem)
Preposition | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew

and Jonathan
וִ֠יהוֹנָתָן (wî·hō·w·nā·ṯān)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3129: Jonathan

son of
בֶּן־ (ben-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1121: A son

Gershom,
גֵּרְשֹׁ֨ם (gê·rə·šōm)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1647: Gershom -- three Israelites

the son
בֶּן־ (ben-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1121: A son

of Moses,
מְנַ‪‬שֶּׁ֜ה (mə·naš·šeh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4519: Manasseh -- 'causing to forget', a son of Joseph, also a king of Judah, also two Israelites

and his sons
וּבָנָ֗יו (ū·ḇā·nāw)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine plural construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1121: A son

were
הָי֤וּ (hā·yū)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person common plural
Strong's Hebrew 1961: To fall out, come to pass, become, be

priests
כֹהֲנִים֙ (ḵō·hă·nîm)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3548: Priest

for the tribe
לְשֵׁ֣בֶט (lə·šê·ḇeṭ)
Preposition-l | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 7626: Rod, staff, club, scepter, tribe

of Dan
הַדָּנִ֔י (had·dā·nî)
Article | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1839: Danites -- descendant of Dan

until
עַד־ (‘aḏ-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5704: As far as, even to, up to, until, while

the day
י֖וֹם (yō·wm)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3117: A day

of the captivity
גְּל֥וֹת (gə·lō·wṯ)
Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 1540: To denude, to exile, to reveal

of the land.
הָאָֽרֶץ׃ (hā·’ā·reṣ)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 776: Earth, land
(30) Set up the graven image.--If this pesel was in the form of a calf, the tradition of this cult may have given greater facility to the daring innovation of Jeroboam (1Kings 12:30). In any case, it would make the inhabitants more ready to accept a cherubic symbol of Jehovah; for we may fairly assume that the "image" was not dissociated from the worship of God, whether as Elohim or Jehovah. Jonathan and the Danites both acknowledged Him under the name Elohim (Judges 18:5; Judges 18:10), and Micah, in spite of his images, acknowledged God as Jehovah (Judges 17:2; Judges 17:13; Judges 18:6), to whom, indeed, the very name of Jonathan ("gift of Jehovah") bore witness. Whether this, or rather the smallness of Dan, is the reason for its exclusion from Revelation 7:4 must remain uncertain. The Fathers thought, for this reason, that Antichrist would spring from the tribe of Dan.

Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh.--The extreme reluctance to admit this fact--the disgrace involved against the memory of Moses by this rapid and total degeneracy of his grandson--is probably the reason why up to this point in the narrative the name has been withheld. There can, however, be no doubt that Jonathan was the young Levite who has all along been spoken of. The reading of MANASSEH for MOSES is by the confession of the Jews themselves due to the same cause. Moses is in Hebrew ???????, Manasseh is ?????????. It will thus be seen that (without the points) the names only differ by the letter n (). But in what is called the Masoretic text--i.e., the text edited by the Jewish scribes--the is not boldly inserted, but is timidly and furtively suspended--thus MSSH--and is called nun tha?´┐Żyah (n suspended). This was done to conceal from the uninitiated the painful fact. It was known to St. Jerome, and accordingly the Vulg. reads "son of Moses," which is also found in some MSS. of the LXX. Theodoret has "son of Manasseh, son of Gershom, son of Moses." The Jews distinguish between the "text" (Kethib "written") and the margin (Keri "read"), and Rabbi Tanchum admits that here "Moses" is written, though "Manasseh" is read. The Talmud says that he was grandson of Moses; but "because he did the deeds of Manasseh" (the idolatrous king, 2 Kings 21), "the Scripture assigns him to the family of Manasseh" (Babha Bathra, f. 109, 2); and on this a later Rabbi remarks that "the prophet"--i.e., the sacred author--"studiously avoided calling Gershom the son of Moses, because it would have been ignominious to Moses to have had an ungodly son; but he calls him the son of Manasseh, suspending the n above the line to show that he was the son of Manasseh (in a metaphorical sense) by imitating his impiety, though a son of Moses by descent." The Talmudists account for the distasteful tact by saying that the degeneracy was due to the wife

of Moses, who was a Midianite, so that there was a taint in the blood of the family. It is not, however, the sacred author who is guilty of this "pious fraud," but the Masoretic editors. The rarity of the name Gershom (which means "a stranger there," Exodus 2:22) would alone be sufficient to betray the secret. The extravagant and superstitious letter-worship of the scribes did not suffice to prevent them from tampering with the letter, any more than it prevented the Rabbis from entirely explaining away the obvious spirit of the Law which they professed to adore. The only uncertainty in the matter is whether this wandering Levite, this young Jonathan who for less than thirty shillings a year becomes the priest of an idolatrous worship, was the actual grandson, or only a later descendant of Moses, since the Jews often omit steps in their genealogies. There is, however, no reason why he should not have been the actual grandson, since he is contemporary with Phinehas (Judges 20:28), who was, without any question, the actual grandson of Aaron. This rapid degeneracy may perhaps account for the obscuration of the family of Moses, which never seems to have subsequently risen into any importance, and of which no more names are preserved. Jonathan's name is excluded, perhaps deliberately, from 1Chronicles 23:15-16. Or is he indeed Shebuel, as St. Jerome avers, probably from Jewish tradition?--and has his name been purposely altered? It is probably from a similar dislike to reveal the disgrace which thus fell on the family of the great law-giver that Josephus entirely omits the story. It is impossible that he should not have been perfectly acquainted with it. The identity of Jonathan with Shebuel in 1Chronicles 23:16 is asserted in the Targum, which says that "Shebuel, that is, Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Moses, returned to the fear of Jehovah, and when David saw that he was skilful in money matters, he appointed him chief over the treasures."

Until the day of the captivity of the land.--(1) If the expression meant "the captivity," as ordinarily understood, the meaning could only be that these descendants of Moses continued also to be priests of the calf-worship for nearly two centuries, until the ten tribes were carried captive by Shalmaneser and Tiglath-pileser. (Comp. 1Chronicles 5:22.) If so, there would be a strong additional reason for identifying this worship with the calf-worship, and the fact might then be supposed to account for there being no mention of non-Levitic priests at Dan, but only at Bethel (1Kings 12:33). (2) Some suppose that we should read "ark" (aron) for "land" (arets). (See 1Samuel 4:21-22.) But this conjecture of Houbigant is not supported by a single MS. or version. (3) It is far from impossible that "the captivity" may mean the Philistine captivity, which resulted from their terrible sack of Shiloh after the battle of Aphek (1Samuel 4:11; 1Samuel 4:22). It is called "a captivity" in the passage which so graphically describes the scene in Ps. 88:58-61. Otherwise we may suppose (4) that "the land" has here a circumscribed sense, and that "the captivity" alluded to is one inflicted on the Danites by the kings of Zobah. or some other Syrian invasion (1Samuel 14:47). The third explanation is, however, rendered almost certain by the following verse.

Verses 30, 31. - And the children of Dan, etc. It was probably the long existence of this semi-idolatrous worship of the graven image at Dan that induced King Jeroboam to set up one of his golden calves at Dan, as we read 1 Kings 12:28-30. And Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh. The Hebrew text really has the son of Moses. But a little n is written above the line between the M and the S of Moses (Mosheh), so as to be read Manasseh, as thus: MSH; so that they avoided the pain of reading aloud that the grandson or descendant of Moses was an idolatrous priest, without actually altering the written text. It is indeed most sad that it should have been so, though like examples are not wanting, as, e.g., the sons of Eli and of Samuel. For Gershom the son of Moses see Exodus 2:22; Exodus 18:3; 1 Chronicles 23:14-16. It does not follow that Jonathan, the priest of the Danites, was literally the son of Gershom. It may merely mean that he was of the family of which Gershom was the head. Until the day of the captivity of the land. There is great diversity of opinion as to the meaning of this phrase. Many understand it, as is the obvious meaning of the words, of the Assyrian captivity (2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 17:6). But some of the best commentators, as Kimchi among the Jews, and many moderns, think it refers to the taking captive of the ark by the Philistines in the days of Eli, because this is the time indicated in the next verse by the mention of the house of God in Shiloh. The ark of God never returned to Shiloh after it was taken thence (1 Samuel 4:3, 4) and captured by the Philistines (ibid. ver. 11). It is also noticed that the expression, The ark of God is gone into captivity (is taken, A.V.), occurs in 1 Samuel 4:21, 22. It certainly would be strange that one verse (30) should speak of the worship of the graven image lasting till the Assyrian conquest of the land, and the next verse (31) limit it to the time that the house of God was in Shiloh, some 300 years earlier. At the same time it should be noticed that ver. 30 speaks of the time that Jonathan's sons were priests to the tribe of Dan, and ver. 31 of the worship of Micah's image. It is quite possible that the descendants of Jonathan may have been appointed priests at Dan to Jeroboam's golden-calf worship, though the original graven image of Micah may have been destroyed by Saul or David; and in the interval between such destruction of Micah's image and the setting up of Jeroboam's calves they may have been the priests of an irregular worship on a high place at Tell-el-Kady. And this would enable us to give what is certainly its natural meaning to the words, "the captivity of the land." But no certainty can be arrived at without more actual knowledge. Many commentators adopt Houbigant's conjecture to read ark for land at the end of ver. 30 (aron for aretz). Others think that some deportation of the Danites by the Syrians or other neighbouring people not recorded in history is here spoken cf. All the time the house of God, etc. This must have been written not earlier than the time of Samuel, and possibly much later. The house of God, i.e. the tabernacle, was in Shiloh from the days of Joshua (Joshua 18:1) till the days of Eli (1 Samuel 1:3), after which we have no account of where the house of God was till the ark was brought up to Jerusalem by King David from the house of Obed-edom the Gittite (2 Samuel 6:12), and placed in the tabernacle that David had pitched for it (2 Samuel 6:17); but whether this was the tabernacle that had been pitched at Shiloh or a new one does not appear. It is not improbable that Samuel may have moved the tabernacle from Shiloh to Ramah (1 Samuel 7:17). The ark had rested in the house of Abinadab at Baaleh or Kirjath-jearim for twenty years (1 Samuel 7:2) previous to its removal by David.



17:7-13 Micah thought it was a sign of God's favour to him and his images, that a Levite should come to his door. Thus those who please themselves with their own delusions, if Providence unexpectedly bring any thing to their hands that further them in their evil way, are apt from thence to think that God is pleased with them.
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Judges 18:29
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