Esther 8:10
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
Mordecai wrote in the name of King Xerxes, sealed the dispatches with the king's signet ring, and sent them by mounted couriers, who rode fast horses especially bred for the king.

New Living Translation
The decree was written in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with the king's signet ring. Mordecai sent the dispatches by swift messengers, who rode fast horses especially bred for the king's service.

English Standard Version
And he wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed it with the king’s signet ring. Then he sent the letters by mounted couriers riding on swift horses that were used in the king’s service, bred from the royal stud,

Berean Study Bible
Mordecai wrote in the name of King Xerxes and sealed it with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers riding on swift horses bred from the royal mares.

New American Standard Bible
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's signet ring, and sent letters by couriers on horses, riding on steeds sired by the royal stud.

King James Bible
And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries:

Christian Standard Bible
Mordecai wrote in King Ahasuerus's name and sealed the edicts with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers, who rode fast horses bred in the royal stables.

Contemporary English Version
They were written in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with his ring. Then they were taken by messengers who rode the king's finest and fastest horses.

Good News Translation
Mordecai had the letters written in the name of King Xerxes, and he stamped them with the royal seal. They were delivered by riders mounted on fast horses from the royal stables.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Mordecai wrote in King Ahasuerus's name and sealed the edicts with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers, who rode fast horses bred from the royal racing mares.

International Standard Version
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed it with the king's signet ring. He sent the letters by couriers on horseback, riding steeds especially bred for the king.

NET Bible
Mordecai wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed it with the king's signet ring. He then sent letters by couriers on horses, who rode royal horses that were very swift.

New Heart English Bible
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by courier on horseback, riding on royal horses that were bread from swift steeds.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Mordecai wrote in King Xerxes' name and sealed the official documents with the king's signet ring. Then he sent them by messengers who rode special horses bred for speed. [He wrote]

JPS Tanakh 1917
And they wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud;

New American Standard 1977
And he wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king’s signet ring, and sent letters by couriers on horses, riding on steeds sired by the royal stud.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And he wrote in King Ahasuerus's name and sealed it with the king's ring and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, mules that were born of mares,

King James 2000 Bible
And he wrote in king Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by couriers on horseback, and riding on royal horses bred from swift horses:

American King James Version
And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries:

American Standard Version
And he wrote the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by post on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud:

Douay-Rheims Bible
And these letters which were sent in the king's name, were sealed with his ring, and sent by posts: who were to run through all the provinces, to prevent the former letters with new messages.

Darby Bible Translation
And he wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed [it] with the king's ring, and sent letters by couriers on horseback riding on coursers, horses of blood reared in the breeding studs:

English Revised Version
And he wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud:

Webster's Bible Translation
And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus's name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries:

World English Bible
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by courier on horseback, riding on royal horses that were bread from swift steeds.

Young's Literal Translation
And he writeth in the name of the king Ahasuerus, and sealeth with the signet of the king, and sendeth letters by the hand of the runners with horses, riders of the dromedary, the mules, the young mares,
Study Bible
The Decree of Xerxes
9At once the royal scribes were summoned, and on the twenty-third day of the third month (the month of Sivan), they recorded all of Mordecai's orders to the Jews and to the satraps, governors, and princes of the 127 provinces from India to Cush—writing to each province in its own script, to every people in their own language, and to the Jews in their own script and language. 10Mordecai wrote in the name of King Xerxes and sealed it with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers riding on swift horses bred from the royal mares. 11By these letters the king permitted the Jews in each and every city the right to assemble and defend themselves, to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the forces of any people or province hostile to them, including women and children, and to plunder their possessions.…
Cross References
1 Kings 4:28
Each one also brought to the required place their quotas of barley and straw for the chariot horses and other horses.

1 Kings 21:8
Then Jezebel wrote letters in Ahab's name, sealed them with his seal, and sent them to the elders and nobles who lived with Naboth in his city.

Esther 3:12
On the thirteenth day of the first month, the royal scribes were summoned and the order was written exactly as Haman commanded the royal satraps, the governors of each province, and the officials of each people, in the script of each province and the language of every people. It was written in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with the royal signet ring.

Esther 3:13
And the letters were sent by couriers to each of the royal provinces with the order to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the Jews--young and old, women and children--and to plunder their possessions on a single day, the thirteenth day of Adar, the twelfth month.

Esther 8:8
Now you may write in the king's name as you please regarding the Jews, and seal it with the royal signet ring. For a decree that is written in the name of the king and sealed with the royal signet ring cannot be revoked."

Daniel 6:8
Therefore, O king, establish the decree and sign the document so that it cannot be changed--in accordance with the law of the Medes and Persians, which cannot be repealed."

Treasury of Scripture

And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries:

in the king.

1 Kings 21:8 So she wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal…

Ecclesiastes 8:4 Where the word of a king is, there is power: and who may say to him, …

Daniel 4:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king, to all people, nations, and languages, that …

by posts.

Esther 3:13 And the letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, …

2 Chronicles 30:6 So the posts went with the letters from the king and his princes …

Job 9:25 Now my days are swifter than a post: they flee away, they see no good.

Jeremiah 51:21 And with you will I break in pieces the horse and his rider; and …

mules. {Rechesh,} in Syriac, {rechesha,} probably denotes a swift horse.

camels. {Achashteranim,} from the Persian {akhash,} large, and {aster,} a mule, probably, as Bochart supposes, denotes a large mule.

young dromedaries. {Beney harammachim,} the sons of mares, as the word {ramakat} denotes in Arabic; probably an expletive of the preceeding word.

Isaiah 60:6 The multitude of camels shall cover you, the dromedaries of Midian …

Isaiah 66:20 And they shall bring all your brothers for an offering to the LORD …

Jeremiah 2:23 How can you say, I am not polluted, I have not gone after Baalim? …







(10) Posts.--The posts. Literally, the runners. (See Note on Esther 1:22.)

Riders on mules.--Rather, on horses of great speed; the "swift beast "of Micah 1:13.

Camels, and young dromedaries.--The words thus translated occur only here, and there is much doubt as to the meaning. It may suffice to mention two renderings :--(1) "Mules, the offspring of royal mares "--so Gesenius; or (2) we may connect the former word with the Persian word meaning royal--so Canon Rawlinson, who translates the whole clause, riders upon coursers of the king's stud, offspring of high-bred steeds."

Verse 10. - He wrote in the king's name. As Haman had done (Esther 2:12). And riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries. There is no "and" before "riders" in the original, and the clause is clearly exegetical of the preceding, Neither "mules," nor "camels," nor "young dromedaries" are mentioned in it, and the best translation would seem to be - "the riders on coursers of the royal stud, the offspring of thoroughbreds." It is noticeable that both Herodotus (8:98) and Xenophon ('Cyrop.,' 8:6, § 17) speak of horses as alone employed in carrying the Persian despatches. And he wrote in the King Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring,.... Which gave the letters authority, and made them irreversible, and for this Mordecai had the king's order, Esther 8:8

and sent letters by post; by runners or couriers:

on horseback; that rode on horses that were racers, that ran swiftly:

and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries; which were all different creatures, and swift ones, according to our version, especially the latter; see Jeremiah 2:23 which were a kind of camels, but swifter, and would go more than one hundred miles a day (a); and, as Diodorus Siculus says (b), not less than 1500 furlongs or about two hundred miles: though it may be only one sort are meant, namely, "mules", for the next word, "ahashteranim", in the Persian language signifies mules (c), and so Aben Ezra interprets it, and likewise Kimchi and Ben Melech; and the last words may be rendered "sons of mares", so David de Pomis; that is, such mules as are gendered by he asses and mares: and so the same writer observes, that the word in the Arabic language signifies "mares"; and such mules that come from them he says are stronger than those that come from she asses; so that the whole may be rendered to this sense, "riders on mules", (which in the Persian language are called "ahashteranim",) namely, such as are "sons of mares"; and which according to Aelianus (d) and Pliny (e) are the swiftest; though the Persians had camels swifter than are common elsewhere, called "revatrie", the "goer", which trot as fast as an horse can gallop (f).

(a) Isidor. Origin. l. 12. c. 1. Vid. Strabo Geograph. l. 15. p. 498. (b) Bibliothec. l. 19. p. 683. (c) Castell. Dictionar. Persic. Colossians 29. Hottinger. Smegma Oriental l. 1. c. 5. p. 75. (d) De Animal. l. 16. c. 9. (e) Nat. Hist. l. 8. c. 44. (f) Universal History, vol. 5. p. 88. 10. sent … by posts … and riders on … camels, and young dromedaries—The business being very urgent, the swiftest kind of camel would be employed, and so the word in the original denotes the wind-camel. Young dromedaries also are used to carry expresses, being remarkable for the nimbleness and ease of their movements. Animals of this description could convey the new rescript of Ahasuerus over the length and breadth of the Persian empire in time to relieve the unhappy Jews from the ban under which they lay.8:3-14 It was time to be earnest, when the church of God was at stake. Esther, though safe herself, fell down and begged for the deliverance of her people. We read of no tears when she begged for her own life, but although she was sure of that, she wept for her people. Tears of pity and tenderness are the most Christ-like. According to the constitution of the Persian government, no law or decree could be repealed or recalled. This is so far from speaking to the wisdom and honour of the Medes and Persians, that it clearly shows their pride and folly. This savours of that old presumption which ruined all, We will be as gods! It is God's prerogative not to repent, or to say what can never be altered or unsaid. Yet a way was found, by another decree, to authorize the Jews to stand upon their defence. The decree was published in the languages of all the provinces. Shall all the subjects of an earthly prince have his decrees in languages they understand, and shall God's oracles and laws be locked up from any of his servants in an unknown tongue?
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Alphabetical: Ahasuerus and bred by couriers dispatches especially fast for He horses in it King king's letters Mordecai mounted name of on riding ring rode royal sealed sent signet sired steeds stud the them who with wrote Xerxes

OT History: Esther 8:10 He wrote in the name of King (Est Esth. Es) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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