Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges
Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto Hebron, saying, Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh.Ch. 1 Chronicles 11:1-3 (= 2 Samuel 5:1-3). David made King over all Israel
1. Then] Render, And. Chron. has nothing here corresponding to 2 Samuel 1-4, chapters which cover a period of seven years (2 Samuel 5:5). David’s earlier coronation by the men of Judah (2 Samuel 2:4), the reign of Ish-bosheth over Northern and Eastern Israel (ib. 2 Samuel 2:8 ff.), and the “long war” (ib. 2 Samuel 3:1) with the house of Saul are omitted. Some reference to the civil war however occurs in 1 Chronicles 12:23; 1 Chronicles 12:29.
we are thy bone and thy flesh] The phrase is not to be taken strictly as implying kinship, for only the tribe of Judah could say “The king is near of kin to us” (2 Samuel 19:42). The other tribes mean that they will obey David as though he were their own kin.
And moreover in time past, even when Saul was king, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD thy God said unto thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be ruler over my people Israel.2. And moreover] Omit these words with R.V.
thou wast he that leddest out] R.V. it was thou that leddest out; cp. 1 Samuel 18:16.
the Lord thy God said] Cp. 1 Chronicles 11:3; 1 Chronicles 11:10; 1 Samuel 16:1-13.
ruler] R.V. prince; cp. 1 Chronicles 5:2, note.
Therefore came all the elders of Israel to the king to Hebron; and David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the LORD; and they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by Samuel.3. made a covenant] i.e. gave them a charter in which he promised to respect existing rights; cp. 1 Samuel 10:25 (Samuel writes the “manner” of the kingdom).
before the Lord] One method of entering into a covenant “before the Lord” was to pass between the parts of a sacrificed animal; cp. Jeremiah 34:18-19.
Chron. has nothing here corresponding with 2 Samuel 5:4-5; but cp. 1 Chronicles 29:27.
And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, which is Jebus; where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land.4–9 (= 2 Samuel 5:6-10). The “City of David” captured and made a royal residence
4. David and all Israel] In Samuel (more accurately) “The king and his men,” i.e. his household and body-guard; cp. 1 Chronicles 10:6, note. A picked force, not a large one, was necessary.
which is Jebus] R.V. (the same is Jebus). Jerusalem (or Jebus) consisted, it seems (cp. 1 Chronicles 11:8; Jdg 1:21), of a citadel inhabited by Jebusites and of a lower city inhabited by a mixed population of Jebusites and Benjamites. It was the citadel only which David stormed.
where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land] R.V. and the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, were there. The Jebusites are called “inhabitants of the land,” because they were one of the “seven nations” dispossessed by Israel at the conquest (Deuteronomy 7:1).
And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David, Thou shalt not come hither. Nevertheless David took the castle of Zion, which is the city of David.5. Thou shalt not come hither] A longer speech of defiance is given in 2 Samuel 5:6 (see R.V. mg.) in which the Jebusites assert that their city is so strong by nature that a garrison of blind and lame is sufficient for its defence.
the castle of Zion] R.V. the strong hold of Zion. The site of this (afterwards “the city of David”) is on the S.E. of the present city, on the S. of the Haram (the Temple area), and on a level lower than that of the Haram (Socin-Benzinger in Bädeker, p. 22; Sir C. Wilson in Smith’s Bible Dict. ed. 2, “Jerusalem,” p. 1648). For the less probable view that the stronghold of Zion was on the S.W. of the present city see C. R. Conder in Hastings’ Bible Dict., Art. “Jerusalem,” vol. ii. p. 591.
And David said, Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain. So Joab the son of Zeruiah went first up, and was chief.6. Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain] The Chronicler has simplified the very difficult phrase which occurs in the parallel passage (2 Samuel 5:8).
Joab the son of Zeruiah] Zeruiah was David’s sister (1 Chronicles 2:16). It is not said in Samuel that Joab first became commander-in-chief on this occasion; on the contrary he appears in command (2 Samuel 2:13) during the civil war against the house of Saul. Perhaps he was first formally acknowledged as commander at the capture of Jebus.
And David dwelt in the castle; therefore they called it the city of David.7. the castle] R.V. the strong hold (as in 1 Chronicles 11:5).
And he built the city round about, even from Millo round about: and Joab repaired the rest of the city.8. even from Millo round about] R.V. from Millo even round about. Millo, usually “the Millo,” meaning perhaps “The filling up,” was some part of the defences of the “city of David,” either a solid tower or perhaps an armoury, or a piece of supplementary work intended to strengthen an existing wall (LXX. 2 Chronicles 32:5, ἀνάλημμα, “support”).
repaired] Render spared or kept alive; cp. Exodus 1:17. Pesh. translates: “Joab gave his right hand to the rest of the men who were in the city.” The “rest (remnant) of the city” included Benjamites as well as Jebusites (Jdg 1:21).
So David waxed greater and greater: for the LORD of hosts was with him.
These also are the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, and with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.10. These also] R.V. Now these. This verse is the Chronicler’s own heading which he prefixes to the list of heroes taken from Sam., while retaining (in 1 Chronicles 11:11) the original heading given in Sam.
who strengthened themselves with him] Render with R.V. mg., who held strongly with him. Cp. 1 Chronicles 12:23.
and with all Israel] R.V. together with all Israel.
10–41a (= 2 Samuel 23:8-39). David’s Mighty Men and their Deeds
(The names of twelve of these heroes reappear in chap. 27 as the commanders of David’s twelve “courses.”)
This section seems to consist of elements drawn from different sources and brought together (probably by the author of Samuel) in order to give as complete a list as possible of the heroes who at different times in David’s career did good service to Israel.
1 Chronicles 11:11-14 (= 2 Samuel 23:8-12) deal with two (in Sam. three) heroes otherwise unknown.
1 Chronicles 11:15-19 (= 2 Samuel 23:13-17) are independent of the foregoing and narrate an exploit of three unnamed heroes.
1 Chronicles 11:20-25 (= 2 Samuel 23:18-23) seem in turn to be independent of 15–19, and 1 Chronicles 11:21; 1 Chronicles 11:25 in particular seem to be quoted from some lost poem. These verses contain the eulogy of Abishai and Benaiah.
1 Chronicles 11:26-41 a (= 2 Samuel 23:24-39) contain thirty names of heroes whose exploits are not recorded. It is to be noted that Chron., 1 Chronicles 11:41 b–47, adds some sixteen names at the end which are not given in Samuel.
Joab is not included in the formal list because he has been already mentioned (1 Chronicles 11:6).
Lists of names are favourite features in Oriental Histories. Thus ibn Hishâm in his life of Mohammed gives a list of the 83 Moslems who took refuge in Abyssinia from the persecution of the Koreish, of the 75 inhabitants of Medina who swore allegiance to the Prophet before the Hegira, and even of the 314 Moslems who were present at the battle of Bedr.
And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had; Jashobeam, an Hachmonite, the chief of the captains: he lifted up his spear against three hundred slain by him at one time.11. this is the number] More suitably in Samuel, “These be the names.”
Jashobeam] Called “Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel” in 1 Chronicles 27:2. The name “Jashobeam” is however uncertain. In 2 Sam. (1 Chronicles 23:8, R.V.) it appears as “Josheb-basshebeth,” which is certainly wrong. LXX. (B) varies in reproducing the name, but it seems to have read “Ish-bosheth” in Samuel, and “Ish-baal” (Esh-baal) In both places of Chron. These readings are probably right. For the identity of the names “Ish-bosheth,” “Esh-baal” see 1 Chronicles 8:33, note.
a Hachmonite] R.V. the son of a Hachmonite; cp. 1 Chronicles 27:32. In Samuel (wrongly) “a Tahchemonite.”
chief of the captains] So Heb. (K’rî), but the C’thîb (which the R.V. follows) reads, chief of the thirty. Neither A.V. nor R.V. gives satisfactory sense. In 2 Samuel 23:8 the LXX. gives, chief of the third part [of the army], cp. ib. 2 Samuel 18:2; and this is perhaps right; the Heb. text of Sam. (if not faulty) probably bears the same sense.
he lift up his spear] Lit. “he aroused his spear” (a poetic expression). Lift is an obsolete form of the past tense.
against three hundred] Samuel “against eight hundred”; so Pesh. (good MSS.) of Chron. Some light is thrown on this exploit by 1 Samuel 18:25-27; the two hundred Philistines slain by David and his men were carefully counted and reckoned to the credit of David personally.
slain by him at one time] R.V. and slew them at out time.
And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was one of the three mighties.12. Eleazar the son of Dodo] Probably to be identified with “Dodai the Ahohite,” the commander of the second “course”; 1 Chronicles 27:4.
the three mighties] R.V. the three mighty men, i.e. the three who were with David on the occasion mentioned in 2 Samuel 23:9.
12, 13. These verses answer In part to 1 Chronicles 11:9; 1 Chronicles 11:11 of Samuel, but since 1 Chronicles 11:10 and parts of 1 Chronicles 11:9; 1 Chronicles 11:11 of Sam. have no equivalent in Chron., two incidents are confounded, and the name of a hero (Shammah) is omitted, his exploit being ascribed to Eleazar.
He was with David at Pasdammim, and there the Philistines were gathered together to battle, where was a parcel of ground full of barley; and the people fled from before the Philistines.13. at Pasdammim] The same place under the name “Ephes-dammim” is mentioned in 1 Samuel 17:1 as the gathering-place of the Philistines. It was in the S.W. of Judah.
a parcel of ground] R.V. a plot of ground. The same use of “parcel” occurs Genesis 33:19; Ruth 4:3; John 4:5 (even in R.V.).
barley] Samuel “lentils.” The two words resemble each other in Heb. and might be confused by an unwary scribe.
And they set themselves in the midst of that parcel, and delivered it, and slew the Philistines; and the LORD saved them by a great deliverance.14. set themselves] R.V. stood, i.e. “took their stand” (cp. 1 Samuel 17:16 “presented himself”). The subject of the verb in 2 Samuel 23:12 is Shammah, here David and Eleazar together.
Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.15. the thirty captains] R.V. the thirty chief.
to the rock] Samuel “in the harvest-time.” Perhaps both readings are wrong, the original reading being the name of a place. LXX. (B) in Sam. has εἰς Καδών.
the cave of Adullam] Perhaps we should read here (and in 1 Samuel 22:1; 2 Samuel 23:13) “strong hold of Adullam.” It is called “the hold” (strong hold) in 1 Samuel 22:4. G. A. Smith (Hist. Geog. p. 229) suggests an identification with a commanding hill in the Shephelah called ‘Aid-el-ma. It is about twelve miles to the S.W. of Beth-lehem.
the valley of Rephaim] Probably the broad depression traversed by the road from Jerusalem to Beth-lehem. See Joshua 15:8 (“vale of Rephaim” R.V.; “valley of the giants” A.V.).
And David was then in the hold, and the Philistines' garrison was then at Bethlehem.16. in the hold] Cp. note on the cave of Adullam (1 Chronicles 11:15).
the Philistines’ garrison] R.V. the garrison of the Philistines. The word may however mean “the Philistine governor” (so read in 1 Samuel 13:3-4 for the same Heb. word). The parallel passage however (2 Samuel 23:14) has “the garrison of the Philistines.”
And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem, that is at the gate!17. give me drink of the water] R.V. give me water to drink.
that is at] R.V. which is by (so Sam.).
And the three brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David: but David would not drink of it, but poured it out to the LORD,18. brake through the host] The word “host” in the Hebrew means a host encamped, not a host embattled. Perhaps this exploit took place by night; compare the deed of David and Abishai (1 Samuel 26:6-12).
And said, My God forbid it me, that I should do this thing: shall I drink the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy? for with the jeopardy of their lives they brought it. Therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mightiest.19. these men that … brought it] Render, these men? With the jeopardy of their lives, yea, of their lives they brought it.
three mightiest] R.V. three mighty men (so Sam.).
And Abishai the brother of Joab, he was chief of the three: for lifting up his spear against three hundred, he slew them, and had a name among the three.20. chief of the three] In 2 Samuel 23:18 (C’thîb) Abishai is called by the same title (Heb. rôsh hasshâlîshi) as Josheb-basshebeth (ib. 2 Samuel 23:8). This title probably means chief of the third part [of the army]; cp. 2 Samuel 23:11, note. Chief of the three is a faulty reading.
for lifting up his spear] R.V. for he lifted up his spear; cp. 1 Chronicles 11:11, note.
had a name among the three] Cp. 1 Chronicles 11:24, where the same thing is said of Benaiah. The three meant are either the three of 1 Chronicles 11:15-19 or else an unknown three; cp. next note.
Of the three, he was more honourable than the two; for he was their captain: howbeit he attained not to the first three.21. Of the three he was more honourable than the two] R.V. mg. “Of the three in the second rank he was the most honourable.” The word, translated “in the second rank,” is however certainly corrupt (cp. 2 Samuel 23:19), and should be corrected. We then translate: He was more honourable than the three. The verse probably comes from a lost poem. What is meant by the three and by the first three cannot be determined owing to the loss of the context.
Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man of Kabzeel, who had done many acts; he slew two lionlike men of Moab: also he went down and slew a lion in a pit in a snowy day.22. Benaiah] See 2 Samuel 8:18; 1 Kings 1:8 ff; 1 Kings 2:25-35.
Kabzeel] It was in the south of Judah; Joshua 15:21.
done many acts] R.V. done mighty deeds.
he slew two lionlike men of Moab] R.V. “the two sons of Ariel of Moab” (so LXX. of 2 Samuel 23:20). The phrase however is very difficult to interpret. Another translation is “he slew the two champions of Moab.” A fourth (perhaps the best) is “he smote the two altar-pillars of Moab,” i.e. he overthrew the two high columns on which the sacred fire of the Moabites was kept (Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, Additional Note L). To injure or deile the sacred place of an enemy was a common practice in ancient war.
in a snowy day] R.V. in time of snow.
And he slew an Egyptian, a man of great stature, five cubits high; and in the Egyptian's hand was a spear like a weaver's beam; and he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear.23. of great stature] Heb. “of measurement.” Samuel has a better reading, “a goodly man” (man of presence), “goodliness” according to the Hebrews consisting in being well-built for warlike exercises.
a staff] Heb. ‘shebhet,’ i.e. the “rod” or “club” carried by shepherds as a defence against wild-beasts; Psalm 2:9 (“rod”); 1 Chronicles 23:4 (“rod”); 2 Samuel 18:14 (“darts”). This “rod” had a point at one end, so that it could on occasion be used as a stabbing weapon.
These things did Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and had the name among the three mighties.24. had the name among the three mighties] R.V. had a name among the three mighty men; cp. 1 Chronicles 5:20.
Behold, he was honourable among the thirty, but attained not to the first three: and David set him over his guard.25. he was honourable among the thirty] R.V. (cp. 1 Chronicles 11:21), he was more honourable than the thirty. The verse probably comes from some poem written in praise of Benaiah. Cp. 1 Chronicles 27:6.
but attained not to the first three] Cp. note on 1 Chronicles 11:21.
guard] The same Heb. word, mishma‘ath, is translated “council” in 1 Samuel 22:14. The literal meaning of the word is “obedience”; it seems both here and in Sam. (l.c.) to designate those who executed the king’s commands, i.e. his ministers. (Minister = “servant”.)
Also the valiant men of the armies were, Asahel the brother of Joab, Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem,26. Also the valiant men of the armies were, Asahel] Render, And the valiant men of might; Asahel. Cp. 1 Chronicles 2:16; 2 Samuel 2:18 ff; 2 Samuel 3:27.
Elhanan] Called here (= 2 Samuel 23:14) “son of Dodo,” but probably to be identified with “Elhanan the son of Jair” of 1 Chronicles 20:5 (= 2 Samuel 21:19) “son of Jaare-oregim,” for “Jaare-oregim” is not to be taken as his father’s name, and the “Jair” of Chron. appears to be a corruption of “Jaare.” Elhanan was son of Dodo and belonged to a place the name of which was something like Jaare-oregim.
Shammoth the Harorite, Helez the Pelonite,27. the Harorite] Read, the Herodite (so Sam.). Cp. Jdg 6:23; Jdg 7:1, whence it appears that Harod was in (or near) the valley of Jezreel. Cp. also 1 Chronicles 27:8 (“Shamhuth the Izrahite”), where the same person seems to be meant. “Elika the Harodite” (Sam.) is not found in Chron.
Helez the Pelonite] Cp. 1 Chronicles 27:10, where he is described as a captain of the children of Ephraim. In 2 Samuel 23:26 however it is Helez the Paltite, i.e. (apparently) “the inhabitant of Beth-pelet” in the south of Judah (Joshua 15:27).
Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite, Abiezer the Antothite,28. Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite] Cp. 1 Chronicles 27:9. For Tekoa see 2 Chronicles 20:20, note.
Abi-ezer the Antothite] R.V. Abi-ezer the Anathothite; 1 Chronicles 27:12 and 2 Samuel 23:27. Anathoth was in Benjamin; it was Jeremiah’s village (Jeremiah 1:1; Jeremiah 11:21 ff.), now Anâta, 2½ miles N.N.E. of Jerusalem.
Sibbecai the Hushathite, Ilai the Ahohite,29. Sibbecai] So 1 Chronicles 27:11, but in 2 Samuel 23:27 “Mebunnai.”
the Hushathite] Hushah is probably the name of some place near Beth-lehem (1 Chronicles 4:4). Shuah (ib. 1 Chronicles 4:11) is perhaps another form of the name.
Ilai] In 2 Samuel 23:28 “Zalmon.” The two words are more alike in Hebrew than in English, and seem to be various readings of the name which originally appeared in the list.
the Ahohite] He was of a Benjamite family; 1 Chronicles 8:4 (“Ahoah”).
Maharai the Netophathite, Heled the son of Baanah the Netophathite,30. Maharai the Netophathite] So in 1 Chronicles 27:13, with “of the Zerahites” (R.V.) added. A Netophathite might come either from Netophah (a village in Judah not far from Beth-lehem), or from the “villages of the Netophathites” (1 Chronicles 9:16, note).
Heled] In 1 Chronicles 27:15 “Heldai,” a name found in Zechariah 6:10. “Heleb” in 2 Samuel 23:29 is probably a wrong reading.
Ithai the son of Ribai of Gibeah, that pertained to the children of Benjamin, Benaiah the Pirathonite,31. Ithai] In 2 Samuel 23:29 “Ittai,” the same name as in 2 Samuel 15:19; 2 Samuel 18:2, but a different person is meant.
that pertained to] R.V. of.
Benaiah the Pirathonite] So in 1 Chronicles 27:14; 2 Samuel 23:30. Pirathon was a town in Ephraim; Jdg 12:15. Probably the place is mentioned also in 1Ma 9:50 (τὴν Θαμνάθα Φαραθών).
Hurai of the brooks of Gaash, Abiel the Arbathite,32. Hurai] In 2 Samuel 23:30, “Hiddai.” The true form of the name is uncertain; neither form occurs elsewhere.
Gaash] A mountain in Ephraim; Jdg 2:9 (= Joshua 24:30).
Abiel] In 2 Samuel 23:31 “Abi-albon.” “Arbathite” means “inhabitant of Beth Arabah”; Joshua 15:6, a town on the border between Judah and Benjamin.
Azmaveth the Baharumite, Eliahba the Shaalbonite,33. Baharumite] In 2 Samuel 23:31 “Barhumite.” We should read in both places, Bahurimite, i.e. “inhabitant of Bahurim,” a town of Benjamin (2 Samuel 3:16).
Shaalbonite] i.e. “inhabitant of Shaalbim” (Jdg 1:35), or “Shaalabbin” (Joshua 19:42), a town in Dan.
The sons of Hashem the Gizonite, Jonathan the son of Shage the Hararite,34. the sons of Hashem the Gizonite] The corresponding clause in 2 Samuel 23:32 is simply “the sons of Jashen.” The text is corrupt in both places. LXX. (Chron.) for the sons of has the proper name “Benaiah.” Read perhaps “Jashen the Gunite” (cp. Numbers 26:48) omitting the sons of (Heb. bĕnç) as arising from a mistaken repetition of the last three letters of Shaalbonite (Heb. form).
Jonathan the son of Shage] Cp. 2 Samuel 23:32-33, where the right reading seems to be “Jonathan the son of Shammah.” Nothing is known of the meaning of “Hararite,” nor is the reading certain.
Ahiam the son of Sacar the Hararite, Eliphal the son of Ur,35. Sacar] In 2 Sam. “Sharar.”
35, 36. Eliphal the son of Ur, Hepher the Mecherathite] In 2 Samuel 23:34 “Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai, the son of the Maachathite.” Chron. has two heroes against one in 2 Sam.
Hepher the Mecherathite, Ahijah the Pelonite,36. Ahijah the Pelonite] A mutilated reading of 2 Samuel 23:34, “Eliam the son of Ahithophel the Gilonite.” For “Ahithophel” see 1 Chronicles 27:33, note. “Gilonite” means “inhabitant of Giloh,” a town in the hill country of Judah (Joshua 15:51).
Hezro the Carmelite, Naarai the son of Ezbai,37. Hezro] So 2 Samuel 23:35 (R.V. following the C’thîb); but Hezrai (A.V. following the Krî).
the Carmelite] i.e. inhabitant of Carmel, a town in the hill country of Judah (1 Samuel 25:2 ff).
Naarai] In 2 Samuel 23:35, “Paarai.” The true form of the name is lost.
the son of Ezbai] In 2 Sam. “the Arbite” (simply), i.e. (probably) “inhabitant of Arab” (Joshua 15:52), a town in the hill country of Judah.
Joel the brother of Nathan, Mibhar the son of Haggeri,38. Joel the brother of Nathan, Mibhar] Mibhar is a corruption of a word (“of Zobah”) belonging to the first clause of the verse; cp. 2 Samuel 23:36, “Igal the son of Nathan of Zobah.” For “Zobah” cp. 1 Chronicles 18:3.
the son of Haggeri] In 2 Sam. “Bani the Gadite.”
Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Berothite, the armourbearer of Joab the son of Zeruiah,39. the Berothite] Spelt generally “Beerothite.” Beeroth was a Benjamite town; 2 Samuel 4:2.
Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite,40. the Ithrite] i.e. “member of the family (or ‘clan’) of Jether.” Cp. 1 Chronicles 2:17, note.
Uriah the Hittite, Zabad the son of Ahlai,41. Uriah the Hittite] Cp. 2 Samuel 11:3. The list in 2 Samuel 23 closes with this name and with the note “thirty and seven in all.” In Chron. the list is extended to include sixteen additional names.
41b–47 (no parallel in 2 Sam). Continuation of the List of David’s Mighty Men
Adina the son of Shiza the Reubenite, a captain of the Reubenites, and thirty with him,42. and thirty with him] This clause is probably a marginal note taken into the text at the wrong place. It was apparently meant to stand after the name of Uriah the Hittite (1 Chronicles 11:41) by some scribe who followed our present text and referred “the sons of Hashem” (1 Chronicles 11:34) to Azmaveth and Eliahba (1 Chronicles 11:33), thus reckoning just thirty names from Asahel to Uriah. The clause should be read either “and up to him are thirty” or “and all of them are thirty” (cp. 2 Samuel 23:39).
Hanan the son of Maachah, and Joshaphat the Mithnite,
Uzzia the Ashterathite, Shama and Jehiel the sons of Hothan the Aroerite,44. the Ashterathite] i.e. inhabitant of Ashtaroth (1 Chronicles 6:71 [56 Heb.]), a city of Manasseh east of Jordan.
and Jehiel the sons of Hothan] R.V. and Jeiel the sons of Hotham.
the Aroerite] i.e. inhabitant of Aroer. There were two cities of this name, both east of Jordan; cp. Joshua 13:16; Joshua 13:25.
Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joha his brother, the Tizite,
Eliel the Mahavite, and Jeribai, and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam, and Ithmah the Moabite,46. the Mahavite] Read perhaps, “the Mahanite,” i.e. inhabitant of Mahanaim, a town east of Jordan; cp. 2 Samuel 17:27.
Eliel, and Obed, and Jasiel the Mesobaite.47. the Mesobaite] R.V. the Mezobaite. Read perhaps, “of Zobah”; cp. 1 Chronicles 11:38, note.