Esther 8:10
New International Version
Mordecai wrote in the name of King Xerxes, sealed the dispatches with the king’s signet ring, and sent them by mounted couriers, who rode fast horses especially bred for the king.

New Living Translation
The decree was written in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with the king’s signet ring. Mordecai sent the dispatches by swift messengers, who rode fast horses especially bred for the king’s service.

English Standard Version
And he wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed it with the king’s signet ring. Then he sent the letters by mounted couriers riding on swift horses that were used in the king’s service, bred from the royal stud,

Berean Study Bible
Mordecai wrote in the name of King Xerxes and sealed it with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers riding on swift horses bred from the royal mares.

King James Bible
And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries:

New King James Version
And he wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, sealed it with the king’s signet ring, and sent letters by couriers on horseback, riding on royal horses bred from swift steeds.

New American Standard Bible
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king’s signet ring, and sent letters by couriers on horses, riding on royal relay horses, offspring of racing mares.

NASB 1995
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king’s signet ring, and sent letters by couriers on horses, riding on steeds sired by the royal stud.

NASB 1977
And he wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king’s signet ring, and sent letters by couriers on horses, riding on steeds sired by the royal stud.

Amplified Bible
He wrote [a decree] in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king’s ring, and sent letters by couriers on horseback, riding on the royal [mail] relay horses, the offspring of the racing mares.

Christian Standard Bible
Mordecai wrote in King Ahasuerus’s name and sealed the edicts with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers, who rode fast horses bred in the royal stables.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Mordecai wrote in King Ahasuerus’s name and sealed the edicts with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers, who rode fast horses bred from the royal racing mares.

American Standard Version
And he wrote the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by post on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud:

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And they were written in the name of King Akhashiresh, and they were sealed with the signet ring of the King, and he sent the letters by Runners and by Post Messengers, Horse Riders on young male mules.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And they were written by order of the king, and sealed with his ring, and they sent the letters by the posts:

Contemporary English Version
They were written in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with his ring. Then they were taken by messengers who rode the king's finest and fastest horses.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And these letters which were sent in the king's name, were sealed with his ring, and sent by posts: who were to run through all the provinces, to prevent the former letters with new messages.

English Revised Version
And he wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud:

Good News Translation
Mordecai had the letters written in the name of King Xerxes, and he stamped them with the royal seal. They were delivered by riders mounted on fast horses from the royal stables.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Mordecai wrote in King Xerxes' name and sealed the official documents with the king's signet ring. Then he sent them by messengers who rode special horses bred for speed. [He wrote]

International Standard Version
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed it with the king's signet ring. He sent the letters by couriers on horseback, riding steeds especially bred for the king.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And they wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud;

Literal Standard Version
And he writes in the name of King Ahasuerus, and seals with the signet of the king, and sends letters by the hand of the runners with horses, riders of the dromedary, the mules, the young mares,

NET Bible
Mordecai wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed it with the king's signet ring. He then sent letters by couriers on horses, who rode royal horses that were very swift.

New Heart English Bible
He wrote in the name of King Achshayarsh, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by courier on horseback, riding on royal horses that were bread from swift steeds.

World English Bible
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by courier on horseback, riding on royal horses that were bread from swift steeds.

Young's Literal Translation
And he writeth in the name of the king Ahasuerus, and sealeth with the signet of the king, and sendeth letters by the hand of the runners with horses, riders of the dromedary, the mules, the young mares,

Additional Translations ...
Context
The Decree of Xerxes
9At once the royal scribes were summoned, and on the twenty-third day of the third month (the month of Sivan), they recorded all of Mordecai’s orders to the Jews and to the satraps, governors, and princes of the 127 provinces from India to Cush—writing to each province in its own script, to every people in their own language, and to the Jews in their own script and language. 10Mordecai wrote in the name of King Xerxes and sealed it with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers riding on swift horses bred from the royal mares. 11By these letters the king permitted the Jews in each and every city the right to assemble and defend themselves, to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the forces of any people or province hostile to them, including women and children, and to plunder their possessions.…

Cross References
1 Kings 4:28
Each one also brought to the required place their quotas of barley and straw for the chariot horses and other horses.

1 Kings 21:8
Then Jezebel wrote letters in Ahab's name, sealed them with his seal, and sent them to the elders and nobles who lived with Naboth in his city.

Esther 3:12
On the thirteenth day of the first month, the royal scribes were summoned and the order was written exactly as Haman commanded the royal satraps, the governors of each province, and the officials of each people, in the script of each province and the language of every people. It was written in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with the royal signet ring.

Esther 3:13
And the letters were sent by couriers to each of the royal provinces with the order to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the Jews--young and old, women and children--and to plunder their possessions on a single day, the thirteenth day of Adar, the twelfth month.

Esther 8:8
Now you may write in the king's name as you please regarding the Jews, and seal it with the royal signet ring. For a decree that is written in the name of the king and sealed with the royal signet ring cannot be revoked."

Daniel 6:8
Therefore, O king, establish the decree and sign the document so that it cannot be changed--in accordance with the law of the Medes and Persians, which cannot be repealed."


Treasury of Scripture

And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries:

in the king.

1 Kings 21:8
So she wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal, and sent the letters unto the elders and to the nobles that were in his city, dwelling with Naboth.

Ecclesiastes 8:4
Where the word of a king is, there is power: and who may say unto him, What doest thou?

Daniel 4:1
Nebuchadnezzar the king, unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; Peace be multiplied unto you.

by posts.

Esther 3:13
And the letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.

2 Chronicles 30:6
So the posts went with the letters from the king and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah, and according to the commandment of the king, saying, Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and he will return to the remnant of you, that are escaped out of the hand of the kings of Assyria.

Job 9:25
Now my days are swifter than a post: they flee away, they see no good.

mules.

camels.

young dromedaries.

Isaiah 60:6
The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense; and they shall shew forth the praises of the LORD.

Isaiah 66:20
And they shall bring all your brethren for an offering unto the LORD out of all nations upon horses, and in chariots, and in litters, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the LORD, as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessel into the house of the LORD.

Jeremiah 2:23
How canst thou say, I am not polluted, I have not gone after Baalim? see thy way in the valley, know what thou hast done: thou art a swift dromedary traversing her ways;









(10) Posts.--The posts. Literally, the runners. (See Note on Esther 1:22.)

Riders on mules.--Rather, on horses of great speed; the "swift beast "of Micah 1:13.

Camels, and young dromedaries.--The words thus translated occur only here, and there is much doubt as to the meaning. It may suffice to mention two renderings :--(1) "Mules, the offspring of royal mares "--so Gesenius; or (2) we may connect the former word with the Persian word meaning royal--so Canon Rawlinson, who translates the whole clause, riders upon coursers of the king's stud, offspring of high-bred steeds."

Verse 10. - He wrote in the king's name. As Haman had done (Esther 2:12). And riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries. There is no "and" before "riders" in the original, and the clause is clearly exegetical of the preceding, Neither "mules," nor "camels," nor "young dromedaries" are mentioned in it, and the best translation would seem to be - "the riders on coursers of the royal stud, the offspring of thoroughbreds." It is noticeable that both Herodotus (8:98) and Xenophon ('Cyrop.,' 8:6, § 17) speak of horses as alone employed in carrying the Persian despatches.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
Mordecai wrote
וַיִּכְתֹּ֗ב (way·yiḵ·tōḇ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 3789: To grave, to write

in the name
בְּשֵׁם֙ (bə·šêm)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 8034: A name

of King
הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ (ham·me·leḵ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 4428: A king

Xerxes
אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹ֔שׁ (’ă·ḥaš·wê·rōš)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 325: Ahasuerus -- king of Persia

and sealed it
וַיַּחְתֹּ֖ם (way·yaḥ·tōm)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 2856: To seal, affix a seal, seal up

with the royal
הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ (ham·me·leḵ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 4428: A king

signet ring.
בְּטַבַּ֣עַת (bə·ṭab·ba·‘aṯ)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's 2885: A seal, signet, a ring of any kind

He sent
וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח (way·yiš·laḥ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 7971: To send away, for, out

the documents
סְפָרִ֡ים (sə·p̄ā·rîm)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 5612: A missive, document, writing, book

by
בְּיַד֩ (bə·yaḏ)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's 3027: A hand

mounted
בַּסּוּסִ֜ים (bas·sū·sîm)
Preposition-b, Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 5483: A swallow, swift (type of bird)

couriers
הָרָצִ֨ים (hā·rā·ṣîm)
Article | Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's 7323: To run

riding on
רֹכְבֵ֤י (rō·ḵə·ḇê)
Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine plural construct
Strong's 7392: To ride, to place upon, to despatch

swift horses
הָרֶ֙כֶשׁ֙ (hā·re·ḵeš)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 7409: A relay of animals on a, post-route, a courser

bred
בְּנֵ֖י (bə·nê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's 1121: A son

from the royal
הָֽאֲחַשְׁתְּרָנִ֔ים (hā·’ă·ḥaš·tə·rā·nîm)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 327: A mule

mares.
הָֽרַמָּכִֽים׃ (hā·ram·mā·ḵîm)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 7424: Perhaps a mare


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Ahasuerus Ahasu-E'rus Bread Bred Camels Courier Couriers Dromedaries Especially Horseback Horses King's Letters Mordecai Mules Post Posts Riders Riding Ring Royal Sealed Service Stamped Steeds Swift Used Writing Wrote Xerxes Young
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Ahasuerus Ahasu-E'rus Bread Bred Camels Courier Couriers Dromedaries Especially Horseback Horses King's Letters Mordecai Mules Post Posts Riders Riding Ring Royal Sealed Service Stamped Steeds Swift Used Writing Wrote Xerxes Young
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OT History: Esther 8:10 He wrote in the name of King (Est Esth. Es)
Esther 8:9
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