Hosea 13:1
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
When Ephraim spoke, people trembled; he was exalted in Israel. But he became guilty of Baal worship and died.

New Living Translation
When the tribe of Ephraim spoke, the people shook with fear, for that tribe was important in Israel. But the people of Ephraim sinned by worshiping Baal and thus sealed their destruction.

English Standard Version
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he was exalted in Israel, but he incurred guilt through Baal and died.

New American Standard Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, But through Baal he did wrong and died.

King James Bible
When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he was exalted in Israel. But he incurred guilt through Baal and died.

International Standard Version
"When the tribe of Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; and it was exalted within Israel. But when they offended God by Baal, they died,

NET Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was terror; he was exalted in Israel, but he became guilty by worshiping Baal and died.

New Heart English Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, but when he became guilty in Baal, he died.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
When the tribe of Ephraim spoke, people trembled. The people of Ephraim were important in Israel. Then they became guilty of worshiping Baal, so they must die.

JPS Tanakh 1917
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling, He exalted himself in Israel; But when he became guilty through Baal, he died.

New American Standard 1977
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling.
            He exalted himself in Israel,
            But through Baal he did wrong and died.

Jubilee Bible 2000
When Ephraim spoke everyone feared, he was exalted in Israel; but he was found guilty in Baal and died.

King James 2000 Bible
When Ephraim spoke trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended through Baal worship, he died.

American King James Version
When Ephraim spoke trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

American Standard Version
When Ephraim spake, there was trembling; he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

Douay-Rheims Bible
When Ephraim spoke, a horror seized Israel: and he sinned in Baal and died.

Darby Bible Translation
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he exalted himself in Israel: but he trespassed through Baal, and he died.

English Revised Version
When Ephraim spake, there was trembling; he exalted himself in Israel: but when he offended in Baal, he died.

Webster's Bible Translation
When Ephraim spoke trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

World English Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, but when he became guilty in Baal, he died.

Young's Literal Translation
When Ephraim speaketh tremblingly, He hath been lifted up in Israel, When he becometh guilty in Baal he dieth.
Study Bible
Ephraim's Glory Vanishes
1When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, But through Baal he did wrong and died. 2And now they sin more and more, And make for themselves molten images, Idols skillfully made from their silver, All of them the work of craftsmen. They say of them, "Let the men who sacrifice kiss the calves!"…
Cross References
Judges 8:1
Then the men of Ephraim said to him, "What is this thing you have done to us, not calling us when you went to fight against Midian?" And they contended with him vigorously.

Judges 12:1
Then the men of Ephraim were summoned, and they crossed to Zaphon and said to Jephthah, "Why did you cross over to fight against the sons of Ammon without calling us to go with you? We will burn your house down on you."

Job 29:21
"To me they listened and waited, And kept silent for my counsel.

Job 29:22
"After my words they did not speak again, And my speech dropped on them.

Hosea 2:8
"For she does not know that it was I who gave her the grain, the new wine and the oil, And lavished on her silver and gold, Which they used for Baal.

Hosea 8:4
They have set up kings, but not by Me; They have appointed princes, but I did not know it. With their silver and gold they have made idols for themselves, That they might be cut off.

Hosea 11:2
The more they called them, The more they went from them; They kept sacrificing to the Baals And burning incense to idols.
Treasury of Scripture

When Ephraim spoke trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

Ephraim.

1 Samuel 15:17 And Samuel said, When you were little in your own sight, were you …

Proverbs 18:12 Before destruction the heart of man is haughty, and before honor is humility.

Isaiah 66:2 For all those things has my hand made, and all those things have …

Luke 14:11 For whoever exalts himself shall be abased; and he that humbles himself …

exalted.

Numbers 2:18-21 On the west side shall be the standard of the camp of Ephraim according …

Numbers 10:22 And the standard of the camp of the children of Ephraim set forward …

Numbers 13:8,16 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Oshea the son of Nun…

Numbers 27:16-23 Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over …

Joshua 3:7 And the LORD said to Joshua, This day will I begin to magnify you …

1 Kings 12:25 Then Jeroboam built Shechem in mount Ephraim, and dwelled therein; …

offended.

Hosea 11:2 As they called them, so they went from them: they sacrificed to Baalim, …

1 Kings 16:29-33 And in the thirty and eighth year of Asa king of Judah began Ahab …

1 Kings 18:18,19 And he answered, I have not troubled Israel; but you, and your father's …

2 Kings 17:16-18 And they left all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made …

died.

Genesis 2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not …

Romans 5:12 Why, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; …

2 Corinthians 5:14 For the love of Christ constrains us; because we thus judge, that …

XIII.

(1) There is a difference of opinion as to the construction and rendering of this verse. We adopt the interpretation, When Ephraim uttered terror, he rebelled in Israel; then he committed sin through Baal, and died. This points to the revolt of the Ten Tribes, and the consequent abandonment of the pure traditions of Jehovah worship for those of Baal. This idea and that of the previous verse (Hosea 12:14) may have been brought into prominence by the recent untoward antagonism aroused by the Syro-Ephraimitish war against Judah.

Verse 1. - When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel. This rendering of the Authorized Version

(1) is supported by the Syriac, which is: "When Ephraim spake trembling, then he was, and was great in Israel." Rashi has a similar rendering of the word retheth, which is an ἅπαξ λεγόμενον, and causes the diversity of translation in this clause; but his exposition of the whole sentence is vague and unsatisfactory. Referring it to Jeroboam of the tribe of Ephraim, he explains as follows: "When Jeroboam, zealous for God, spoke against Solomon hard words, and with terror, Solomon was a great king." Pococke's exposition is in harmony with the Authorized Version, and is the following: "When Ephraim spake with fear and trembling (like his forefather Jacob, in his humble supplication to God), he exalted himself in Israel." But

(2) the rendering adopted by most moderns, is decidedly preferable, as agreeing better with the context, and much more in bar-runny with tribal characteristics of Ephraim, as intimated in this very book, and exhibited elsewhere. The translation we thus prefer is: "When Ephraim spake, there was trembling; he, even he, exalted himself in Israel." Such was the fear inspired, and the deference paid to the authority of that powerful tribe. The word reheth, though not found elsewhere, has a cognate root in Aramaic, with the meaning here assigned to it; for רתת is to fear, shudder, tremble; there is also, in Jeremiah 49:24, the word רֶטֶט, equivalent to "fear," similar in both sense and sound. The Chaldee supports this rendering; its paraphrase is: "When one of the house of Ephraim spake, trembling seized the peoples." Also Aben Ezra and Kimchi. The former's brief comment is: "Before his speaking the peoples were afraid; and the word רתת has no analogue except in the Aramaic." Kimchi's explanation is, "From the beginning, before Ephraim sinned, the fear of him was great over the peoples who surrounded him; for when he spake, fear and trembling were wont to seize him who heard him; and he was great and strong among the tribes of Israel, as it was said of him, ' And his seed shall be a multitude of nations.'"

(3) The LXX. renders reheth by δικαιώματα, thus:" According to the word of Ephraim, be adopted ordinances for himself in Israel," that is, when Ephraim spoke, the rest of the Israelites assented to his ordinances and rights, reverencing his authority, so that the general sense differs little from the Chaldee.

(4) Rosenmüller constructs and explains differently; his exposition runs somehow thus: "When Ephraim spake, instituting that horrible worship of the calves, he himself bore the sin of that horrible dictum, i.e. was guilty of, and bore its punishment." This explanation of נשא is farfetched and unnatural. We have no hesitation in preferring "lifted up," i.e. his head, or exalted himself, for, though it is usually the Hithp. that is employed in this sense, examples also occur in which Qal is so used, for example Psalm 89:10 and Nahum 1:5. Kimchi supplies rosho. We adhere, therefore, to the rendering and exposition of

(2). But when he offended in Baal, he died. This was not merely the calf-worship which, for political reasons, Jeroboam instituted and his successors retained, but the worship of Baal for which, no doubt, the calf-worship had prepared the way, and which had been introduced by Ahab at the instigation of his Sidonian queen. And though the people were partially and temporarily reformed through the efforts of Elijah the prophet and by the royal authority of Jehu, son of Nimshi, the evil was not eradicated, but frequently broke out again. The exaltation of Ephraim was not so much his distinction among his brethren as the governmental predominance at which that tribe ever aimed. That elevation, however, was soon followed by religious declension, culminating in the idolatry of Baal, which soon sealed the doom of the northern kingdom, thenceforth given up to destruction. The sentence of death was pronounced, and the actual dying commenced with the introduction of idolatrous worship. Thus, correctly, Kimchi: "He lifted up his head in Israel. And after he offended in Baal he died, as if he said, he was beaten before his enemies, as if he were dead, the power of his hand had departed." When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel,.... Or, with trembling, as Jarchi: so Jeroboam, who was of the tribe of Ephraim, spake before Solomon, a great king, as he observes. R. Moses the priest interprets it of Jeroboam; but it may be understood of the tribe in general, and especially of the heads of it, at anytime before it fell into idolatry; when they spake with submission and humility, they were attended to by the other tribes in all consultations and debates, and great deference was paid unto them; and they were find in great esteem, and highly honoured, agreeably to that common saving of our Lord, "he that humbleth himself shall be exalted", Luke 14:11; or, "when he spake there was trembling" (q); either the neighbouring nations, when he threatened them with war: or among the other tribes of Israel, when he spake in counsel, and with authority, they rose up and heard him with great reverence and respect; see Job 29:8. So the Targum,

"when anyone of the house of Ephraim spake, trembling laid hold on the people; they became princes in Israel.''

Some refer this to the times of Joshua, who was of that tribe, and whom the Israelites feared as they had feared Moses, Joshua 4:14; others to the times of Gideon and Jephthah, with whom the tribe of Ephraim expostulated, Judges 8:1; but others interpret it of Jeroboam's idolatry, of his setting up the worship of the calves, which he did upon his exalting himself, and setting himself up as king of the ten tribes; and, in some agreement with this, Schmidt understands, by "trembling", a terrible and horrible thing, idolatry, which he commanded and appointed; and which he "bore" or "carried", as the word (r) is interpreted by him, and may be; that is, his sin, and the punishment of it, which Jeroboam and his posterity did bear; and so it agrees with what follows:

but, or "and",

when he offended in Baal, he died; or when he sinned, and became guilty of more idolatry still, by worshipping Baal, as well as the calves, which was done in the times of Ahab, 1 Kings 16:31; when Ephraim or the kingdom or Israel fell into distresses and calamities, sunk in their grandeur and authority, declined in their wealth and riches, and were insulted by their enemies, particularly by Benhadad king of Syria, who sent to Ahab, and challenged his silver and gold, his wives and children, as his own, 1 Kings 20:3; and so they gradually decreased in credit and reputation, in power and authority, in wealth and substance, and at last were delivered to the sword of the enemy, and to captivity, which was their civil death.

(q) "quum loqueretur--tremor erat", Pagninus, Vatablus; "terror erat", Zanchius, Drusius. (r) "portavit ipse, sub. iniquitatem suam", Schmidt. CHAPTER 13

Ho 13:1-16. Ephraim's Sinful Ingratitude to God, and Its Fatal Consequence; God's Promise at Last.

This chapter and the fourteenth chapter probably belong to the troubled times that followed Pekah's murder by Hoshea (compare Ho 13:11; 2Ki 15:30). The subject is the idolatry of Ephraim, notwithstanding God's past benefits, destined to be his ruin.

1. When Ephraim spake trembling—rather, "When Ephraim (the tribe most powerful among the twelve in Israel's early history) spake (authoritatively) there was trembling"; all reverentially feared him [Jerome], (compare Job 29:8, 9, 21).

offended in Baal—that is, in respect to Baal, by worshipping him (1Ki 16:31), under Ahab; a more heinous offense than even the calves. Therefore it is at this climax of guilt that Ephraim "died." Sin has, in the sight of God, within itself the germ of death, though that death may not visibly take effect till long after. Compare Ro 7:9, "Sin revived, and I died." So Adam in the day of his sin was to die, though the sentence was not visibly executed till long after (Ge 2:17; 5:5). Israel is similarly represented as politically dead in Eze 37:1-28.13:1-8 While Ephraim kept up a holy fear of God, and worshipped Him in that fear, so long he was very considerable. When Ephraim forsook God, and followed idolatry, he sunk. Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves, in token of their adoration of them, affection for them, and obedience to them; but the Lord will not give his glory to another, and therefore all that worship images shall be confounded. No solid, lasting comfort, is to be expected any where but in God. God not only took care of the Israelites in the wilderness, he put them in possession of Canaan, a good land; but worldly prosperity, when it feeds men's pride, makes them forgetful of God. Therefore the Lord would meet them in just vengeance, as the most terrible beast that inhabited their forests. Abused goodness calls for greater severity.
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