Meyer's NT Commentary
Acts 14:2. ἀπειθοῦντες] A B C א, min. have ἀπειθήσαντες, which Lachm. Tisch. Born. have adopted; and rightly, partly on account of the preponderating authority (D, however, does not here concur, as it has an entirely different reading), and partly because ἀπειθοῦντες most directly presented itself to the mechanical scribes as a contrast to those who had become believers. If they had conformed themselves to πιστεῦσαι, Acts 14:1, they would have written ἀπιστήσαντες.
Acts 14:3. Before διδόντι Elz. has καί, against decisive evidence.
Acts 14:8. After αὑτοῦ Elz. has ὑπάρχων, against greatly preponderating evidence. Added from Acts 3:2 as an unnecessary completion.
περιπεπατήκει] So (not περιεπεπ. as Elz.) D E G H, min. Chrys. Lachm. and Tisch. have περιεπάτησεν, after A B C א, min. But the regular preference, which in relative sentences the Greeks give to the aorist over the pluperfect, here easily supplanted the latter.
Acts 14:9. ἤκουε] Lachm. Tisch. Born, read ἤκουσεν, after A D E G H א, min. Chrys. Theoph. An alteration, as the narrative continues in the aorist, and the intentional selection of the imperfect here was not understood.
Acts 14:10. Lachm. Tisch. Scholz (Born, ἀνήλατο, after D) have ἥλατο. But Elz. has ἤλλετο, against decisive evidence. The aorist yielded to the imperfect on account of περιεπάτει.
Acts 14:12. μέν] is, after A B C* D א, rightly erased by Lachm. Tisch. Born. as a customary insertion.
Acts 14:13. After πόλεως Elz. has αὐτῶν. A current addition, condemned by the witnesses.
Acts 14:14. ἐξεπήδησαν] Elz. has εἰσεπήδ., against decisive evidence. The less the reference of ἐξ—was understood, the more easily would the better known εἰς be inserted, corresponding to εἰς τὸν ὄχλον.
Acts 14:17. καίτοιγε] Others: καίγε (so D E, Born.). Others: καίτοι (so A B C* א**, Lachm.). With this diversity καίτοι, and also γέ, are to be considered as certainly and predominantly attested; and therefore καίτοιγε, with C*** G H א*, min. Chrys. Theoph. Oec., is to be retained. Beside καί sometimes the one particle and sometimes the other was omitted, as is also the case in Acts 17:27.
ἀγαθουργῶν] so to be read, with A B C א, min. Ath. Recommended by Griesb. and adopted by Lachm. Tisch. But Elz. Scholz, Born. have ἀγαθοποιῶν, which, as the more usual word, was inserted.
ὑμῖν … ὑμῶν] Elz. has ἡμῖν … ἡμῶν, against very important witnesses. The alteration arose, because the sentence had become a commonplace.
After Acts 14:18, C D E, min. vss. read διατριβόντων αὐτῶν κ. διδασκόντων. So Born. with δέ after διατρ., and attaching it to what follows. An interpolation, by way of smoothing the transition from Acts 14:18 to its contrast in Acts 14:19, variously enriched by different insertions.
Acts 14:19. νομίσαντες] Lachm. Tisch. and Born, have νομίζοντες, after A B D א, min. The Recepta arose mechanically from the context.
τεθνάναι] Lachm. Tisch. read τεθνηκέναι, after A B C א, min. Correctly, as the contracted form was the more usual.
Acts 14:28. After διέτριβον δέ Elz. has ἐκεῖ, which has been, after A B C D א, min. and several vss., erased or suspected since the time of Griesb. Insertion for the sake of more precise definition.
Acts 15:1. περιτέμνησθε] A B C D א, min. Constitut. Ath. Epiph. have περιτμηθῆτε. Approved by Griesb., adopted by Lachm. Tisch. Born.; and rightly, as the witnesses are so preponderating, and the reference of the aorist easily escaped the notice of the transcribers.
Acts 15:2. οὖν] Tisch. Born, read δέ. The witnesses for δέ preponderate.
ζητήσεως] Elz. has συζητήσεως, in opposition to decisive testimony. From Acts 15:7. It is also in favour of ζητ. that it is inserted in Acts 15:7, instead of συζητ. in A, א, min. vss., which evidently points to the originality of ζητ. in our passage.
Acts 15:4. ἀπεδέχθ.] Lachm. Tisch. and Born, read παρεδέχθ., according to A B D** (D* has παρεδόθησαν) א loti. These witnesses preponderate, and there are no internal reasons against the reading.
ὑπό] Tisch. reads ἀπό, following only B C, min.
Acts 15:7. ἐν ἡμῖν] Lachm. Tisch. read ἐν ὑμῖν, according to A B C א, min. and several vss. and Fathers. But ἡμῖν is necessary; and on this account, and because it might easily be mechanically changed into ὑμῖν after the preceding ὑμεῖς, it is to be defended on the considerable attestation remaining to it.
Acts 15:11. τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ] Elz. has Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, against preponderating evidence. Whilst the article was omitted from negligence, Χριστοῦ (which also Born, has) was added in order to complete the dogmatically important saying.
Acts 15:14. τῷ ὀνόματι] so Lachm. Tisch. Born. But Elz. Scholz have ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόμ.,—an exegetical expansion, against preponderating evidence.
Acts 15:17. After ταῦτα Elz. has πάντα, which is wanting in A B C D א, min. and many vss. and Fathers. From LXX. Amos 9:12, and hence it also stands before, ταῦτα in E G, min.
Acts 15:18. Griesb. Scholz, and Tisch. have only γνωστὰ ἀπʼ αἰῶνος, so that this must be attached to ταῦτα in Acts 15:17. This reading appears as decidedly original, and so ἐστι … αὑτοῦ as decidedly interpolated: partly because B C א, min. Copt. Sahid. Arm. vouch for the simple γνωστὰ ἀπʼ αἰῶνος, and those authorities which have ἐστι … αὑτοῦ present a great number of variations; partly because it was thought very natural to complete γνωστὰ ἀπʼ αἰῶνος into a sentence, and to detach it from Acts 15:17, inasmuch much as no trace of γνωστὰ ἀπʼ αἰῶνος was found in Amos 9:12; partly, in fine, because, if ἐστι … αὑτοῦ is genuine, Acts 15:18 contains a thought so completely clear, pious, and unexceptionable, so inoffensive, too, as regards the connection, and in fact noble, that no reason can be conceived for the omission of ἐστι … αὑτοῦ, and for the numerous variations in the words. Lachm. has γνωστὸν ἀπʼ αἰῶνος τῷ Κυριῳ τὸ ἔργον αὐτοῦ, after A D, Arm. Vulg. Cant. Ir., which betrays a still later origin than the Recepta, as the genuine γνωστὰ ἀπʼ αἰῶνος first gave occasion to the casting of the sentence in the plural form, but afterwards, in order to bring forward the special reference to the ἔργον in question of the conversion of the Gentiles, the change into the singular form was adopted. Matth. has entirely erased Acts 15:18, without evidence.
Acts 15:20. καὶ τοῦ πνικτοῦ] is, following Mill, erased by Born. as a later addition; Ambrosiaster already explains the words as such, and, indeed, as proceeding from the stricter observance of the Greeks. But they are only wanting in D, Cant. Ir. Tert. Cypr. Pacian. Fulgent. Hier. Gaudent. Eucher. Ambrosiast., of whom several omit them only in Acts 15:29. The omission is explained from Leviticus 17:13, where the eating of things strangled generally is not forbidden, but only the pouring out of the blood is made a condition; and from the laxer view of the Latins. After Acts 15:20 (so, too, in Acts 15:29 after πορνείας), D, min. vss. and Fathers have the entirely irrelevant addition from Matthew 7:12 : καὶ ὅσα (or ὅσα ἂν) μὴ θέλωσιν ἑαυτοῖς γίνεσθαι, ἑτέροις μὴ ποιεῖν (ποιεῖτε).
Acts 15:22. ἐπικαλ.] Lachm. has καλούμενον, also commended by Griesb., according to decisive evidence, and adopted by Tisch. and Born. Rightly; the former is an interpretation.
Acts 15:23. καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί] A B C D א* loti. 13, Arm. Vulg. Cant. and some Fathers have merely ἀδελφοί, which Lachm. and Born, have adopted. But the omission of καὶ οἱ is on hierarchical grounds, for which reason also 34 Sahid. have omitted καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί entirely.
Acts 15:24. λέγοντες περιτ. κ. τηρεῖν τὸν νόμον is wanting in A B D א, loti. 13, Copt. Aeth. Sahid. Vulg. Cant. Constitut. Ath. Epiph. Vigil. Beda. Besides variations in detail. Deleted by Lachm. Tisch. Born. Probably a gloss; yet it remains surprising that it was drawn not from Acts 15:1, but from Acts 15:5, and so freely. Besides, λέγοντες … νοΜΟΝ might be easily passed over after ὑΜΩΝ.
Acts 15:25. ἐκλεξαμένους] A B G min. read ἐκλεξαμένοις. So Lachm. A stylistic correction.
Acts 15:28. Instead of τῶν ἐπάναγκ. τούτων is to be written, with Lachm., according to preponderating evidence, τούτων τῶν ἐπ.; Tisch. has erased τούτων, yet only after A and some min. and Fathers.
Acts 15:30. ἦλθον] Lachm. and Born. read κατῆλθον, which is so decidedly attested (A B C D א) that it may not be derived from Acts 15:1. The compounds of ἔρχεσθαι were often neglected.
Acts 15:33. ἀποστείλαντας αὐτούς] Elz. reads ἀποστόλους, contrary to A B C D א, min. and several vss. and Fathers. A more precisely defining addition, which, taken into the text, supplanted the original.
After Acts 15:33, Elz. Scholz, Born. have (Acts 15:34): ἔδοξε δὲ τῷ Σίλᾳ ἐπιμεῖναι αὐτοῦ, to which D and some vss. and Cassiod. add: μόνος δὲ ʼΙούδας ἐπορεύθη (so Bornemann). Condemned by Mill, Griesb. Matthaei, also deleted by Lachm. and Tisch., according to A B E G H א, min. Chrys. Theophyl. and several vss. A hasty addition on account of Acts 15:40.
Acts 15:37. ἐβουλεύσατο] Lachm. reads ἐβούλετο, which also Griesb. recommended, after A B C E א, min. Born., following D, reads ἐβουλεύετο. While the two verbs are frequently (comp. on Acts 5:33) interchanged, ἐβούλετο is here to be preferred on account of its far preponderant attestation.
Acts 15:40. Θεοῦ] A B D א, min. vss. have Κυρίου. So Lachm. Tisch., also Born., who only omits τοῦ, following D*. Θεοῦ is from Acts 14:26.
 Approved by Buttmann in the Stud. u. Krit. 1860, p. 358.
And it came to pass in Iconium, that they went both together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spake, that a great multitude both of the Jews and also of the Greeks believed.Acts 14:1-2. Κατὰ τὸ αὐτό] at the same time, simul (Vulg.), ὁμοῦ, Hesych. Comp. 1 Samuel 31:6, and examples in Kypke, II. p. 69 f.; Schaefer, ad Bos. Ell. p. 210.
Ἑλλήνων] see on Acts 11:20. Comp. Acts 18:4; Acts 18:6. Yet here those Gentiles only are meant who were in connection with Judaism as proselytes of the gate (comp. Acts 13:43), and thus had not by circumcision laid aside their Greek nationality. This limitation is required by the context; for they are present in the synagogue, and in Acts 14:2 the ἔθνη are distinguished from them, so that they occupy a middle place between the ἔθνη and the Ἰουδαῖοι.
οὕτως] in such a manner, so effectively.
ὥστε] refers to the preceding οὕτως, as in John 3:16. Often so in Greek writers, e.g. Xen. Mem. i. 2. 1; Sturz, Lex. IV. p. 623.
ἀπειθήσαντες (see the critical remarks), having refused obedience (by unbelief).
ἐκάκ.] they made evil-affected, put into a bad frame of mind, i.e. ad iracundiam concitaverunt (Vulg.), like the German phrase, “sie machten bös.” This meaning, not in use with Greek writers, nor elsewhere in the N.T. or in the LXX. (Psalm 106:32?) and Apocr., occurs in Joseph. Antt. xvi. 1. 2, 7. 3, 8. 6.
κατὰ τῶν ἀδελφ.] refers to ἐπήγ. κ. ἐκάκ. conjointly. Both were hostilely directed against the Christians.
But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles, and made their minds evil affected against the brethren.
Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in the Lord, which gave testimony unto the word of his grace, and granted signs and wonders to be done by their hands.Acts 14:3-4. Οὖν represents Acts 14:3-4 as a consequence of Acts 14:1-2. “In consequence of that approval (Acts 14:1) and this hostility (Acts 14:2), they spent indeed (μέν) a considerable time in free-spoken preaching (Acts 14:3), but (δέ) there arose a division among the multitude” (Acts 14:4).
ἐπὶ τῷ Κυρίῳ] states on what their bold teaching rested—had its stay and support. See Bernhardy, p. 250. Hence as regards sense: freti Domino. Elsewhere in the N.T. with ἐν. Κύριος may as well be Jesus (Heinrichs, Olshausen) as God (Grotius, Morus, Kuinoel); the mode of conception of the apostolic church admits both the former (Mark 16:20) and the latter. The latter, however, is preponderantly supported partly by Acts 20:32, where τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ is to be referred to God, and partly by Acts 4:29-30, where διδόντι σημεῖα κ.τ.λ likewise points to God. Comp. Hebrews 2:4.
τῷ μαρτυροῦντι … αὐτῶν] who gave (practically confirmatory) testimony (comp. Acts 10:43, Acts 13:22, Acts 15:8) to the word of His grace (to the gospel, Acts 20:24), in granting that signs and wonders should be done by their hands. The second participle διδόντι, added without copula, denotes the form, in which the μαρτυρεῖν was presented.
ἐσχίσθη] comp. John 7:43. “Scinditur incertum studia in contraria vulgus.” Virg. Aen. ii. 39. Examples in Wetstein.
καί] and indeed.
But the multitude of the city was divided: and part held with the Jews, and part with the apostles.
And when there was an assault made both of the Gentiles, and also of the Jews with their rulers, to use them despitefully, and to stone them,Acts 14:5-7. Ὁρμή] impetus (Vulg.), but not exactly in the sense of an assault (Luther, comp. Castalio, Calvin, and others), nor yet a plot (Kuinoel, de Wette, and others). The former meaning, according to the context, expresses too much; the latter is not sanctioned by linguistic usage (even in Jam 3:4). It denotes a strong pressure, a pushing and thronging. Comp. Herod. vii. 18 : ἐπεὶ δαιμονίη τις γίνεται ὁρμή, Plat. Phil. p. 35 D: ψυχῆς ξύμπασαν τήν τε ὁρμὴν καὶ ἐπιθυμίαν, Dem. 309. 4 : εἰς ὁρμὴν τοῦ τὰ δέοντα ποιεῖν προτρέψαι, Xen. Mem. iv. 4. 2; Jam 3:4; 3Ma 1:23; 3Ma 4:3.
σὺν τοῖς ἄρχουσιν αὐτῶν] joins on closely to Ἰουδαίων, whose rulers of the synagogue and elders are meant. Comp. Php 1:1. On ὑβρίσαι, comp. Luke 18:32; 1 Thessalonians 2:2; Lucian, Soloec. 10.
συνιδόντες] Comp. on Acts 12:12. It had become known to them, what was at work against them.
Λύστρα (sometimes used as feminine singular, and sometimes as neuter plural, as in Acts 14:8, see Grotius) and Δέρβη, two cities of Lycaonia, to the north of Taurus, and lying in a southeastern direction from Iconium. Ptol. v. 4 reckons the former to belong to the neighbouring Isauria; but Plin. v. 32 confirms the statement of our passage. On their ruins, see Hamilton’s Travels in Asia Minor, II. pp. 301 f., 307 f.; Hackett, p. 228.
 ἤτοι πληγαῖς ἢ δεσμοῖς ἢ καὶ ἄλλῳ τρόπῳ. The distinction there stated of ὑβρίζειν with εἰς is groundless. See, on the contrary, e.g. Dem. 522. ult. 539. 14.
They were ware of it, and fled unto Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia, and unto the region that lieth round about:
And there they preached the gospel.
And there sat a certain man at Lystra, impotent in his feet, being a cripple from his mother's womb, who never had walked:Acts 14:8-10. Ἐκάθητο] he sat, because he was lame. Perhaps he begged (comp. John 9:8), like the lame man in chap. 3.
περιπεπ.] Pluperfect without augment. See on Matthew 7:25, and Valckenaer, p. 504 f. Bornemann, ad Xen. Cyr. vi. 2. 9. Observe, moreover, the earnest circumstantiality of the narrative.
ἤκουε] The imperfect denotes his persevering listening.
ἰδών] Paul saw in the whole bearing of the man closely scanned by him (in his look, gestures, play of features) his confidence of being saved, i.e. healed. This confidence was excited by listening to the discourse of the apostle; by which Paul appeared to him as a holy man of superior powers. Bengel aptly says: “dum claudus verbum audit, vim sentit in anima, unde intus movetur, ut ad corpus concludat.”
τοῦ σωθῆναι] This genitive of the object depends directly on πίστιν. See Buttmann’s neut. Gr. p. 229 f.[E. T. 266].
μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ] thus, with the μεγ. predicatively prefixed only here and in Acts 26:24. See, generally, Kühner, § 493. 1, and especially Schaefer, ad Dionys. Comp. p. 359.
ὀρθός] ita ut erectus stes. See on Matthew 12:13, and Bornemann, Schol. in Luc. p. 39 f.
ἥλατο κ. περιεπάτει] Observe the exchange of the aorist and imperfect: he sprang up, made a leap, and walked. Otherwise in Acts 3:8.
 Although two cures of the same kind of infirmity and in a similar miraculous manner naturally enough produce two similar narratives, yet it cannot surprise us that, according to the criticism of Schneckenburger, Baur, and Zeller, the whole of this narrative is assumed to originate from an imitation of the narrative of the earlier Petrine miracle in chap. 3. “But with the miracle is withdrawn also the foundation of the attempted worship of the two apostles; this, therefore, cannot be regarded as historical, and so much the less, as it also is exposed to the suspicion of having arisen from an exaggerated repetition of a trait from the history of Peter,” Zeller, p. 214. Comp. Baur, I. p. 112 ff. ed. 2. In a corresponding manner have the miracles of Paul generally been placed in parallelism with those of Peter, to the prejudice of their historical truth. Comp., in opposition to this view, Trip, Paulus nach d. Apostelgesch. p. 161 ff.
The same heard Paul speak: who stedfastly beholding him, and perceiving that he had faith to be healed,
Said with a loud voice, Stand upright on thy feet. And he leaped and walked.
And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.Acts 14:11. Λυκαονιστί] Chrysostom has finely grasped the object of this remark: οὐκ ἦν τοῦτο οὐδέπω δῆλον, τῇ γὰρ οἰκείᾳ φωνῇ ἐφθέγγοντο λέγοντες, ὅτι οἱ θεοὶ κ.τ.λ. Διὰ τοῦτο οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς ἔλεγον. The more surprised and astonished the people were, the more natural was it for them to express themselves in their native dialect, although Zeller reckons this very improbable and calculated with a view to make the homage go as far as possible. Nothing definite can be made out concerning the Lycaonian language; perhaps a dialect of the Lycian (Lassen in the Zeit. d. Deutsch. morgenl. Gesellsch. 1856, p. 329 ff.), which Jablonsky (in Iken’s nov. Thes. II. p. 638 ff.) considered as derived from the Assyrian; Grotius, as identical with the Cappadocian; and Gühling (de lingua Lycaon., Viteb. 1726), as a corrupt Greek.
ὁμοιωθέντες ἀνθρώποις] having become similar to men. Theophanies in human form (Hom. Od. xvii. 485 ff.) belonged, at the instance of the myths of antiquity, to the heathen popular belief, in which such conceptions survived as an echo of these ancient myths (comp. Themist. vii. p. 90, quoted by Wetstein on Acts 14:12); although Baur (comp. Zeller) discovers here an imitation, in which the author of the Acts shows himself as “acquainted with mythology.” Comp., moreover, the analogous conception which attached itself to the appearance of Pythagoras, of Apollonius of Tyana, and others (Valckenaer, p. 506). Such a belief was naturally rejected by philosophers (Plat. Rep. ii. p. 381 C–E; Cic. de Harusp. 28); but just as naturally it lingered among the people.
 See also Nägelsbach, Homer. Theol. p. 153.
And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker.Acts 14:12. The fact that Barnabas and Paul were declared to be Zeus and Hermes, is explained partly and primarily from the well-known provincial myth, according to which these gods were once hospitably entertained in the same regions by Philemon and Baucis (Ovid. Met. viii. 611 ff.); but partly also from Zeus having a temple in front of the city (Acts 14:13), and from its being the office of Hermes, as the eloquent (vocis et sermonis potens, Macrob. Sat. I. 8) interpreter (λόγου προφήτης, Orph. H. 27. 4) and messenger of the gods (Apollod. iii. 10. 2), to accompany his father when he came down to the earth (Hygin. Poet. Astron. 34; Ovid. Fast. v. 495). Comp. Walch, Diss. in Act. III. p. 173 ff Paul was called Hermes, because, in contrast to his companion, it was he who was “leader of the word” (αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ ἡγ. τ. λ.), as Hermes was considered Θεὸς ὁ τῶν λόγων ἡγεμών, Jamblich. de myster. Aeg. 1. Probably also his more juvenile appearance and greater activity, compared with the calmer and older Barnabas, contributed to this; but certainly not, as Neander conjectures, his insignificant bodily appearance; for apart from the fact that this rests only on very uncertain tradition (in the Acta Pauli et Theclae in Tischendorf, Act. apocr. p. 41, he is described as μικρὸς τῷ μεγέθει, ψιλὸς τὴν κεφαλήν, ἀγκύλος ταῖς κνήμαις; comp. Malalas, Chronogr. x. p. 247; Nicephor. H. E. iii. 37), Hermes is always represented as a handsome, graceful, very well-formed young man. Comp. Müller, Archäol. § 379, 380. But certainly Barnabas must have had a more imposing appearance, καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ὄψεως ἀξιοπρεπής Chrysostom.
Then the priest of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice with the people.Acts 14:13. But the priest (then officiating) of the Zeus, who is before the city, i.e. of the Zeus (πολιεύς), who had his seat in a temple in front of the city. ἱεροῦ is not to be supplied, with Kuinoel and others (see Bernhardy, p. 184 f.), as τοῦ Διός is the genitive directly belonging to ἱερεύς; but the expression τοῦ ὄντος πρὸ τῆς πόλ. is explained from the heathen conception that the god himself is present in his temple, consequently is (ὄντος) at the place where his temple stands: hence the classical expressions παρʼ Διΐ (ad fanum Jovis), παρ ̓ Ἥρῃ (Jacobs, ad Del. epigr. p. 229). Wolf thinks that it is spoken “de Jove, cujus simulacrum (and so not templum) ante urbem erectum erat.” But mere statues had no special priests. See Valckenaer, Opusc. II. p. 295, and Schol. I. p. 509. It does not, however, follow from this passage, that there was also a temple of Jupiter in the city (Olshausen).
ταύρους καὶ στέμματα] bulls and garlands. “Taurus tibi, summe Deorum,” Ovid. Metam. iv. 755. Beza, Calovius, Raphel, Erasmus Schmid, Palairet, Morus, Heinrichs, and others, have quite erroneously assumed a hendiadys for ταύρους ἐστεμμένους. This would come back to the absurd idea: bulls and, indeed, garlands. See Fritzsche, ad Matth. p. 856. Winer, p. 585 [E. T. 786]. The destination of the garlands is, moreover, not to be referred to the deified apostles (in opposition to Grotius and Valckenaer), who (like statues, comp. ep. Jerem. 9) were to have been adorned; but to the animals that were to be adorned therewith at the commencement of the sacrifice (see Wetstein and Dougtaeus, Anal. p. 80 ff.; Hermann, gottesd. Alterth. § 24. 7), because the design of the garlands is included in the ἤθελε θύειν.
ἐπὶ τοὺς πυλῶνας] to the gates (doors of the gate), namely, of the city. This reference is required by the correlation in which ἐπὶ τοὺς πυλῶνας stands to τοῦ ὄντος πρὸ τῆς πόλεως. The alleged incarnate gods were in the city, and therefore the sacrifice was to be brought at the gates of the city. The reference to the doors of the temple (οἱ μὲν ἱεροὶ τοῦ νεὼ πυλῶνες, Plut. Tim. 12), or of the house where the apostles lodged, is not in keeping with the context.
Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out,Acts 14:14-15. Ἀκούσαντες] Perhaps an inhabitant already gained by them for Christ brought intelligence of the design.
διαῤῥήξ. τ. ἱμάτ. αὐτ.] from pain and sorrow. See on Matthew 27:65. Not: as doing penance for the blinded people, as Lange imagines.
ἐξεπήδησαν] they sprang out (from the gate, to which they had hastened from their lodging) among the multitude. The simple representation depicts their haste and eagerness.
τί ταῦτα ποιεῖτε] see on Luke 16:2.
καὶ ἡμεῖς κ.τ.λ.] εὐθέως ἐκ προοιμίων ἀνέτρεψαν τὸ κακόν, Chrysostom.
ὁμοιοπαθεῖς] of like nature and constitution. Comp. Plat. Tim. p. 45 C, Pol. p. 409 B, comp. p. 464 D; Jam 5:17.
εὐαγγελιζόμενοι … ζῶντα] contains what is characteristic of the otherwise ὁμοιοπαθεῖς ὑμῖν: we who bring to you the message of salvation, to turn you from these vain, i.e. devoid of divine reality (gods), to the living (true) God. εὐαγγελιζ. does not thus mean cohortantes (Heinrichs and Kuinoel), but retains its proper import; and the epexegetical infinitive ἐπιστρέφειν states the contents of the joyful news. It may be cleared up by supplying δεῖν, but this conception is implied in the relation of the infinitive to the governing verb. See Lobeck, ad Phryn. p. 753 f.; Kühner, II. § 647, ad Xen. Anab. v. 7. 34.
τούτων τῶν ματαίων] masculine (not neuter), referring to the gods, present in the conception of the hearers, such as Zeus and Hermes, who yet are no real gods (1 Corinthians 8:4 ff.).
ὃς ἐποίησε] significant epexegesis of the ζῶντα, whereby the ματαιότης of the polytheistic deification of the individual powers of nature is made very palpable. Comp. with the whole discourse the speech to the Athenians (“sublimiora audire postulantes,” Bengel), chap. 17.
And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein:
Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.Acts 14:16-18. Who in the past ages left the Gentiles to themselves (did not guide them by special revelation), although He withal made Himself known, doing good to them, by the blessings of nature—an indulgent description (comp. Acts 17:30) of the ungodly character of the heathen, with a gently reproving reference to the revelation of God in nature. Ὅρα πῶς λανθανόντως τὴν κατηγορίαν τίθησι, Chrysostom. Grotius aptly remarks: “Egregiam hic habemus formam orationis, quam imitari debeant, qui apud populos in idololatria educates evangelium praedicant.” Comp. Schneckenburger, die natürl. Theol. d. Paul. in his Beitr. p. 97 ff.
ταῖς ὁδοῖς] local dative: in their ways. Comp. on 2 Corinthians 12:18; Judges 1:11; Jdt 13:16; Sir 35:20. What is meant is the development of the inward and outward life in a way shaped by themselves, without divine regulation and influence, and also without the intervention of the divine anger. Comp. Romans 3:10 ff; Romans 1:22 ff., where the whole moral abomination and curse of this relation is unveiled, whereas here only alluring gentleness speaks.
καίτοιγε οὐκ ἀμάρτ. κ.τ.λ.] An indication that they, nevertheless, might and should have known Him. Comp. Romans 1:20, καίτοιγε, as in John 4:2, quamquam quidem, and yet. See also Baeumlein, Partik. p. 245 ff.; and Krüger, Dion. H. p. 267.
Observe the relation of the three participles, of which the second is logically subordinate to the first, and the third to the second: as doer of good, in that He gives you rain, thereby filling, etc.
οὐρανόθεν] not uselessly added. “Coelum sedes Dei,” Bengel. Observe also the individualizing ὑμῖν (see critical remarks).
εὐφροσύνης] joy generally. Arbitrarily, Grotius and Wolf suggest that (Sir 31:31) wine is meant.
τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν] neither stands for the simple ὑμᾶς, nor is it to be taken, with Wolf, of the stomach (Thuc. II. 49. 2); but the heart is filed with food, inasmuch as the sensation of being filled, the pleasant feeling of satisfaction, is in the heart. Comp. Psalm 104:15; Jam 5:5.
τοῦ μὴ θύειν αὐτοῖς] comp. Acts 10:47. The genitive depends on κατέπαυσαν, according to the construction καταπ. τινά τινος to divert a person from a thing, to hinder him in it (Hom. Od. xxiv. 457; Plat. Polit. p. 294 E; frequently in the LXX.), and μή is the usual particle with verbs of preventing and hindering (Hartung, Partikell. II. p. 167 f.; Baeumlein, l.c. p. 298 ff.).
 See, generally, on the dativus localis, Becker, Homer. Blätter, p. 208 f.
 The announcement of the gospel forms the great epoch in the history of salvation, with the emergence of which the times of men’s being left to themselves are fulfilled. See Acts 17:30; Romans 3:25 f. Comp. also Hebart, natürl. Theol. d. Ap. Paul. p. 13. For judgment Jesus has come into the world.
Nevertheless he left not himself without witness, in that he did good, and gave us rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with food and gladness.
And with these sayings scarce restrained they the people, that they had not done sacrifice unto them.
And there came thither certain Jews from Antioch and Iconium, who persuaded the people, and, having stoned Paul, drew him out of the city, supposing he had been dead.Acts 14:19-22. This unmeasured veneration was by hostile Jews, who arrived (ἐπῆλθον) from Antioch (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:50) and Iconium (Acts 14:1; Acts 14:5-6), transformed in the fickle multitude (“ventosae plebis suffragia!” Hor. Ep. i. 19. 37) into a participation in a tumultuous attempt to kill Paul. Between this scene very summarily related and the preceding, no interval is, according to the correct text (see critical remarks), to be placed (in opposition to Ewald). The mobile vulgus, that ἀσταθμητότατον πρᾶγμα τῶν ἁπάντων (Dem. 383, 5), is at once carried away from one extreme to another.
καὶ πείσαντες κ.τ.λ.] and after they (the Jews who had arrived) had persuaded the multitude (to be of their party) and stoned Paul (the chief speaker!), they dragged him, etc.
κυκλωσάντων] not sepeliendi causa (Bengel, Kuinoel, and others),—a thought quite arbitrarily supplied; but in natural painful sympathy the Lystrians who had been converted to Christ surrounded him who was apparently dead.
ἀναστὰς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τ. π.] is certainly conceived as a miraculous result.
Acts 14:22. ΚΑῚ ὍΤΙ Κ.Τ.Λ.] comp. Acts 14:27; but here so, that from ΠΑΡΑΚΑΛΟῦΝΤΕς a kindred verb (ΛΈΓΟΝΤΕς) must be borrowed. See Kühner, II. p. 605. Buttmann, neut. Gr. p. 330[E. T. 385]. Comp. Krebs, p. 225.
δεῖ] namely, ex decreto divino. Comp. Acts 9:16.
ἡμᾶς] we Christians must, through many afflictions, enter into the Messianic kingdom (βασ. τ. Θεοῦ, to be established at the Parousia). Comp. Matthew 10:38; Romans 8:17 f.; also the saying of Christ in Barnab. ep. 7: οἱ θέλοντές με ἰδεῖν κ. ἅψασθαί μου τῆς βασιλείας ὀφείλουσι θλιβέντες κ. παθόντες λαβεῖν με. “Si ad vitam ingredi cupis, afflictiones quoque tibi necessario sufferendae sunt.” Vajikra Rabba, f. 173, 4.
That, moreover, the stoning here narrated is the same as that mentioned in 2 Corinthians 11:25 (comp. Clem. Cor. I. 5 : λιθασθείς), is necessarily to be assumed, so long as we cannot wantonly admit the possibility that the author has here inserted the incident known to him from 2 Cor. only for the sake of the contrast, or because he knew not a more suitable place to insert it (so Zeller). It is, however, an entirely groundless fancy of Lange, that the apparent death in Acts 14:19-20 is what is meant by the trance in 2 Corinthians 12:1 ff.
 Consequently in the city. It was to be a φόνος δημόλευστος ἐν πόλει (Soph. Ant. 36).
Howbeit, as the disciples stood round about him, he rose up, and came into the city: and the next day he departed with Barnabas to Derbe.
And when they had preached the gospel to that city, and had taught many, they returned again to Lystra, and to Iconium, and Antioch,
Confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God.
And when they had ordained them elders in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they believed.Acts 14:23. Χειροτονήσαντες] Erasmus, correctly: suffragiis delectos. The ecclesiastical offices were ἀρχαὶ χειροτονηταί or αἱρεταί (Hermann, Staatsalterth. § 148. 1). The analogy of Acts 6:2-6 requires this strict regard to the purposely chosen word, which, resting on the old method of choice by lifting up the hands, occurs in the N.T. only here and in 2 Corinthians 8:19 (see on that passage), and forbids the general rendering constituebant (Vulgate, Hammond, Kuinoel, and many), or eligebant (de Wette), so that the appointment would have taken place simply by apostolic plenary power (Löhe), although the word in itself (comp. Acts 10:41, Lucian. Philops. 12, al.) might denote eligere generally without that special mode. Paul and Barnabas chose by vote presbyters for them, i.e. they conducted their selection by vote in the churches. Entirely arbitrary and erroneous is the Catholic interpretation (see Cornelius a Lapide, and Beelen still, not Sepp), that it refers to the χειροθεσία at the ordination of presbyters.
κατʼ ἐκκλησίαν] distributively, see Bernhardy, p. 240. Each church obtained several presbyters, Acts 20:17; Php 1:1. See Rothe, p. 181 ff.
προσευξ. μετὰνηστ.] belongs to παρέθεντο, not, as Kuinoel supposes, to χειροτ. See on Acts 13:9. The committing (comp. Acts 20:32) of the Christians of those places to the Lord (commending them to His protection and guidance; see on παρατιθέναι, Kypke, II. p. 70), which took place at the farewell (comp. Acts 20:32), was done by means of an act of prayer combined with fasting. The Κύριος is Christ, as the specific object of faith (εἰς ὃν πεπιστ), not God (de Wette).
 Comp. Calvin in loc.; Rothe, Anf. d. Christl. Kirche, p. 150; Neander, I. p. 203. Against Schrader, V. p. 543, who finds in the appointment of presbyters a ὓστερον πρότερον; see Lechler, apost. u. nachapost. Zeitalt. 358 f. On the essence of the matter, Ritschl, altkath. K. p. 363, correctly remarks that the choice was only the form of the recognition of the charisma and of subjection to it; not the basis of the office, but only the medium, through which the divine gift becomes the ecclesiastical office. Comp. on Ephesians 4:11.
And after they had passed throughout Pisidia, they came to Pamphylia.
And when they had preached the word in Perga, they went down into Attalia:Acts 14:25-26. Πέργῃ] see on Acts 13:13.
Attalia (now Adalia; see Fellows, Travels in Asia Minor, p. 133 ff.) was a seaport of Pamphylia, at the mouth of the Catarrhactes, built by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamus. Strabo, xiv. 4, p. 667.
ʼΑντιοχ.] They returned to Syria, to the mother church which had sent them forth.
ὅθεν ἦσαν παραδεδ. κ.τ.λ.] from which they were commended to the grace of God for (the object) the work which they had accomplished. ὅθεν denotes the direction outwards, in which the recommendation of the apostles to the grace of God had taken place at Antioch. See Acts 13:3 f. Comp. Acts 15:40.
And thence sailed to Antioch, from whence they had been recommended to the grace of God for the work which they fulfilled.
And when they were come, and had gathered the church together, they rehearsed all that God had done with them, and how he had opened the door of faith unto the Gentiles.Acts 14:27-28. Συναγαγ.] expressly for this object. Comp. Acts 15:30. Calvin observes well: “quemadmodum solent, qui ex legatione reversi sunt, rationem actorum reddere.”
μετʼ αὐτῶν] standing in active connection with them. Comp. Acts 10:38; Matthew 28:20; also 1 Corinthians 15:10; and Mark 16:20 : τοῦ κυρίου συνεργοῦντος. As the text requires no deviation from this first and most natural rendering, both the explanation per ipsos (Beza, Piscator, Heinrichs) and the assumption of a Hebraism עשׂה with עִם (Luke 1:72): quae ipsis Deus fecisset (Calvin, de Dieu, Grotius, Kuinoel, and many others; comp. also de Wette), are to be rejected.
καὶ ὅτι] and, in particular, that, etc.
ἤνοιξε θύραν πίστεως] a figurative designation of admission to the faith in Christ. Corresponding is the figurative use of θύρα in 1 Corinthians 16:9; 2 Corinthians 2:12; Colossians 4:3 (of the fulfilling of apostolic work); comp. also εἴσοδος, 1 Thessalonians 1:9.
χρόνον οὐκ ὀλίγον] is the object of διέτριβον, as in Acts 14:3 : they spent not a little time in intercourse with the Christians.
And there they abode long time with the disciples.