Jeremiah 49
Matthew Poole's Commentary
Concerning the Ammonites, thus saith the LORD; Hath Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why then doth their king inherit Gad, and his people dwell in his cities?
The judgment of the Ammonites, Jeremiah 49:1-5: their restoration, Jeremiah 49:6. The judgment of Edom, Jeremiah 49:7-22; of Damascus, Jeremiah 49:23-27; of Kedar and Hazor, Jeremiah 49:28-33; of Elam, and its restoration, Jeremiah 49:34-39.

The Ammonites were the posterity of Ben-ammi, Lot’s incestuous child, by his younger daughter, Genesis 19:38. Their country was near the Jews’ country. The Jews, in their journey from Egypt to Canaan to possess it, passed by their country, but were by God forbidden to meddle with it, because he had given it to the children of Lot, Deu 2:19; but they proved bad neighbours to the Israelites when in Canaan. They assisted the king of Moab against them, Judges 3:13, and made war against them, Judges 10:9 11:4. Nahash their king made an inroad upon them, 1 Samuel 12:12. David fought with them in his time, 2 Samuel 8:12, and destroyed them, 2 Samuel 11:1. Jehoshaphat also and Jotham fought with them, 2 Chronicles 20:1 27:5. During the long tract of time that there were wars betwixt the Jews and Ammonites, the laud of Gad and Reuben, which lay beyond Jordan, fell into the hand of the Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites (whence it is that in the former chapter we read of many cities of Moab, which were, upon the division of Canaan, in the lot of Gad and Reuben). This prophecy cannot be well understood without a previous understanding this. Hence it is that the prophet saith, Hath Israel no sons? God had given that country of Gilead to Manasseh, and Reuben, and Gad, Numbers 32:40 Joshua 13:29-31; and as men’s estates ought to descend to their heirs, so this land should have continued and descended to the posterity of these tribes, but the Ammonites had by force taken away a part, and Melcom possessed it. Melcom is their king, or the name of their idol to whom they gave the name of king, as other heathens called their idol Baal, that is, lord. And the people of the king of the Ammonites, or of Melcom the idol of the Ammonites, dwelt in the cities belonging to Gad, which was one of the tribes of Israel.

Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will cause an alarm of war to be heard in Rabbah of the Ammonites; and it shall be a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned with fire: then shall Israel be heir unto them that were his heirs, saith the LORD.
Because the Ammonites had violently seized upon some part of the Jews’ land, and (as we have it, Amos 1:13,14) cruelly ripped up the women with child in Gilead, that they might enlarge their border, God threatens a war to Rabbah, Amos 1:14, calls it a fire, which should make Rabbah a heap. Of this Rabbah, as the head city of the Ammonites, we read Deu 3:11 Joshua 13:25 15:60. It was there where, in David’s time, Uriah was slain, 2 Samuel 11:1,17 12:26. It is threatened by Jeremiah in this chapter, and Ezekiel 25:5 Amos 1:13,14. We read not how or when this prophecy was fulfilled, whether by the Maccabees, /APC 1Ma 5:6, or rather after the coming of Christ, when most of these nations were destroyed. God threatens not only their metropolis, which was Rabbah their mother city, but all the other cities belonging to the Ammonites, which were as it were daughters to Rabbah. But how the last clause of this prophecy was ever fulfilled, if it were not in the time of the Maccabees, I cannot understand; for though they were swallowed up afterward by the Roman empire, yet Israel being also subdued by them, and scattered into all parts, it is not likely that many of them were suffered to, abide in any considerable numbers in a country so near their own.

Howl, O Heshbon, for Ai is spoiled: cry, ye daughters of Rabbah, gird you with sackcloth; lament, and run to and fro by the hedges; for their king shall go into captivity, and his priests and his princes together.
Heshbon was formerly a city of the Amorites, of whom Sihon was king, who resided here (but it appears by Jeremiah 49:26 that it was taken from Moab); it is probable that it was at this time a city of Moab: the prophet calls to them to howl

for Ai a city of the Ammonites, not the same mentioned Joshua 7:2, for that was on the other side of Jordan. It is uncertain whether by the

daughters of Rabbah be to be understood other lesser cities, or the younger women that inhabited Rabbah: he calls to them all to mourn; and for all the indications or signs of mourning, such as girding with sackcloth, running up and down, like persons distracted, by the hedges, where they might be hidden, and not so easily seen. For they shall all go together into captivity; their Melcom, which may signify their idol to whom they gave that name, or their

king, or else their supreme magistrate, with their

priests and nobles, all orders of persons.

Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures, saying, Who shall come unto me?
It should seem that this country was full of very fruitful valleys, which we know are always the most fertile places, lying lower and at a greater distance from the sun than mountains, and also receiving at second hand the moisture that falls upon the hills, and being usually watered with rivers; from whence they may be called

flowing valleys, either as flowing with receptacles of water, or plenty of corn and grass; though some read it, (and it seems rather more agreeable to the Hebrew,) thy valley floweth, either with the blood of men slain, or floweth away, the fertility of it ceaseth or decayeth. Or, floods of waters shall destroy the fruit of thy rich valleys, &c. O backsliding daughter: Ammon having never been in covenant with God, the word in the Hebrew (though it comes from bwv which signifies to return) seemeth ill translated backsliding, thou that hast turned thyself away from God.

That trusted in her treasures, saying, Who shall come unto me? thou that trustedst in thy riches, or in thy valleys full of riches, and promisedst thyself security from the situation of thy rich country, thinking none could come at thee.

Behold, I will bring a fear upon thee, saith the Lord GOD of hosts, from all those that be about thee; and ye shall be driven out every man right forth; and none shall gather up him that wandereth.
As secure as you think yourselves, I will cause you to be afraid, and your enemies shall be all those that are round about you. And you shall be driven out every man, either right forth, into some country opposite to you, or apart one from another, or so that you shall be glad to flee right forth, and never look back, but only forward, for any place of safety that appeareth next before you. And when you are wandering, being driven by your enemies, you shall find none who will be willing to receive or entertain you.

And afterward I will bring again the captivity of the children of Ammon, saith the LORD.
Such a promise we read of Jeremiah 48:47, concerning Moab, but when this was fulfilled the Scripture saith not. Josephus tells us something; but it is rather thought to refer to the conversion of some of the Ammonites as well as other heathens unto Christ.

Concerning Edom, thus saith the LORD of hosts; Is wisdom no more in Teman? is counsel perished from the prudent? is their wisdom vanished?
The Edomites were the posterity of Esau the eldest son of Isaac, but disinherited, the blessing being given to his younger brother Jacob, who was the head of the twelve tribes of the Israelites, Genesis 27:29. God there, Genesis 27:39, promised him that he should have a fat and plentiful country, though his brother should be his lord, and foretold that he should break his brother’s yoke from off his neck; the land of Seir was his country, Genesis 32:3. The Edomites coasted southward upon Canaan, the Israelites passed by their coasts to go into Canaan; their way lay through Edom, but their king refusing to suffer them to go through, God ordered them to go another way. Balaam prophesied their ruin, Numbers 24:18. They were enemies to the Israelites in Saul’s time, 1 Samuel 14:47, and in David’s time, 2 Samuel 8:14, and in Amaziah’s time, 2 Kings 14:7, who slew of them ten thousand, and took Selah, calling it Jokteel. Many of the prophets foretold their ruin. Jeremiah in this place, Ezekiel 25:12-14 Joel 3:19 Amos 9:12 Ob 1,8 Mal 1:4.

Teman was a city of Edom, mentioned also Ezekiel 25:13 Amos 1:12 Obadiah 1:9. Eliphaz, Job’s friend, was of this place, Job 2:11. It was a place famous for wise and prudent men, of which Eliphaz was not the meanest. The prophet asks what was become of all their counsel and wisdom, for which the Arabians, the Temanites in particular, were so famous. Now they were at their wits’ end.

Flee ye, turn back, dwell deep, O inhabitants of Dedan; for I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him, the time that I will visit him.
Dedan was the son of Jokshan, 1 Chronicles 1:32, from which it is probable that the city

Dedan had its name; it is reckoned, Jeremiah 25:23, with Tema and Buz, and is mentioned Ezekiel 27:15,20 38:13. It was a city of Arabia joining on Idumea, Isaiah 21:13. They being neighbours to the Edomites, are called to flee, and to get into caves and holes of the earth, where they might dwell deep in the earth, and be in some security, which they would not be in their own city, so near to the Edomites’ country, for God was resolved to bring misery upon the Edomites, a time of calamity in which he would visit them with his judgments. There are other critical readings of these words, but this seemeth to be the plain sense of them.

If grapegatherers come to thee, would they not leave some gleaning grapes? if thieves by night, they will destroy till they have enough.
We have much the same Ob 5. The scope of the prophet in this place is only to show that Edom should be totally destroyed; their destruction should not be like the gleaning of grapes, where the gatherers content themselves with taking the principal clusters, but for single grapes, or small clusters, they leave them; nor yet like the robbings of thieves, who take for their hunger, and when they have got enough leave the rest.

But I have made Esau bare, I have uncovered his secret places, and he shall not be able to hide himself: his seed is spoiled, and his brethren, and his neighbours, and he is not.
But the Edomites should be left bare; and though they sought to hide themselves in secret places, yet God would there find them out, and there should be no places sufficient to hide them. All their children should be destroyed, and the Moabites their kinsmen, and the Philistines their neighbours, should be ruined as well as they.

Leave thy fatherless children, I will preserve them alive; and let thy widows trust in me.
The only question upon this verse is, whether, in the whole of it, it be a promise or a threatening: if it be a promise, the sense is, that though this great destruction should come upon the body of the Edomites, yet God would take care of some of their

fatherless children, whose parents being carried into captivity, they had none to provide for them: if it be taken as an ironical threatening, it soundeth ruin to those as well as the rest, and

I will is as much as I will not. But others think that these are rather to be understood with the supply of some other words, There is not, or there shall be none to say, Leave thy fatherless children, &c.; and whoso considereth those words in the tenth verse, his seed shall be spoiled, will see reason to judge it rather a threatening (whether by way of irony or no) than a promise.

For thus saith the LORD; Behold, they whose judgment was not to drink of the cup have assuredly drunken; and art thou he that shall altogether go unpunished? thou shalt not go unpunished, but thou shalt surely drink of it.
That by

the cup is meant the wine cup of the Lord’s wrath, and that by those whose judgment was not to drink of it are meant the Jews, is not to be doubted; but the question is, how the prophet saith that it was not the judgment of the Jews to drink of this cup? The word here used is of so various significations as makes the fixing the sense of it here difficult; it cannot here signify justice, for in that sense it was the Jews’ judgment to drink of it; nor can it here (as it often doth) signify the effect of justice, God’s judicial dispensation; for they had drank of it, so it was their judgment. It must be taken in the most favourable sense imaginable. Either they who in regard of their relation to God, and God’s relation to them, might have looked upon it as none of their portion, yet have drank of it; or, they who in comparison with others did not deserve to drink of the cup, yet have drank of it: and can you think to escape? No, thou shalt not escape, but most surely drink of it. 1 Peter 4:17, The time is come that judgment is begun at the house of God; and if it first begin with that, where shall the end of others be? When an Israelite hath not escaped the justice of God, an Edomite must not expect it.

For I have sworn by myself, saith the LORD, that Bozrah shall become a desolation, a reproach, a waste, and a curse; and all the cities thereof shall be perpetual wastes.
As men, when they would confirm their promise or threatening to do any thing, add an oath to it, so doth God, who, having no greater to swear by, swears by himself, Jeremiah 44:26. That which God would here confirm was his threatening against Edom, expressed under the notion of

Bozrah, ( a part for the whole,) Bozrah being its principal city, Isaiah 63:1, as well as a city of Moab (as we found in the foregoing chapter); and that which he threatens it with was not being a reproach, a waste, and a curse for a time, but for ever.

I have heard a rumour from the LORD, and an ambassador is sent unto the heathen, saying, Gather ye together, and come against her, and rise up to the battle.
I have heard a rumour from the Lord: Obadiah beginneth his prophecy much with such words. God hath revealed his will to me in a vision or a dream.

An ambassador is sent unto the heathen: he speaks after the manner of earthly princes, who use to send their ambassadors to other princes to declare their minds to them.

Saying, Gather ye together, and come against her, and rise up to the battle: the meaning is, God hath made such impressions upon other nations, he hath inclined them, or set them on work, to get together in armies to come against Edom in battle.

For, lo, I will make thee small among the heathen, and despised among men.
Obadiah, in his prophecy against Edom, Ob 2, hath much the same words, importing that God would bring the Edomites very low, and make them very contemptible.

Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, and the pride of thine heart, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the LORD.
Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, and the pride of thine heart: Obadiah in his prophecy against Edom useth much the same expressions, Obadiah 1:3,4. The word that is here used being of the number of those which are but once found in Scripture, hath given interpreters liberty to abound in their senses of it; some translating it arrogance, some, thine idol; but the best interpreters understand by it their terribleness to others, their being so potent that others were all afraid of them; this deceived them, making them to conclude themselves secure, and out of danger; to which is also added the pride of the heart. The country of Edom being mountainous, they are said to

dwell in the clefts of the rocks, that is, in places impregnable, and inaccessible as they thought, in the heights of the hill. But the Lord lets them know no place was to his power inaccessible or impregnable, for if they dwell as

high as the eagle, which the Scripture tells us, Job 39:27,28, maketh her nest on high, and dwelleth and abideth upon the rock, upon the crag of the rock, yet he would bring them down.

Also Edom shall be a desolation: every one that goeth by it shall be astonished, and shall hiss at all the plagues thereof.
The like is said of Babylon, Jeremiah 50:13: it appears from 1 Kings 9:8, that it was a kind of proverbial expression, when they would express a great desolation, or great plagues, that those who passed by such a place should be astonished, and hiss at it.

As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbour cities thereof, saith the LORD, no man shall abide there, neither shall a son of man dwell in it.
Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbour cities were utterly destroyed, and therefore are set down, both here and Jeremiah 50:40, as patterns of an utter ruin and desolation.

Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the swelling of Jordan against the habitation of the strong: but I will suddenly make him run away from her: and who is a chosen man, that I may appoint over her? for who is like me? and who will appoint me the time? and who is that shepherd that will stand before me?
This verse is very variously interpreted; some by

he understand the Jews, some understand Nebuchadnezzar, some understand the Edomites; I think the last is most probable to be here meant, because of the next words. The Edomites shall come out against the Chaldeans like a lion, as lions lurking about Jordan when it overfloweth come out to take their prey.

But I will suddenly make him run away from her: these words are variously understood, those who by he in the former part of the verse understand Nebuchadnezzar, interpret the running here mentioned of his running over the whole country of Edom; to me it appeareth a much more probable sense to interpret it of the Edomites running away from Nebuchadnezzar out of their own country, which seems to be understood by her; all that makes a difficulty is the particle from, which yet makes the sense good enough, if by her we understand the Edomites’ own land. In the Hebrew it is, I will break them, or I will quiet them, and make them to run. Who is a chosen man, that I may appoint over her? whom shall I set over Edom? Into whose hands shall I give that country, that he may rule over it?

For who is like me? for I can do whatsoever I please.

And who will appoint me a time to plead with men? so Job 9:19; or a time to fight?

Who is that shepherd that will stand before me? what is that king or potentate of the earth that will stand before me?

Therefore hear the counsel of the LORD, that he hath taken against Edom; and his purposes, that he hath purposed against the inhabitants of Teman: Surely the least of the flock shall draw them out: surely he shall make their habitations desolate with them.
Edom and Teman in this verse signify both the same thing; God calls to men to hear the resolutions he had taken up against the Edomites, resolutions as wise and steady as if they had been taken upon the wisest counsels and deliberation.

Surely the least of the flock shall draw them out; God is resolved to drive out the Edomites, and the least of Nebuchadnezzar’s forces shall drag them out of their lurking-places; and God will make the place where they dwell a desolation.

The earth is moved at the noise of their fall, at the cry the noise thereof was heard in the Red sea.
That is, the ruin of the Edomites shall be so great, that all nations round about it shall be affected at the noise of their fall; and though the Red Sea, or the weedy sea, be at a great distance from them, yet their noise shall reach thither.

Behold, he shall come up and fly as the eagle, and spread his wings over Bozrah: and at that day shall the heart of the mighty men of Edom be as the heart of a woman in her pangs.
See Poole "Jeremiah 48:40", See Poole "Jeremiah 48:41", where the very same thing, and under the same phrases, was spoken against Moab. That which is threatened is the enemies coming swiftly upon the Edomites and preying upon them, and the fear that should surprise them, which should make their hearts faint as the heart of a woman that hath a hard labour.

Concerning Damascus. Hamath is confounded, and Arpad: for they have heard evil tidings: they are fainthearted; there is sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet.
The prophet comes to denounce the judgments of God against Syria, another nation of the Gentiles.

Damascus was the head city of Syria, Isaiah 7:8 17:3, or Aram, (as in the Hebrew,) because it was a country inhabited by the posterity of Aram, one of the sons of Shem; part of it lay betwixt Babylon and Arabia, and was called Mesopotamia, lying betwixt the two rivers of Tigris and Euphrates. Laban and Naaman were of this country. David had war with them, 2 Samuel 8:5 10:18. So had Ahab, 1 Kings 20:20; and Joram, 2 Kings 8:28; and Ahaz, Isaiah 7:2. After God’s long patience with them he threatens them with ruin, as by Jeremiah in this place, so by Amos, i. 5. Damascus being the head of this country, is sometimes put (as here) for the whole country. Hamath and Arpad were two cities also of Syria, 2 Kings 18:34. The prophet foretells that they also should hear of ill news, an enemy that is coming against them, and that they should be melted through fear, and their courage should fail them, they should be as troubled as the sea, is in a storm, or their inhabitants that lived near to the sea should be troubled.

Damascus is waxed feeble, and turneth herself to flee, and fear hath seized on her: anguish and sorrows have taken her, as a woman in travail.
Syria, whose head is Damascus, hath lost her old courage and valour; it was wont to be a formidable country to its neighbours, but now they flee before their enemies.

Fear hath seized on her; they are seized, and overpowered by their own fears.

Anguish and sorrows have taken her, as a woman in travail; great sorrows are ordinarily in Scripture expressed by the similitude of the pains of a woman in travail; we have met with it often in this prophecy, Jeremiah 6:24 22:23: so Psalm 48:6 Micah 4:9.

How is the city of praise not left, the city of my joy!
It is called

the city of praise, because it was a city so much praised, a city of great renown, which the prophet seeing like to be destroyed, lamenteth either in the person of the king of Syria, or of the Syrian inhabitants, wondering that the conquerors should not spare so famous and renowned a city, in which so many did rejoice.

Therefore her young men shall fall in her streets, and all the men of war shall be cut off in that day, saith the LORD of hosts.
The Hebrew particles are not always well rendered in our translation, and our learned English Annotator hath rightly observed this place as one instance, for Nbl cannot be here an iliative, but is much better translated surely, as a note of assertion. God threateneth the Syrians with a certain ruin and desolation.

And I will kindle a fire in the wall of Damascus, and it shall consume the palaces of Benhadad.
I will bring a judgment that shall burn in Damascus like a consuming fire, and it shall reach to the royal seat of Benhadad; either that which was the royal seat of Ben-hadad, 2 Kings 8:7, or else Ben-hadad (signifying the son of Hadad, which was their idol) was the common name of all the kings of Syria, as Pharaoh was to the kings of Egypt, Amos 1:4
Concerning Kedar, and concerning the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon shall smite, thus saith the LORD; Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and spoil the men of the east.
Kedar, Genesis 25:13, was one of the sons of Ishmael, whose posterity inhabited part of Arabia Petrea. See Isa, Isaiah 21:13,17. We read of it Psalm 120:5 Song of Solomon 1:5 Ezekiel 27:21. We read of

Hazor Joshua 11:1 Joshua 11:10, it was the head city to several kingdoms in Joshua’s time; Jabin was king of it in the times of Deborah, Judges 4:2. The prophet foretells that Nebuchadrezzar should also conquer these kingdoms; and saith he heard the Lord call to Nebuchadrezzar to go up against them.

Their tents and their flocks shall they take away: they shall take to themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels; and they shall cry unto them, Fear is on every side.
That is, the Chaldeans shall take away the Kedarens’ tents; for they being a people whose cattle were their livelihood, had no fixed houses, but tents, which were movable habitations, covered with skins of beasts; and the curtains which they used to draw before those tents, and served them as sides, as gable ends of houses serve us; and all the furniture of their tents or tabernacles, and their cattle; and either their enemies should fright them with terrible noises and outcries, or they should themselves cry out that they were surrounded with objects of fear.

Flee, get you far off, dwell deep, O ye inhabitants of Hazor, saith the LORD; for Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath taken counsel against you, and hath conceived a purpose against you.
The words seem to be the prophet’s words of advice to this people, to make all the haste they could away, and to secure themselves as well as they could, because the king of Babylon had certainly been taking counsel against them, and was resolved to disturb them. See Jeremiah 49:8, where the like counsel is given to the Edomites.

Arise, get you up unto the wealthy nation, that dwelleth without care, saith the LORD, which have neither gates nor bars, which dwell alone.
The supposed result of Nebuchadnezzar’s counsels, giving charge to his armies to march against the Kedarens, which lived at case and quiet, and took no care; that had no cities, nor gates, nor bars to keep their enemies out, nor were near any neighbours that could assist them, nor very near to one another, living in tents, so might easily be overrun, and conquered, and made a prey to enemies.

And their camels shall be a booty, and the multitude of their cattle a spoil: and I will scatter into all winds them that are in the utmost corners; and I will bring their calamity from all sides thereof, saith the LORD.
And their camels shall be a booty, and the multitude of their cattle a spoil: these words sound like a part of the king of Babylon’s supposed speech encouraging his soldiers from the booty they should get, which should be a great multitude of camels and other cattle; the latter words are the words of the prophet, in the name of the Lord, threatening ruin to these Kedarens and Hazorites, though they lived in corners, and might upon that account think themselves secure; God saith he would fetch them out of their utmost corners, and bring calamity from all parts upon them.

And Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons, and a desolation for ever: there shall no man abide there, nor any son of man dwell in it.
That is, the whole country subject to the king of Hazor shall be desolate. See Isaiah 34:13 Jeremiah 9:11.

The word of the LORD that came to Jeremiah the prophet against Elam in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, saying,
Elam was the son of Shem, Genesis 10:22, his posterity were called Elamites; these were the Persians, as is most probable, though some judge that the Persians were at too great a distance from the Jews to be the people meant here, but we read of no other Elam in Scripture but in Persia, Daniel 8:2; and though they were indeed at a great distance, yet it is probable that Nebuchadnezzar, having conquered the Assyrians, might also make some inroads into Persia, the emperor of which afterward conquered Babylon. This prophecy being in the first year of Zedekiah must needs be long before the thing was done, for it was ten years before the king of Babylon took Jerusalem.

Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might.
All those Eastern people were famous for the use of the bow, the Elamites in special, Isaiah 22:6: those bows were the chief of their offensive armour, though by the chief of their might may also be meant their most mighty and strong warriors. This prophecy is probably judged to be fulfilled when the Persians made a defection from the king of the Medes, who was son-in-law to Nebuchadnezzar. Others think that this prophecy was accomplished by Alexander the emperor of Greece, or rather by his successors.

And upon Elam will I bring the four winds from the four quarters of heaven, and will scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come.
The prophet threateneth the destruction of the Persians by a confederacy of enemies, suppose Babylonians, Medes, &c., which should assault them on all sides, as when the wind blows at the same time from all quarters, which causeth a whirlwind, which driveth the dust every way hither and thither, so he saith the Persians should be scattered into all nations.

For I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before them that seek their life: and I will bring evil upon them, even my fierce anger, saith the LORD; and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them:
We met with the like threatenings Jeremiah 49:5,24,29, as to fear; and as to their destruction, we have often met with the like threatenings.

And I will set my throne in Elam, and will destroy from thence the king and the princes, saith the LORD.
God here calls the throne of Nebuchadnezzar, or Cyrus, or Alexander, (whoever he was that conquered the Persians,) his throne:

1. Because God gave it the conqueror.

2. Or because God showed himself the Lord of hosts, or the Lord of the whole earth, by disposing the kingdom of Persia at his pleasure. He doth not threaten the destruction of the whole nation, but the making of it all tributary, so as it should have no kings nor princes of its own.

But it shall come to pass in the latter days, that I will bring again the captivity of Elam, saith the LORD.
We had the like promise as to Moab, Jeremiah 48:47, and as to Ammon, Jeremiah 49:6; the same

latter days either signify after many days, or in the time of the Messias. In the former sense it may refer to Cyrus, who conquered Persia. In the latter sense it is referred to the spiritual liberty which some of these poor heathens were brought into by the gospel. We read, Acts 2:9, that some of these Elamites were at Jerusalem at Pentecost, and were some of those converted to Christ.

Matthew Poole's Commentary

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