Esther 1:22
New International Version
He sent dispatches to all parts of the kingdom, to each province in its own script and to each people in their own language, proclaiming that every man should be ruler over his own household, using his native tongue.

New Living Translation
He sent letters to all parts of the empire, to each province in its own script and language, proclaiming that every man should be the ruler of his own home and should say whatever he pleases.

English Standard Version
He sent letters to all the royal provinces, to every province in its own script and to every people in its own language, that every man be master in his own household and speak according to the language of his people.

Berean Study Bible
He sent letters to all the provinces of the kingdom, to each province in its own script and to each people in their own language, proclaiming that every man should be master of his own household.

New American Standard Bible
So he sent letters to all the king's provinces, to each province according to its script and to every people according to their language, that every man should be the master in his own house and the one who speaks in the language of his own people.

King James Bible
For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and that it should be published according to the language of every people.

Christian Standard Bible
He sent letters to all the royal provinces, to each province in its own script and to each ethnic group in its own language, that every man should be master of his own house and speak in the language of his own people.

Contemporary English Version
and he sent letters to all of his provinces. Each letter was written in the language of the province to which it was sent, and it said that husbands should be in charge of their wives and children.

Good News Translation
To each of the royal provinces he sent a message in the language and the system of writing of that province, saying that every husband should be the master of his home and speak with final authority.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
He sent letters to all the royal provinces, to each province in its own script and to each ethnic group in its own language, that every man should be master of his own house and speak in the language of his own people.

International Standard Version
He sent letters to all the provinces of the king, written in the script of that province, and to each people in their own language, ordering that every man should be the master in his house and speak the language of his own people.

NET Bible
He sent letters throughout all the royal provinces, to each province according to its own script and to each people according to its own language, that every man should be ruling his family and should be speaking the language of his own people.

New Heart English Bible
for he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to its writing, and to every people in their language, that every man should rule his own house, speaking in the language of his own people.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
He sent official documents to all the king's provinces, to each province in its own script and to the people in each province in their own language: "Let every husband be the ruler in his own house and speak with authority."

JPS Tanakh 1917
for he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and speak according to the language of his people.

New American Standard 1977
So he sent letters to all the king’s provinces, to each province according to its script and to every people according to their language, that every man should be the master in his own house and the one who speaks in the language of his own people.

Jubilee Bible 2000
for he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, saying, That every man should bear rule in his own house and that it should be published according to the language of every people.

King James 2000 Bible
For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and that it should be published according to the language of every people.

American King James Version
For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and that it should be published according to the language of every people.

American Standard Version
for he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and should speak according to the language of his people.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
and sent into all his kingdom through the several provinces, according to their language, in order that men might be feared in their own houses.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And he sent letters to all the provinces of his kingdom, as every nation could hear and read, in divers languages and characters, that the husbands should be rulers and masters in their houses: and that this should be published to every people.

Darby Bible Translation
And he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people according to their language, That every man should bear rule in his own house, and should speak according to the language of his people.

English Revised Version
for he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and should publish it according to the language of his people.

Webster's Bible Translation
For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing of it, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and that it should be published according to the language of every people.

World English Bible
for he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to its writing, and to every people in their language, that every man should rule his own house, speaking in the language of his own people.

Young's Literal Translation
and sendeth letters unto all provinces of the king, unto province and province according to its writing, and unto people and people according to its tongue, for every man being head in his own house -- and speaking according to the language of his people.
Study Bible
Queen Vashti Deposed
21The king and his princes were pleased with this counsel; so the king did as Memucan had advised. 22He sent letters to all the provinces of the kingdom, to each province in its own script and to each people in their own language, proclaiming that every man should be master of his own household.
Cross References
Ephesians 5:22
Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord.

Esther 1:21
The king and his princes were pleased with this counsel; so the king did as Memucan had advised.

Esther 3:12
On the thirteenth day of the first month, the royal scribes were summoned and the order was written exactly as Haman commanded the royal satraps, the governors of each province, and the officials of each people, in the script of each province and the language of every people. It was written in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with the royal signet ring.

Esther 8:9
At once the royal scribes were summoned, and on the twenty-third day of the third month (the month of Sivan), they recorded all of Mordecai's orders to the Jews and to the satraps, governors, and princes of the 127 provinces from India to Cush--writing to each province in its own script, to every people in their own language, and to the Jews in their own script and language.

Treasury of Scripture

For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and that it should be published according to the language of every people.

into every province.

Esther 3:12
Then were the king's scribes called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there was written according to all that Haman had commanded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the rulers of every people of every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and sealed with the king's ring.

Esther 8:9
Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.

Daniel 3:29
Therefore I make a decree, That every people, nation, and language, which speak any thing amiss against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill: because there is no other God that can deliver after this sort.

that every man.

Ephesians 5:22-24
Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord…

1 Timothy 2:12
But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.

Titus 2:4,5
That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, …

it should, etc.

Esther 3:12
Then were the king's scribes called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there was written according to all that Haman had commanded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the rulers of every people of every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and sealed with the king's ring.

according.

Luke 16:8
And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.

Acts 2:5-11
And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven…

1 Corinthians 14:19,20
Yet in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that by my voice I might teach others also, than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue…







Lexicon
He sent
וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח (way·yiš·laḥ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7971: To send away, for, out

letters
סְפָרִים֙ (sə·p̄ā·rîm)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5612: A missive, document, writing, book

to
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

all
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

the provinces
מְדִינ֣וֹת (mə·ḏî·nō·wṯ)
Noun - feminine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 4082: A judgeship, jurisdiction, a district, a region

of the kingdom,
הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ (ham·me·leḵ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4428: A king

to
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

each province
מְדִינָ֤ה (mə·ḏî·nāh)
Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4082: A judgeship, jurisdiction, a district, a region

in its own script
כִּכְתָבָ֔הּ (kiḵ·ṯā·ḇāh)
Preposition-k | Noun - masculine singular construct | third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3791: Something written, a writing, record, book

and to
וְאֶל־ (wə·’el-)
Conjunctive waw | Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

each people
עַ֥ם (‘am)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5971: A people, a tribe, troops, attendants, a flock

in their own language,
כִּלְשׁוֹנ֑וֹ (kil·šō·w·nōw)
Preposition-k | Noun - common singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3956: The tongue

proclaiming
וּמְדַבֵּ֖ר (ū·mə·ḏab·bêr)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1696: To arrange, to speak, to subdue

that every
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

man
אִישׁ֙ (’îš)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 376: A man as an individual, a male person

should be
לִהְי֤וֹת (lih·yō·wṯ)
Preposition-l | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 1961: To fall out, come to pass, become, be

master
שֹׂרֵ֣ר (śō·rêr)
Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8323: To be or act as prince, rule

of his own household.
בְּבֵית֔וֹ (bə·ḇê·ṯōw)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1004: A house
(22) He sent letters.--The Persian Empire was the first to possess a postal system (see esp. Herod. vii. 98). The Greek word for "compel," in Matthew 5:41; Matthew 27:32, is simply a corruption of the Persian word for the impressment of men and horses for the royal service.

That every man should . . .--The following words are, literally, be ruling in his own house, and speaking according to the language of his own people. The former clause may probably be taken as a proof of the existence of an undue amount of female influence generally in Persia; the second clause is more doubtful. The English Version does distinct violence to the Hebrew, perhaps because the literal rendering yielded a somewhat peculiar sense. Taking the words exactly as they stand, they can only mean that in a house where two or more languages are used, from the presence of foreign wives, the husband is to take care that his own language is not supplanted by any of theirs. This is intelligible enough, but is perhaps rather irrelevant to what goes before.

Verse 22. - For he sent. Rather, "and he sent." Besides publishing the decree, Ahasuerus sent letters prescribing certain things, viz.: -

1. That every man should bear rule in his own house; and,

2. That every man should speak his own language in his family, and not that of his wife, if it were different.

This is the plain meaning of the existing text, which cannot bear either of the senses suggested in the Authorised Version.



1:10-22 Ahasuerus's feast ended in heaviness, by his own folly. Seasons of peculiar festivity often end in vexation. Superiors should be careful not to command what may reasonably be disobeyed. But when wine is in, men's reason departs from them. He that had rule over 127 provinces, had no rule over his own spirit. But whether the passion or the policy of the king was served by this decree, God's providence made way for Esther to the crown, and defeated Haman's wicked project, even before it had entered into his heart, and he arrived at his power. Let us rejoice that the Lord reigns, and will overrule the madness or folly of mankind to promote his own glory, and the safety and happiness of his people.
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Alphabetical: according all and be dispatches each every He his house household in its kingdom king's language letters man master of one over own parts people people's proclaiming province provinces ruler script sent should So speaks that the their to tongue who

OT History: Esther 1:22 For he sent letters into all (Est Esth. Es) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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