Judges 12:4
New International Version
Jephthah then called together the men of Gilead and fought against Ephraim. The Gileadites struck them down because the Ephraimites had said, "You Gileadites are renegades from Ephraim and Manasseh."

New Living Translation
The people of Ephraim responded, "You men of Gilead are nothing more than fugitives from Ephraim and Manasseh." So Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead and attacked the men of Ephraim and defeated them.

English Standard Version
Then Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead and fought with Ephraim. And the men of Gilead struck Ephraim, because they said, “You are fugitives of Ephraim, you Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim and Manasseh.”

Berean Study Bible
Then Jephthah gathered all of the men of Gilead and fought against Ephraim. And the men of Gilead struck them down because the Ephraimites had said, “You Gileadites are fugitives in Ephraim, living in the territories of Ephraim and Manasseh.”

New American Standard Bible
Then Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead and fought Ephraim; and the men of Gilead defeated Ephraim, because they said, "You are fugitives of Ephraim, O Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim and in the midst of Manasseh."

King James Bible
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye Gileadites are fugitives of Ephraim among the Ephraimites, and among the Manassites.

Christian Standard Bible
Then Jephthah gathered all of the men of Gilead. They fought and defeated Ephraim, because Ephraim had said, "You Gileadites are Ephraimite fugitives in the territories of Ephraim and Manasseh."

Contemporary English Version
But the men from Ephraim said, "You people of Gilead are nothing more than refugees from Ephraim. You even live on land that belongs to the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh." So Jephthah called together the army of Gilead, then they attacked and defeated the army from Ephraim.

Good News Translation
Then Jephthah brought all the men of Gilead together, fought the men of Ephraim and defeated them. (The Ephraimites had said, "You Gileadites in Ephraim and Manasseh, you are deserters from Ephraim!")

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Then Jephthah gathered all of the men of Gilead. They fought and defeated Ephraim, because Ephraim had said, "You Gileadites are Ephraimite fugitives in the territories of Ephraim and Manasseh."

International Standard Version
Then Jephthah mustered all the men of Gilead, fought the tribe of Ephraim, and defeated them, because they had been claiming, "You descendants of Gilead are fugitives in the midst of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh."

NET Bible
Jephthah assembled all the men of Gilead and they fought with Ephraim. The men of Gilead defeated Ephraim, because the Ephraimites insulted them, saying, "You Gileadites are refugees in Ephraim, living within Ephraim's and Manasseh's territory."

New Heart English Bible
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead struck Ephraim, because they said, "You are fugitives of Ephraim, you Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim, and in the midst of Manasseh."

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Then Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead and fought Ephraim. The men of Gilead defeated Ephraim. [They did this because] Ephraim had said, "You people from Gilead are nothing but fugitives from Ephraim and Manasseh."

JPS Tanakh 1917
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said: 'Ye are fugitives of Ephraim, ye Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim, and in the midst of Manasseh.'

New American Standard 1977
Then Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead and fought Ephraim; and the men of Gilead defeated Ephraim, because they said, “You are fugitives of Ephraim, O Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim and in the midst of Manasseh.”

Jubilee Bible 2000
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim because they had said, Ye are fugitives of Ephraim; ye are Gileadites among Ephraim and Manasseh.

King James 2000 Bible
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead struck down Ephraim, because they said, You Gileadites are fugitives of Ephraim among the Ephraimites, and among the Manassites.

American King James Version
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, You Gileadites are fugitives of Ephraim among the Ephraimites, and among the Manassites.

American Standard Version
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye are fugitives of Ephraim, ye Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim, and in the midst of Manasseh.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And Jephthae gathered all the men of Galaad, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Galaad smote Ephraim, because they that were escaped of Ephraim said, Ye are of Galaad in the midst of Ephraim and in the midst of Manasse.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Then calling to him all the men of Galaad, he fought against Ephraim: and the men of Galaad defeated Ephraim, because he had said: Galaad is a fugitive of Ephraim, and dwelleth in the midst of Ephraim and Manasses.

Darby Bible Translation
And Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye, Gilead, ye are fugitives of Ephraim in the midst of Ephraim, [and] in the midst of Manasseh.

English Revised Version
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye are fugitives of Ephraim, ye Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim, and in the midst of Manasseh.

Webster's Bible Translation
Then Jephthah collected all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye Gileadites are fugitives of Ephraim among the Ephraimites, and among the Manassites.

World English Bible
Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead struck Ephraim, because they said, "You are fugitives of Ephraim, you Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim, [and] in the midst of Manasseh."

Young's Literal Translation
And Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead, and fighteth with Ephraim, and the men of Gilead smite Ephraim, because they said, 'Fugitives of Ephraim are ye Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim -- in the midst of Manasseh.'
Study Bible
Jephthah Defeats Ephraim
3When I saw that you would not deliver me, I risked my life and crossed over to the Ammonites, and the LORD delivered them into my hand. Why then have you come today to fight against me?” 4Then Jephthah gathered all of the men of Gilead and fought against Ephraim. And the men of Gilead struck them down because the Ephraimites had said, “You Gileadites are fugitives in Ephraim, living in the territories of Ephraim and Manasseh.” 5The Gileadites captured the fords of the Jordan leading to Ephraim, and whenever a fugitive from Ephraim would say, “Let me cross over,” the Gileadites would ask him, “Are you an Ephraimite?” If he answered, “No,”…
Cross References
Judges 12:3
When I saw that you would not deliver me, I risked my life and crossed over to the Ammonites, and the LORD delivered them into my hand. Why then have you come today to fight against me?"

Judges 12:5
The Gileadites captured the fords of the Jordan leading to Ephraim, and whenever a fugitive from Ephraim would say, "Let me cross over," the Gileadites would ask him, "Are you an Ephraimite?" If he answered, "No,"

1 Kings 17:1
Now Elijah the Tishbite, who was among the settlers of Gilead, said to Ahab, "As surely as the LORD, the God of Israel, lives, I stand before Him, and in these years there will be neither dew nor rain except at my word!"

Treasury of Scripture

Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, You Gileadites are fugitives of Ephraim among the Ephraimites, and among the Manassites.

and the men

Judges 11:10
And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, The LORD be witness between us, if we do not so according to thy words.

Numbers 32:39,40
And the children of Machir the son of Manasseh went to Gilead, and took it, and dispossessed the Amorite which was in it…

Deuteronomy 3:12-17
And this land, which we possessed at that time, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, and half mount Gilead, and the cities thereof, gave I unto the Reubenites and to the Gadites…

fugitives

1 Samuel 25:10
And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, Who is David? and who is the son of Jesse? there be many servants now a days that break away every man from his master.

Nehemiah 4:4
Hear, O our God; for we are despised: and turn their reproach upon their own head, and give them for a prey in the land of captivity:

Psalm 78:9
The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.







Lexicon
Then Jephthah
יִפְתָּח֙ (yip̄·tāḥ)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3316: Jephthah -- 'He opens', a Gileadite, also a city of Judah

gathered
וַיִּקְבֹּ֤ץ (way·yiq·bōṣ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6908: To gather, collect

all
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

of the men
אַנְשֵׁ֣י (’an·šê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 376: A man as an individual, a male person

of Gilead
גִלְעָ֔ד (ḡil·‘āḏ)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1568: Gilead -- a region in Palestine, also the name of several Israelites

and fought
וַיִּלָּ֖חֶם (way·yil·lā·ḥem)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Nifal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3898: To feed on, to consume, to battle

against
אֶת־ (’eṯ-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 854: Nearness, near, with, by, at, among

Ephraim.
אֶפְרָ֑יִם (’ep̄·rā·yim)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 669: Ephraim -- a son of Joseph, also his descendants and their territory

And the men
אַנְשֵׁ֨י (’an·šê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 376: A man as an individual, a male person

of Gilead
גִלְעָ֜ד (ḡil·‘āḏ)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1568: Gilead -- a region in Palestine, also the name of several Israelites

struck them down
וַיַּכּוּ֩ (way·yak·kū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Hifil - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5221: To strike

because
כִּ֤י (kî)
Conjunction
Strong's Hebrew 3588: A relative conjunction

the Ephraimites
אֶפְרַ֗יִם (’ep̄·ra·yim)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 669: Ephraim -- a son of Joseph, also his descendants and their territory

had said,
אָמְרוּ֙ (’ā·mə·rū)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person common plural
Strong's Hebrew 559: To utter, say

“You
אַתֶּ֔ם (’at·tem)
Pronoun - second person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 859: Thou and thee, ye and you

Gileadites
גִּלְעָ֕ד (gil·‘āḏ)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1568: Gilead -- a region in Palestine, also the name of several Israelites

are fugitives
פְּלִיטֵ֤י (pə·lî·ṭê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 6412: Escaped one, fugitive

in Ephraim,
אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ (’ep̄·ra·yim)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 669: Ephraim -- a son of Joseph, also his descendants and their territory

living in the territories
בְּת֥וֹךְ (bə·ṯō·wḵ)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 8432: A bisection, the centre

of Ephraim
אֶפְרַ֖יִם (’ep̄·ra·yim)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 669: Ephraim -- a son of Joseph, also his descendants and their territory

and Manasseh.�
מְנַשֶּֽׁה׃ (mə·naš·šeh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4519: Manasseh -- 'causing to forget', a son of Joseph, also a king of Judah, also two Israelites
(4) All the men of Gilead.--This probably implies the Eastern tribes generally.

And the men of Gilead smote Ephraim because they said . . .--The translation and the meaning are here highly uncertain. It seems to be implied that in spite of Jephthah's perfectly reasonable answer the Ephraimites advanced to attack Gilead, and goaded the Gileadites to fury by intolerable taunts, which prevented the Gileadites from giving any quarter when they had won the victory.

Ye Gileadites are fugitives of Ephraim.--If the English Version is here correct, the meaning is, "You people of the eastern half of the tribe of Manasseh are a mere race of runaway slaves, who belong neither to Ephraim nor to Manasseh" (1Samuel 25:10). It is very possible that fierce jealousies may have sprung up between the Eastern Manassites and their tribal brethren of the West, and that these may have mainly originated in the fact that the Eastern Manassites less and less acknowledged the lead of Ephraim, but changing their character and their habits, threw in their lot more and more with the pastoral tribes of Reuben and Gad. The taunt sounds as if it had sprung from a schism in clanship, a contemptuous disclaimer on the part of Ephraim of any ties with this Eastern half-tribe. Indeed, the taunt may have been so far true that very probably any who fell into debt or disgrace in Ephraim and Eastern Manasseh might be as likely to fly to Western Manasseh as an English defaulter might escape to New York. And if the Ephraimites indulged in such shameful jibes, it might well be deemed sufficient to account for the ruthless character of the fighting. But the rendering of the English Version is very uncertain, and the versions vary in the view they take of the meaning, punctuation, and even of the reading of the passage. On the whole, the best view is to render the words thus: The men of Gilead smote Ephraim [not only in the battle, but in the far more fatal pursuit] because they [the men of Gilead] said, Ye are fugitives of Ephraim (see on Judges 12:5). Then follows the geographical explanation and historical illustration of the clause, which is, "It was possible for the Gileadites to inflict this vengeance, for (1) Gilead [lies] between Ephraim and [Eastern] Manasseh." [Part, at any rate, of Gilead belonged to Gad, and lies geographically between the district of Eastern Manasseh and the district of Ephraim, as is sufficiently clear since Ephraim has advanced "northwards," or towards Tsaphon (Judges 12:1), for the attack.] Then (2) there follows the seizure of the fords, which led to the total slaughter of all these Ephraimite fugitives. One slight circumstance which adds probability to this view is that "fugitives" (comp. Jeremiah 44:14) is a term which could hardly be applied to a whole tribe.

Verses 4, 5. - The English version of these somewhat obscure verses is obviously wrong, and devoid of sense. The obscurity arises partly from verses 5 and 6 being merely an amplification, i.e. a narrative in detail of what is more briefly related in ver. 4; and from the insertion of the explanatory words, "Gilead lies in the midst of Ephraim and in the midst of Manasseh," in ver. 4. The literal translation of the two verses is as follows: - And the men of Gilead smote Ephraim (at the fords of Jordan), for, said they, ye are fugitives of Ephraim. (Gilead lies in the midst of Ephraim and in the midst of Manasseh, i.e. between Manasseh and Ephraim, so that in coming from Manasseh, where they had taken refuge, to return to Ephraim they were obliged to pass through Gilead, and the Gileadites had taken the passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites; and it was so, that when the fugitives of Ephraim said, Let me pass over, that the men of Gilead said, Art thou an Ephraimite? If he said, Nay, then said they unto him, Say now Shibboleth, etc., i.e. they put him to the test of pronunciation; and if they found by his pronunciation of the word Shibboleth, viz., Sibboleth, that he was an Ephraimite, in spite of his denial, then they took him and slew him (killed him in cold blood) at the passages of Jordan. ) And there fell at that time, etc. The direct narrative goes on here from ver. 4. Omitting the long explanatory parenthesis from the latter part of ver. 4 to the latter part of ver. 6, the narrative runs (ver. 4), And the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, for, said they, ye are fugitives of Ephraim; and there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand. The parenthesis explains why the Ephraimites had to pass through Gilead, and how the Gileadites ascertained in each case whether a man was an Ephraimite or not. 12:1-7 The Ephraimites had the same quarrel with Jephthah as with Gideon. Pride was at the bottom of the quarrel; only by that comes contention. It is ill to fasten names of reproach upon persons or countries, as is common, especially upon those under outward disadvantages. It often occasions quarrels that prove of ill consequence, as it did here. No contentions are so bitter as those between brethren or rivals for honour. What need we have to watch and pray against evil tempers! May the Lord incline all his people to follow after things which make for peace!
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Alphabetical: against all and are because called defeated down Ephraim Ephraimites fought from fugitives gathered Gilead Gileadites had in Jephthah Manasseh men midst O of renegades said struck the them then they together You

OT History: Judges 12:4 Then Jephthah gathered together all the men (Jd Judg. Jdg) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
Judges 12:3
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