Hosea 7:4
New International Version
They are all adulterers, burning like an oven whose fire the baker need not stir from the kneading of the dough till it rises.

New Living Translation
They are all adulterers, always aflame with lust. They are like an oven that is kept hot while the baker is kneading the dough.

English Standard Version
They are all adulterers; they are like a heated oven whose baker ceases to stir the fire, from the kneading of the dough until it is leavened.

Berean Study Bible
They are all adulterers, like an oven heated by a baker who needs not stoke the fire from the kneading to the rising of the dough.

New American Standard Bible
They are all adulterers, Like an oven heated by the baker Who ceases to stir up the fire From the kneading of the dough until it is leavened.

King James Bible
They are all adulterers, as an oven heated by the baker, who ceaseth from raising after he hath kneaded the dough, until it be leavened.

Christian Standard Bible
All of them commit adultery; they are like an oven heated by a baker who stops stirring the fire from the kneading of the dough until it is leavened.

Contemporary English Version
Everyone burns with desire--they are like coals in an oven, ready to burst into flames.

Good News Translation
They are all treacherous and disloyal. Their hatred smolders like the fire in an oven, which is not stirred by the baker until the dough is ready to bake.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
All of them commit adultery; they are like an oven heated by a baker who stops stirring the fire from the kneading of the dough until it is leavened.

International Standard Version
All of them are adulterers— they burn like an oven prepared by the baker, who has ceased stoking it until the dough is leavened.

NET Bible
They are all like bakers, they are like a smoldering oven; they are like a baker who does not stoke the fire until the kneaded dough is ready for baking.

New Heart English Bible
They are all adulterers. They are burning like an oven that the baker stops stirring, from the kneading of the dough, until it is leavened.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
They all commit adultery. They are like a heated oven, an oven so hot that a baker doesn't have to fan its flames when he makes bread.

JPS Tanakh 1917
They are all adulterers, As an oven heated by the baker, Who ceaseth to stir From the kneading of the dough until it be leavened.

New American Standard 1977
They are all adulterers Like an oven heated by the baker, Who ceases to stir up the fire From the kneading of the dough until it is leavened.

Jubilee Bible 2000
They are all adulterers as an oven heated by the baker who shall cease from waking after he has kneaded the dough until it is leavened.

King James 2000 Bible
They are all adulterers, as an oven heated by the baker, who ceases to stir the fire after he has kneaded the dough, until it is leavened.

American King James Version
They are all adulterers, as an oven heated by the baker, who ceases from raising after he has kneaded the dough, until it be leavened.

American Standard Version
They are all adulterers; they are as an oven heated by the baker; he ceaseth to stir the fire , from the kneading of the dough, until it be leavened.

Douay-Rheims Bible
They are all adulterers, like an oven heated by the baker: the city rested a little from the mingling of the leaven, till the whole was leavened.

Darby Bible Translation
They all practise adultery, as an oven heated by the baker: he ceaseth from stirring [the fire] after he hath kneaded the dough, until it be leavened.

English Revised Version
They are all adulterers; they are as an oven heated by the baker; he ceaseth to stir the fire, from the kneading of the dough until it be leavened.

Webster's Bible Translation
They are all adulterers, as an oven heated by the baker, who ceaseth from raising after he hath kneaded the dough, until it is leavened.

World English Bible
They are all adulterers. They are burning like an oven that the baker stops stirring, from the kneading of the dough, until it is leavened.

Young's Literal Translation
All of them are adulterers, Like a burning oven of a baker, He ceaseth from stirring up after kneading the dough, till its leavening.
Study Bible HEB ▾ 
Ephraim's Iniquity
3They delight the king with their evil, the princes with their lies. 4They are all adulterers, like an oven heated by a baker who needs not stoke the fire from the kneading to the rising of the dough. 5The princes are inflamed with wine on the day of our king; so he joins hands with those who mock him.…
Cross References
1 Corinthians 5:6
Your boasting is not good. Do you not know that a little yeast leavens the whole batch of dough?

Jeremiah 9:2
If only I had a traveler's lodge in the wilderness, I would abandon my people and depart from them, for they are all adulterers, a crowd of faithless people.

Jeremiah 23:10
For the land is full of adulterers--because of the curse the land mourns, and the pastures of the wilderness have dried up--their course is evil and their power is misused.

Hosea 4:2
Cursing and lying, murder and stealing, and adultery are rampant; one act of bloodshed follows another.

Hosea 4:10
They will eat but not be satisfied; they will be promiscuous but not multiply. For they have stopped obeying the LORD.

Treasury of Scripture

They are all adulterers, as an oven heated by the baker, who ceases from raising after he has kneaded the dough, until it be leavened.

are all. See on ch.

Hosea 4:2,12 By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing …

Jeremiah 5:7,8 How shall I pardon you for this? your children have forsaken me, …

Jeremiah 9:2 Oh that I had in the wilderness a lodging place of wayfaring men; …

James 4:4 You adulterers and adulteresses, know you not that the friendship …

as. See on ver.

Hosea 7:6,7 For they have made ready their heart like an oven, whiles they lie …

who ceaseth, etc. or, the raiser will cease. raising. or, waking.







Lexicon
They are all
כֻּלָּם֙ (kul·lām)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

adulterers,
מְנָ֣אֲפִ֔ים (mə·nā·’ă·p̄îm)
Verb - Piel - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5003: To commit adultery, to apostatize

like
כְּמ֣וֹ (kə·mōw)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 3644: Like, as, when

an oven
תַנּ֔וּר (ṯan·nūr)
Noun - common singular
Strong's Hebrew 8574: (portable) stove, firepot

heated
בֹּעֵ֖רָה (bō·‘ê·rāh)
Verb - Qal - Participle - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1197: To kindle, consume, to be, brutish

by a baker
מֵֽאֹפֶ֑ה (mê·’ō·p̄eh)
Preposition-m | Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 644: To cook, to bake

who needs not
יִשְׁבּ֣וֹת (yiš·bō·wṯ)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7673: To repose, desist from exertion

stoke the fire
מֵעִ֔יר (mê·‘îr)
Verb - Hifil - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5782: To rouse oneself, awake

from the kneading
מִלּ֥וּשׁ (mil·lūš)
Preposition-m | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 3888: To knead

to
עַד־ (‘aḏ-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5704: As far as, even to, up to, until, while

the rising
חֻמְצָתֽוֹ׃ (ḥum·ṣā·ṯōw)
Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2556: To be pungent, in taste, in color

of the dough.
בָּצֵ֖ק (bā·ṣêq)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1217: Dough (for cooking)
(4) Render, ceaseth heating from the kneading of the dough till its leavening. The baker is unremitting in his exertions to keep up the heat of the oven, the smouldering fire being fed on camel's dung and the like fuel, except when he is obliged to occupy himself with preparing the dough for baking--an apt image of the incessant burning rage of lust and violence.

Verse 4. - The difficulty of the section including vers. 4-7 has occasioned considerable difference of exposition; it may not, therefore, be amiss to supplement the foregoing observations.

1. Aben Ezra accounts for בערה being accented as milel

(1) on the ground that, though a feminine formation, it is really masculine (to agree with תניו), like נחלה and לילה, both of which, though feminine in form, are notwithstanding of the masculine gender. Abarbanel, who is followed by Wunsche,

(2) takes בֹּעָרְה as a participle feminine for בֹּעָרהָ or בֹּעֶרָח, which is justified by the circumstance that the names of fire and of what is connected therewith are feminine in the Semitic, so that חנור is feminine.

2. The word מֵעִיר, which Ewald and others take, properly we think,

(1) as participle of Hiph., is treated

(2) by Genenius and Maurer as infirmitive Qal with rain prefixed, which would occasion the awkward and unusual combination of two infinitives each prefixed with rain in immediate sequence; while

(3) Kimchi takes it as infinitive Hiph. contracted for מֵהֵעִיר.

3. More important still is the interpretation of the verse. There is

(1) that already given, and which is in some measure supported by the following rabbinic comments: "Their evil passion," says Rashi, "which stirs them up, rests from kneading the dough until it is leavened, i.e. from the time that any one has thought on evil in his heart how he shall execute it, he rests and sleeps till the morning, when he shall be able to execute it, as the baker rests from kneading the dough until it is leavened, when he can bake it." Similar and yet somewhat peculiar is the concluding portion of Kimchi's comment: "As soon as he lays the pieces of wood into the oven, in order to heat it, he commands the women to knead, and he ceases to stir them (the women) up until the dough is leavened, as he estimates it in his heart, and then he rouses them to come with the dough to bake it. And this is the time when the oven is heated."

(2) The LXX. takes עיר as a noun prefixed with the preposition rain (ἀπὸ τῆς φλογός), and translates the whole as follows: "They are all adulterers, as an oven glowing from flame for hot-baking, from the kneading of the dough until it is leavened." The interpretation

(3) of Wunsche differs considerably from both the preceding; it is, "They are all adulterers, like an even, burning from a baker, who rests while stoking from the kneading of the dough till its fermentation;" and he cites in favor of this view Aben Ezra as follows: "This verse is inverted, and accordingly the sense is: As the oven of a baker burneth from the kneading of the dough till its fermentation, so that the baker can scarcely cease to stir it up, but must stir it up and heat it violently." 7:1-7 A practical disbelief of God's government was at the bottom of all israel's wickedness; as if God could not see it or did not heed it. Their sins appear on every side of them. Their hearts were inflamed by evil desires, like a heated oven. In the midst of their troubles as a nation, the people never thought of seeking help from God. The actual wickedness of men's lives bears a very small proportion to what is in their hearts. But when lust is inwardly cherished, it will break forth into outward sin. Those who tempt others to drunkenness never can be their real friends, and often design their ruin. Thus men execute the Divine vengeance on each other. Those are not only heated with sin, but hardened in sin, who continue to live without prayer, even when in trouble and distress.
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