Psalm 78:9
New International Version
The men of Ephraim, though armed with bows, turned back on the day of battle;

New Living Translation
The warriors of Ephraim, though armed with bows, turned their backs and fled on the day of battle.

English Standard Version
The Ephraimites, armed with the bow, turned back on the day of battle.

Berean Study Bible
The archers of Ephraim turned back on the day of battle.

New American Standard Bible
The sons of Ephraim were archers equipped with bows, Yet they turned back in the day of battle.

New King James Version
The children of Ephraim, being armed and carrying bows, Turned back in the day of battle.

King James Bible
The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

Christian Standard Bible
The Ephraimite archers turned back on the day of battle.

Contemporary English Version
The warriors from Ephraim were armed with arrows, but they ran away when the battle began.

Good News Translation
The Ephraimites, armed with bows and arrows, ran away on the day of battle.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The Ephraimite archers turned back on the day of battle.

International Standard Version
The descendants of Ephraim were sharp shooters with the bow, but they retreated in the day of battle.

NET Bible
The Ephraimites were armed with bows, but they retreated in the day of battle.

New Heart English Bible
The children of Ephraim, being armed and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
The children of Ephraim strung and cast away the bow when they were attacked and they turned back in the day of war.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The men of Ephraim, well-equipped with bows [and arrows], turned [and ran] on the day of battle.

JPS Tanakh 1917
The children of Ephraim were as archers handling the bow, That turned back in the day of battle.

New American Standard 1977
The sons of Ephraim were archers equipped with bows, Yet they turned back in the day of battle.

Jubilee Bible 2000
The sons of Ephraim, being armed and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

King James 2000 Bible
The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

American King James Version
The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

American Standard Version
The children of Ephraim, being armed and carrying bows, Turned back in the day of battle.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
The children of Ephraim, bending and shooting with the bow, turned back in the day of battle.

Douay-Rheims Bible
The sons of Ephraim who bend and shoot with the bow: they have turned back in the day of battle.

Darby Bible Translation
The sons of Ephraim, armed bowmen, turned back in the day of battle.

English Revised Version
The children of Ephraim, being armed and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

Webster's Bible Translation
The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

World English Bible
The children of Ephraim, being armed and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

Young's Literal Translation
Sons of Ephraim -- armed bearers of bow, Have turned in a day of conflict.
Study Bible
I Will Open My Mouth in Parables
8Then they will not be like their fathers, a stubborn and rebellious generation, whose heart was not loyal, whose spirit was not faithful to God. 9The archers of Ephraim turned back on the day of battle. 10They failed to keep God’s covenant and refused to live by His law.…
Cross References
Judges 20:39
the men of Israel would turn in the battle. When the Benjamites had begun to strike them down, killing about thirty men of Israel, they said, "They are defeated before us as in the first battle."

1 Chronicles 12:2
they were archers using both the right and left to sling stones and to shoot arrows; they were Saul's kinsmen from Benjamin:

Psalm 78:57
They turned back and were faithless like their fathers, twisted like a faulty bow.

Treasury of Scripture

The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.

the children.

1 Chronicles 7:20-22
And the sons of Ephraim; Shuthelah, and Bered his son, and Tahath his son, and Eladah his son, and Tahath his son, …

Deuteronomy 1:41-44
Then ye answered and said unto me, We have sinned against the LORD, we will go up and fight, according to all that the LORD our God commanded us. And when ye had girded on every man his weapons of war, ye were ready to go up into the hill…

Joshua 17:16-18
And the children of Joseph said, The hill is not enough for us: and all the Canaanites that dwell in the land of the valley have chariots of iron, both they who are of Bethshean and her towns, and they who are of the valley of Jezreel…

carrying.

Judges 9:28,38-40
And Gaal the son of Ebed said, Who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should serve him? is not he the son of Jerubbaal? and Zebul his officer? serve the men of Hamor the father of Shechem: for why should we serve him? …

Luke 22:33
And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death.







Lexicon
The archers
נוֹשְׁקֵ֥י (nō·wō·šə·qê)
Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 5401: To kiss, to equip with weapons

of Ephraim
אֶפְרַ֗יִם (’ep̄·ra·yim)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 669: Ephraim -- a son of Joseph, also his descendants and their territory

turned back
הָ֝פְכ֗וּ (hā·p̄ə·ḵū)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person common plural
Strong's Hebrew 2015: To turn about, over, to change, overturn, return, pervert

on the day
בְּי֣וֹם (bə·yō·wm)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3117: A day

of battle.
קְרָֽב׃ (qə·rāḇ)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7128: Hostile encounter
(9) Armed, and carrying bows.--Following Jeremiah 4:29, and from analogy with Jeremiah 44:9 ("handle and bend the bow") we get as literal rendering of the Hebrew here, drawing and shooting with the bow. LXX. and Vulgate, "bending and shooting with the bow." But a close comparison of this verse with Psalm 78:57 of this psalm, and with Hosea 7:16, has suggested to a recent commentator a much more satisfactory explanation, The sons of Ephraim (are like men) drawing slack bowstrings which turn back in the day of battle. "Both the disappointment on the day of battle and the cause of the disappointment, which are mentioned in the text, will be appreciated by the English reader who remembers that the result of the battle of Crecy was determined at the outset by a shower of rain which relaxed the strings of our enemy's bows" (Burgess, Notes on the Hebrew Psalms.)[15]

[15] This translation assumes that the primitive meaning of the verb r?mah is was slack. Certainly the root idea of the word (comp. the cognate r?phah and the meaning of the derivation in Proverbs 10:4; Proverbs 12:24) seems to have been relaxation. That turned back, both here and in Psalm 78:57, refers to the recoil of a bow, seems indubitable.

By taking this sense of a comparison of the general character of Ephraim to a bow with a relaxed string that fails at the moment it is wanted (a figure made more expressive by the fact that archery was a practice in which Ephraim excelled), we are freed from the necessity of conjecturing a particular incident to account for this verse, which seems to break the sequence of thought. The whole historical retrospect is intended to lead up to the rejection of the northern kingdom (represented by Ephraim), but the poet is unable to keep back his climax, and thrusts it in here almost parenthetically.

Verses 9-72. - The historical portion of the psalm now follows. It commences with some general remarks on the transgressions of Ephraim, i.e. of Israel while under the guidance of Ephraim - from Joshua to Samuel (vers. 9-11). It then proceeds to details, and sketches the Israelite history. from the deliverance out of Egypt to the establishment of David's kingdom (vers, 12-72). Verse 9. - The children of Ephraim (comp. ver. 67). Ephraim was the leading tribe, from the appointment of Joshua to succeed Moses until the establishment of Saul as king. Hence the tabernacle was set up within the territory of Ephraim (Joshua 18:1). The importance of Ephraim appears in Judges 3:27; Judges 7:24; Judges 8:1, 2; Judges 10:9; Judges 12:1-6. Being armed, and carrying bows. There is no "and" in the original. "Carrying bows" is exegetical of "being armed" (comp. 2 Chronicles 17:17). Turned back in the day of battle. The allusion is not to any one particular occasion, but to the ill success of Israel under the leadership of Ephraim during the whole period of the Judges (see Judges 2:14; Judges 3:8, 13, 31; Judges 4:2; Judges 6:1; Judges 10:7, 12, etc.). 78:9-39. Sin dispirits men, and takes away the heart. Forgetfulness of God's works is the cause of disobedience to his laws. This narrative relates a struggle between God's goodness and man's badness. The Lord hears all our murmurings and distrusts, and is much displeased. Those that will not believe the power of God's mercy, shall feel the fire of his indignation. Those cannot be said to trust in God's salvation as their happiness at last, who can not trust his providence in the way to it. To all that by faith and prayer, ask, seek, and knock, these doors of heaven shall at any time be opened; and our distrust of God is a great aggravation of our sins. He expressed his resentment of their provocation; not in denying what they sinfully lusted after, but in granting it to them. Lust is contented with nothing. Those that indulge their lust, will never be estranged from it. Those hearts are hard indeed, that will neither be melted by the mercies of the Lord, nor broken by his judgments. Those that sin still, must expect to be in trouble still. And the reason why we live with so little comfort, and to so little purpose, is, because we do not live by faith. Under these rebukes they professed repentance, but they were not sincere, for they were not constant. In Israel's history we have a picture of our own hearts and lives. God's patience, and warnings, and mercies, imbolden them to harden their hearts against his word. And the history of kingdoms is much the same. Judgments and mercies have been little attended to, until the measure of their sins has been full. And higher advantages have not kept churches from declining from the commandments of God. Even true believers recollect, that for many a year they abused the kindness of Providence. When they come to heaven, how will they admire the Lord's patience and mercy in bringing them to his kingdom!
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OT Poetry: Psalm 78:9 The children of Ephraim being armed (Psalm Ps Psa.) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
Psalm 78:8
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