And after five days Ananias the high priest descended with the elders, and with a certain orator named Tertullus, who informed the governor against Paul.
Verse 1. - The high priest Ananias came down for Ananias the high priest descended, A.V.; certain elders for the elders, A.V. and T.R.; an orator, one Tertullus for a certain orator named Tertullus, A.V.; and they for who, A.V. After five days. Of which the first was the day on which St. Paul left Jerusalem, and the fifth that on which Ananias and his companions appeared before Felix (see ver. 11, note). Tertullus. A Latin name, formed from Tertius, as Lucullus from Lucius, Catullus from Catius, etc. Informed; ἐμφανίζω, in the sense of "laying an information" before a magistrate, only occurs elsewhere in Acts 25:2, 15 (see above, Acts 23:15, note).
And when he was called forth, Tertullus began to accuse him, saying, Seeing that by thee we enjoy great quietness, and that very worthy deeds are done unto this nation by thy providence,
Verse 2. - Called for called forth, A.V.; much peace for great quietness, A.V.; evils are corrected for for very worthy deeds are done unto, A.V. and T.R.; there is also a change in the order of the words, by thy providence is placed at the beginning instead of at the end of the sentence. When he was called. We see here the order of the trial. As soon as the charge is laid against, the prisoner, he is called into court, to hear what his accusers have to say against him, and as it follows at ver. 10, to make his defense (see Acts 25:16). We enjoy much peace. The groan flattery of this address of the hired orator, placed at the beginning of his speech, in order to win the favor of the judge, is brought into full light by comparing Tacitus's account of the misconduct of Felix in Samaria in the reign of Claudius, who he says, thought he might commit any crime with impunity, and by his proceedings nearly caused a civil war ('Annah,' 12:54); and his character of him as a ruler of boundless cruelty and profligacy, using the power of a king with the temper of a slave ('Hist' 5. 9.); and Josephus s statement that no sooner was Felix recalled from his government than the chief men among the Jews at Caesarea went up to Rome to accuse him before Nero, when he narrowly escaped punishment through the influence of his brother Pallas. By thy providence. "Providentia Caesaris" is a common legend on Roman coins (Alford). Evils are corrected. The reading of the R.T., διορθώματα, meaning "reforms," occurs only here, but, like the kindred κατορθώματα of the T.R., is a medical term. Διόρθωσις, reformation, is found in Hebrews 9:10. The κατορθώματα of the T.R. (which also occurs nowhere else in the New Testament) means, in its classical use, either "successful actions" or "right actions;" κατορθόω is to "bring things to a successful issue." Possibly Tertullus may have had in view the successful attack on the Egyptian impostor (see Acts 21:38, note), or the wholesale crucifixion of Sicarii and other disturbers of the public peace.
We accept it always, and in all places, most noble Felix, with all thankfulness.
Verse 3. - In all ways for always, A.V.; excellent for noble, A.V. Meyer connects in all ways and in all places with the preceding διορθωμάτων γινομένων: "reforms and improvements that have taken place on all sides and in all places." Πάντῃ or πάντη, found only here in the New Testament, means "on all sides," " in every direction."
Notwithstanding, that I be not further tedious unto thee, I pray thee that thou wouldest hear us of thy clemency a few words.
Verse 4. - But for notwithstanding, A.V.; I entreat thee for I pray thee, A.V.; to hear for that thou wouldest hear, A.V. Of thy clemency (τῇ σῇ ἐπιεικείᾳ). The word is rendered "gentleness" in 2 Corinthians 10:1, where alone it occurs in the New Testament; ἐπιείκης is most frequently rendered "gentle" (l Timothy 3:3 (R.V.); Titus 3:2; James 3:17; 1 Peter 2:18). A few words. The Greek has συντόμως, briefly, concisely, found only here in the New Testament, but common in classical Greek and especially in medical writers, where it means "rapidly," "in a short time."
For we have found this man a pestilent fellow, and a mover of sedition among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes:
Verse 5. - Insurrection for sedition, A.V. and T.R. We have found (εὑρόντες). The construction of the sentence is an anacoluthon. The participle is not followed, as it should be, by a finite verb, ἐκρατήσαμεν (in ver. 6), but the construction is changed by the influence of the interposed sentence, "who moreover assayed to profane the temple," and so, instead of ἐκρατήσαμεν αὐτόν, we have ὅν καὶ ἐκρατήσαμεν. A pestilent fellow (λοιμόν); literally, a pestilence; as we say, "a pest," "a plague," or "a nuisance," like the Latin pestis. It only occurs here in the New Testament, but is of frequent use in the LXX., as e.g. 1 Samuel 2:12; 1 Samuel 10:27, and 1 Sam 25:25, υἱοὶ λοιμοὶ, "sons of Belial;" 1 Macc. 10:61 1 Macc. 15:3 ἄνδρες λοιμοί: and 15:21, simply λοιμοὶ (rendered "pestilent fellows" in the A.V.), and elsewhere as the rendering of other Hebrew words. It is occasionally used also in this sense by classical writers. A mover of insurrections (στάσεις, R.T.). This was the charge most likely to weigh with a Roman procurator in the then disturbed and turbulent state of the Jewish mind (camp. Luke 23:2; John 19:12). Felix himself had had large experience of Jewish insurrections. The Jewish riots at Philippi (Acts 16:20), at Thessalonica (Acts 17:6), at Corinth (Acts 18:12), at Ephesus (Acts 19:29), and at Jerusalem (Acts 21:30), would give color to the accusation. The world (ἥ οἰκουμένη). The Roman, or civilized, world (Luke it. l; Luke 4:5, etc.). Ringleader; πρωτοστάτης, only here in the New Testament, but used by the LXX. in Job 15:24, and not uncommon in classical Greek, as a military term, equivalent to the first, i.e. the right-hand man in the line. Also, in the plural, the soldiers in the front rank. The sect of the Nazarenes. As our Lord was contemptuously called "The Nazarene "(Matthew 26:71), so the Jews designated his disciples" Nazarenes." They would not admit that they were Christians, i.e. disciples of the Messiah.
Who also hath gone about to profane the temple: whom we took, and would have judged according to our law.
Verse 6. - Moreover assayed for also hath gone about, A.V.; on whom also we laid hold for whom we took, A.V. To profane the temple. The same false charge as was made in Acts 21:28. The remainder of ver. 6, after the words "on whom we laid hold," the whole of ver. 7, and the first clause of ver. 8, are omitted in the R.T. on the authority of א, A, B, G, H, etc. But the propriety of the omission is doubtful (Alford, Bishop Jacobson, Plumptre), though sanctioned by Mill, Bengel, Griesbach, Lachmann, and Tisehendorf (Meyer). If the words are not genuine, it is a marvelously skilful interpolation, fitting into the place so exactly both at the beginning and at the end, and supplying a manifest want in the speech of Tertullus. (For the statement in ver. 8 A.V., camp. Acts 23:30.)
But the chief captain Lysias came upon us, and with great violence took him away out of our hands,
Commanding his accusers to come unto thee: by examining of whom thyself mayest take knowledge of all these things, whereof we accuse him.
Verse 8. - From whom thou wilt be able, by examining him thyself, to take for by examining of whom thyself mayest take, A.V. According to the R.V., whom refers to St. Paul, but according to the A.V., to Lysias. This last agrees with ver. 22. By examining him; ἀνακρίνας (Luke 23:14; Acts 4:9; Acts 12:19; Acts 17:11; Acts 28:18; elsewhere only in St. Paul's Epistles). In Acts 25:26 the kindred ἀνάκρισις, examination, is used.
And the Jews also assented, saying that these things were so.
Verse 9. - Joined in the charge for assented, A.V. and T.R.; affirming for saying, A.V. Joined in the charge. The reading of the R.T., συνεπέθεντο, means "joined in the attack upon," as in the LXX. of Deuteronomy 32:27 ("behave themselves strangely," A.V.); Psalm 3:6 (Codex Alexandrinus; "set themselves against me," A.V.) The συνέθεντο of the T.R. means "agreed" (as John 9:22), "assented."
Then Paul, after that the governor had beckoned unto him to speak, answered, Forasmuch as I know that thou hast been of many years a judge unto this nation, I do the more cheerfully answer for myself:
Verse 10. - And when the governor, etc., Paul answered for then Paul, after that the governor, etc., answered, A.V.; cheerfully for the more cheerfully, A.V. and T.R.; make my defense for answer for myself, A.V. Forasmuch as I know, etc. St. Paul, with inimitable skill, pitched upon the one favorable side of his judge's person, viz. his long experience in Jewish affairs, and made it the subject of his opening reference - a courteous and conciliatory reference, in striking contrast with the false, fulsome flattery of Tertullus. Of many years. If Paul was speaking in the year A.D. , and Felix had been governor only since A.D. , "many years" was rather an hyperbole. But Tacitus expressly states that Felix was joint procurator with Cumanus; and therefore he had been a judge to the Jewish nation long before the banishment of Cumanus. Tacitus's authority is infinitely superior to that of Josephus, and this passage strongly supports the statement of Tacitus ('Annal.,' 12:54). Make my defense (τὰ περὶ ἐμαυτοῦ ἀπολογοῦμαι). For the word ἀπολογοῦμαι, and for the situation of St. Paul, and for the gracious promise provided for such situation, see Luke 12:12; Luke 21:15; see too Acts 19:33; Acts 25:8; Acts 26. l, 2; and for the use of ἀπολογία, see Acts 22:1, note.
Because that thou mayest understand, that there are yet but twelve days since I went up to Jerusalem for to worship.
Verse 11. - Seeing that thou canst take knowledge for because that thou mayest understand, A.V. and T.R.; it is act more than for there are yet but, A.V.; I went up to worship at Jerusalem for I went up to Jerusalem for to worship, A.V. Twelve days. These days may be thus reckoned:
(1) arrival at Jerusalem (Acts 21:15);
(2) Visit to James and the ciders (Acts 21:18);
(3) first day of purification (Acts 21:26);
(4) second day of purification;
(5) the third day;
(6) the fourth day;
(7) the fifth day, when the tumult took place (Acts 21:27);
(8) Paul brought before the Sanhedrim;
(9) the conspiracy of the forty Jews, Paul leaves Jerusalem for Caesarea - the first of the five days mentioned in Acts 24:1;
(10) arrival of St. Paul" next day" at Caesarea, and lodged in the pretorium - second of the five days (Acts 23:32, 35);
(11) Paul in Herod's judgment hall - third of the five days;
(12) ditto - fourth of the five days;
(13) the current day, being also the fifth day of those mentioned in Acts 24:1. The mention of the brief time of twelve days shows the narrow limits of time within which the crime must have been committed, while the adroit mention of the purpose of his visit, to worship, would show how unlikely it was that he should have gone with any evil intent.
And they neither found me in the temple disputing with any man, neither raising up the people, neither in the synagogues, nor in the city:
Verse 12. - Neither in the temple did they find me for they neither found me in the temple, A.V.; or stirring up a crowd for neither raising up the people, A.V.; nor... nor for neither... nor, A.V. Stirring up a crowd. The reading of the R.T. is ἐπίστασιν ποιοῦντα ὄχλου, which must mean "a stoppage of the crowd," in which sense it is a medical term. But Meyer thinks it is a mere clerical error for the reading of the T.R. ἐπισύστασιν, which is used in the LXX for "a tumultuous assembly" (Numbers 26:9; 3Esdr. 25:9), and in Josephus, 'Contr. Apion.,' 1:20, of a conspiracy or revolt. In the LXX. also the verb ἐπισυνίσταμαι means "to rise in revolt against" (Numbers 14:25; Numbers 16:19; Numbers 26:9).
Neither can they prove the things whereof they now accuse me.
Verse 13. - Prove to thee for prove, A.V. Prove (παραστῆσαι); see Acts 1:3, note.
But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and in the prophets:
Verse 14. - A sect for heresy, A.V.; serve for worship, A.V.; our for my, A.V. (my is better, as following "I serve," and addressed to a Roman judge); which are according to the Law, and which are written in the prophets for which are written in the Law and in the prophets, A.V. A sect, This, of course, refers to this expression of Tertullus in verse 5, Πρωτοστάτης τῆς τῶν Ναζωραίων αἱρέσεως, "Ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes." The word αἵρεσις, which means primarily "choice," has not necessarily or even ordinarily a bad sense. In classical Greek its secondary sense was a "sect" or "school" of philosophy, Academics, Peripatetics, Stoics, Epicureans, etc. The Jews applied it to their own different schools of thought. So in Acts 5:17 we read, Αἵρεσις τῶν Σαδδουκαίων, "The sect of the Sadducees;" in Acts 15:5, Αἵρεσις τῶν Φαρισαίων, "The sect of the Pharisees;" in Acts 26:5 St. Paul speaks of himself as having been a Pharisee, Κατὰ τὴν ἀκριβεστάτην αἵρεσιν τῆς ἡμετέρας θρησκείας, "After the straitest sect of our religion" (see too Acts 28:22). It begins to have a bad sense in St. Paul's Epistles (1 Corinthians 11:19; Galatians 5:20; and 2 Peter 2:1, αἱρέσεις ἀπωλείας, where, however, it gets its bad sense from the ἀπωλείας joined to it). In ecclesiastical writers it came to have its worst sense of "heresy" as something worse even than "schism." In this reference to Tertullus's phrase, St. Paul seems hardly to admit that Christianity was properly called "a sect" by the Jews, but gives it the milder term of "the Way" (see Acts 9:2, note). The God of our [my] father (τῷ πατρῳ Θεῷ); comp. Galatians 1:14; and Acts 22:3; Acts 28:17. Observe how St. Paul throughout insists that, in becoming a Christian, he had not been disloyal to Moses, or the Law, or the prophets, or to the religion of his fathers, but quite the contrary. According to the Law. Κατὰ τὸν νόμον may mean either, as in the R.V., "according to the Law," or, as Meyer takes it, "throughout the Law," and then is better coupled, as in the A.V., with τοῖς γεγραμμένοις. The Law, and... the prophets (as Matthew 5:17; Luke 24:27, 44).
And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust.
Verse 15. - Having for and have, A.V.; these also themselves look for for they themselves also allow, A.V.; resurrection for resurrection of the dead, A.V. and T.R. Which these also themselves look for (see Acts 23:6). Both of the just, etc. This is distinctly taught in Daniel 12:2 (comp. Matthew 25:46; John 5:29).
And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence toward God, and toward men.
Verse 16. - Herein... also for and hereby, A.V. and T.R.; to have a conscience... always for to have always, etc., A.V.; and men for and toward men, A.V. (For the sentiment, comp. Acts 23:1.) Herein (ἐν τόυτῳ); i.e. on this account, under these circumstances supplying the ground and cause of my action (comp. John 16:30). So, too, Matthew 6:7, Ἐν τῇ πολυλογίᾳ αὐτῶν means "On account of their much speaking." I exercise myself; ἀσκῶ, here only in the New Testament, but frequent in medical writers for "to practice" the medical art.
Now after many years I came to bring alms to my nation, and offerings.
Verse 17. - After many years; or, several years. St. Paul's last visit to Jerusalem was that mentioned in Acts 18:22. Since then he had spent "some time" (χρόνον τινά) at Antioch, had gone over all the country of Phrygia and Galatia, had come to Ephesus, and stopped between two and three years there, had gone through Macedonia, had spent three months at Corinth, had returned to Macedonia, and from thence had come to Jerusalem in about fifty days. All which must have occupied four or five years - from A.D. to A.D. - according to most chronologers. Evidently Paul had not been plotting seditious movements at Jerusalem, where he had only arrived twelve days before, for a purely benevolent and pious purpose, after an absence of four or five years Alms... and offerings. Those of which he speaks in 1 Corinthians 16:1-4; 2 Corinthians 8; Romans 15:25, 26, 31. To this may be added "the charges" for which he made himself answerable for the poor Nazarites (Acts 21:24, 26).
Whereupon certain Jews from Asia found me purified in the temple, neither with multitude, nor with tumult.
Verse 18. - Amidst which for whereupon, A.V. and T.R.; they found me purified in the temple with no crowd, nor yet with tumult: but there were certain Jews from Asia for certain Jews from Asia found me purified in the temple, neither with multitude, nor with tumult, A.V. and T.R. Amidst which (ἐν αϊς, R.T.) refers to the alms and offerings The T.R. has ἐν οϊς, "under which circumstances," "at the transaction of which deeds," or, briefer, "whereupon," A.V. But there were. Most manuscripts followed by the R.T., read τινὲς δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς Ασίας, thus giving a broken unfinished sentence instead of the plain and complete one of the T.R., which agrees, moreover, exactly with Acts 21:27.
Who ought to have been here before thee, and object, if they had ought against me.
Verse 19. - To make accusation for object, A.V. The sense is exactly the same.
Or else let these same here say, if they have found any evil doing in me, while I stood before the council,
Verse 20. - Men themselves for same here, A.V.; what wrong-doing they found for if they have found any evil doing in me, A.V. and T.R.; when for while, A.V. Let these men themselves. Since the Asiatic Jews are not here to bear witness, let these men who are here speak for themselves as to what they witnessed in the Sanhedrim.
Except it be for this one voice, that I cried standing among them, Touching the resurrection of the dead I am called in question by you this day.
Verse 21. - Before you for by you, A.V. and T.R. (ἐπί for ὑπό). Except (ἤ): ἄλλο, else, is understood after τί, so that ἤ is equivalent to εἴ μή. Touching the resurrection (see Acts 23:6, where the exact words are," Touching the hope and resurrection of the dead, I am called in question ").
And when Felix heard these things, having more perfect knowledge of that way, he deferred them, and said, When Lysias the chief captain shall come down, I will know the uttermost of your matter.
Verse 22. - But Felix, having more exact knowledge concerning the Way, deferred them, saying for and whoa Felix heard these things having more perfect knowledge of that way, he deferred them, and said, A.V. and T.R.; determine for know the uttermost of, A.V. Having more exact knowledge, etc. At Caesarea, Felix must have seen and heard something of Christianity. The conversion of Cornelius with his household and friends, men belonging to the dominant Roman power; the work of Philip the evangelist, residing probably for some years at Caesarea, and working among Romans as well as Jews, must have given Felix some knowledge of "the Way." He would learn something, too, both of Judaism and Christianity from Drusilla, his wife (ver. 24, note). When Lysias... shall come (see vers. 7, 8, and note). I will determine (διαγνώσομαι); see above, Acts 23:15, where the verb is in the active voice, and is rendered in the R.V. "to judge." The idea of the word is "to know with discrimination;" and this is the sense it has in medical writers, who use it very frequently; as e.g. Galen says, Πρῶτον γὰρ διαγνῶναι χρὴ τί ποτέ ἐστὶ πάθος (quoted by Hobart). Hence the "diagnosis" of an illness (Acts 23:15).
And he commanded a centurion to keep Paul, and to let him have liberty, and that he should forbid none of his acquaintance to minister or come unto him.
Verse 23. - Gave order to the for commanded a, A.V.; that he should be kept in charge for to keep Paul, A.V. and T.R.; and should have indulgence for and to let him have liberty, A.V.; not to forbid any of his friends for that he should forbid none of his acquaintance, A.V.; to minister unto him for to minister or come unto him, A.V. and T.R. Indulgence (ἄνεσις); literally, relaxation, viz. of the prison restraints and confinement. The word is used in the LXX. of 2 Chronicles 23:15, ἔδωκαν αὐτῃ ἄνεσιν, i.e. those who had taken Athaliah prisoner, "let her loose" till she got out of the temple court. It is also a common medical term for the cessation or remission of pain or disease. St. Paul uses it four times in his Epistles for "rest" or "ease" (2 Corinthians 2:13; 2 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 8:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:7). Doubtless St. Luke was thus enabled to be much with St. Paul during his imprison merit, and, as suggested above, to have his help in writing his Gospel.
And after certain days, when Felix came with his wife Drusilla, which was a Jewess, he sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ.
Verse 24. - But for and, A.V.; Felix came for when Felix came, A.V.; Drusilla, his wife for his wife Drusilla, A.V.; and sent for he sent, A.V.; Christ Jesus for Christ, A.V. and T.R. Came; παραγενόμενος, a very favorite word with St. Luke, occurring twenty-nine times in his Gospel and the Acts. It implies that Felix had been absent from Caesarea for some days after the trial. Drusilla. She was, according to Josephus ('Ant. Jud.,' 20. 7:1, 2) the daughter of Herod Agrippa I., who "killed James with the sword" (Acts 12:1, 2), and died shortly afterwards. She was first the wife of Azizus, King of Emesa; but Felix, becoming enamored of her on account of her singular beauty, employed a certain magician, a Jew named Simon, to entice her away from her husband, and persuade her to marry him, contrary, as Josephus says, to the institutions of her country. She perished, with Agrippa, her only son by Felix, in the eruption of Vesuvius, in the reign of Titus (Josephus, as above). Tacitus says that Drusilla, the wife of Felix, was granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra. But he seems to have confounded her with another of the three royal wives of Felix, mentioned by Suetonius in 'Claudius;' unless, perchance, as has been conjectured, be had two wives of the name of Drusilla, of whom one was, as Tacitus says, granddaughter of Antony, by being the daughter of King Juba and Cleopatra Selene, Antony's daughter (see note in Whiston's 'Josephus,' and in Kuinoel, on Acts 23:24). But there is no certainty on the subject. Only Josephus's detailed account of Drusilla, the wife of Felix, agrees with St. Luke's statement that she "was a Jewess," and is beyond doubt true.
And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.
Verse 25. - And temperance for temperance, A.V.; the judgment for judgment, A.V.; was terrified for trembled, A.V.; and when for when, A.V.; call thee unto me for call for thee, A.V.
He hoped also that money should have been given him of Paul, that he might loose him: wherefore he sent for him the oftener, and communed with him.
Verse 26. - Withal for also, A.V.; would be for should have been, A.V.; that he might loose him is omitted in the R.T. and R.V.; wherefore also for wherefore, A.V. Sent for him the oftener. The mixture of conviction with covetousness in the mind of Felix as the motive for seeing Paul is observable. As in other cases of double-mindedness, the convictions were doubtless stifled by the corrupt avarice, and so came to nothing.
But after two years Porcius Festus came into Felix' room: and Felix, willing to shew the Jews a pleasure, left Paul bound.
Verse 27. - When two years were fulfilled for after two years, A.V.; Felix was succeeded by Porcius Festus for Porcius Festus came into Felix room, A.V.; desiring to gain favor with the Jews for willing to show the Jews a pleasure, A.V.; in bonds for bound, A.V.; Felix is also transposed. Was succeeded by; ἔλαβε διάδοχον. This word occurs only here in the New Testament, but is used twice in Ecclesiasticus. It is also, as above noted, the identical word used by Josephus of Festus. But in Acts 25:1 Festus's government is called an ἐπαρχία, and Josephus ('Ant. Jud.,' 20. 8:11) calls Festus an ἔπαρχος, instead of the more usual ἐπίτροπος. Could Josephus have seen the Acts of the Apostles? Porcius Fetus. Josephus speaks of him as sent by Nero to be the "successor" (διάδοχος) of Felix ('Ant. Jud.,' 20. 8:9; 'Bell. Jud.,' 2. 14:1). Nothing is known of him from Tacitus or other Latin historians, and he appears from Josephus's account to have held the government for a very short time, probably less than two years, when he died ('Ant. Jud.,' 20. 9:1). But the impression derived from Josephus is the same as that conveyed by St. Luke, that he was a just and upright ruler, in marked contrast with Felix his predecessor, and his successors Albinus and Gessius Florus. Desiring to gain favor χάριτι καταθέσθαι); literally, to lay up in store good will, or favor, or a boon, to be requited at some future period. A frequent phrase in the best classical authors. Felix had good reason thus to try and put the Jews under obligation to him at the close of his government. For the danger was great to the retiring governor of complaints being sent to the emperor of oppression and plunder, which were often listened to and punished. Josephus relates, in point of fact, that the chief Jews in Caesarea sent an embassy to Rome to lodge a charge against Felix before Nero; and that he only escaped punishment by the influence of his brother Pallas ('Ant. Jud.,' 20. 8:9). The scene in this chapter is a very striking one, depicted with admirable simplicity and force. The bloated slave sitting on the seat of judgment and power, representing all the worst vices of Roman degeneracy. The beads of the sinking Jewish commonwealth, blinded by bigotry and nearly mad with hatred, forgetting for the moment their abhorrence of their Roman masters, in their yet deeper detestation of the Apostle Paul. The hired advocate with his fulsome flattery, his rounded periods, and his false charges. And then the great apostle, the noble confessor, the finished Christian gentleman, the pure-minded, upright, and fearless man, pleading his own cause with consummate force and dignity, and overawing his heathen judge by the majesty of his character. It is a graphic description of s very noble scene.