1 Peter 2
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings,
1 Peter 2:1. Πᾶσαν κακίαν, all vice) Πᾶσαν, πάντα, πάσας: he points out three kinds. Κακίαν, a faulty state of mind, as opposed to virtue.—πάντα δόλον καὶ ὑποκρίσεις καὶ φθόνους, all guile, and hypocrisies, and envyings) in actions. Guile wrongs; hypocrisy deceives; envy assails a neighbour: all these things are injurious to love, on which see ch. 1 Peter 1:22.—πάσας καταλαλίας, all detractions) in conversation.

As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby:
1 Peter 2:2. Ὡς ἀρτιγέννητα, as new-born) who do nothing else, but only desire. The first age of the Church of the New Testament is marked out.—βρέφη, babes) who are free from all guile.—λογικὸν) Derived from λόγος, the Word, ch. 1 Peter 1:23. The milk of the Word is a periphrasis for the Word itself. Comp. Romans 12:1, note.—ἄδολον, without guile) The antithesis to guile in 1 Peter 2:1.—γάλα, milk) This is the same as that which is before called seed, ch. 1 Peter 1:23.—ἵνα ἐν αὐτῷ αὐξηθῆτε εἰς σωτηρίαν, that ye may grow thereby unto salvation) We are born again unto salvation, ch. 1 Peter 1:3; 1 Peter 1:5; 1 Peter 1:9; and we grow unto salvation, in this passage. The copies of greatest authority have long read,[13] ΕἸς ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑΝ: in the more recent ones, an hiatus has been introduced, the eye of one or two copyists having glided from ΕἸς to ΕἼΠΕΡ in the next verse. Peter had in his mind Psalms 34, which in 1 Peter 2:8, under those words which Peter repeats, holds out to us ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑΝ, salvation. Γεύσασθε καὶ ἴδετε, ὅτι χρηστὸς ὁ Κύριος. ΜΑΚΑΡΙΟΣ ἀνήρ, ὃς ἐλπίζει ἐπʼ αὐτόν. O taste and see that the Lord is good: Blessed is the man that trusteth in Him. The first tastes of the goodness of God are afterwards followed by more full and happy experiences.

[13] ABC Vulg. and almost all Versions, read εἰς σωτηρίαν. Rec. Text, with inferior authorities, omits the words.—E.

If so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious.
1 Peter 2:3. Ἐγεύσασθε, ye have tasted) A taste excites the appetite.[14]—ὍΤΙ, that) Psalm 34:8. Peter quotes the same Psalm in the next chapter.—χρηστὸς, good) Therefore they, who are born again, are and ought to be like Him.—ὁ Κύριος, the Lord) יהוה, Christ, 1 Peter 2:4 : Psalm 47:6.

[14] Comp. Malachi 3:10.—V. g.

To whom coming, as unto a living stone, disallowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and precious,
1 Peter 2:4. Ὅν, whom) Apposition: whom, that is, the Lord, the Stone.—προσερχόμενοι, approaching) of your own accord, through faith.—λίθον, stone) In what manner He is regarded both by believers and unbelievers, is declared, 1 Peter 2:6-7. The name given to Peter by the Lord remained fixed in his mind: hence he alludes to it in various ways, not only under the name of Stone, Acts 4:11, but also under the repeated mention of firmness [stedfastness, 1 Peter 5:9].—ζῶντα, living) living from the beginning, 1 John 1:1, and raised from the dead, Revelation 1:18, after that He had been rejected by men, both Jews and Gentiles.—ἀποδεδοκιμασμένον, disallowed) especially before His death: 1 Peter 2:7, note.—ἐκλεκτὸν, elect) 1 Peter 2:6.

Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.
1 Peter 2:5. Καὶ) even.—αὐτοὶ) yourselves, partakers of the same name (Stone).—λίθοι, stones) Many names, which belong to Christ in the singular, are assigned to Christians in the plural. Christ is the Living Stone; Christians are living stones. From Him they also are called sons, priests, kings, lambs, etc. So the Shulamite is called from Solomon.—ζῶντες, living) Such persons, living stones, may be at once both a house and a priesthood.—οἰκοδομεῖσθε, are built up) The indicative, as Ephesians 2:22.—οἶκος, a house) a temple.—ἱεράτευμα, a priesthood) a multitude of priests. This is presently afterwards explained, and (the contrary having been premised in 1 Peter 2:8) in 1 Peter 2:9-10.—ἅγιον, holy) as belonging to God.—θυσίας, sacrifices) of praise, 1 Peter 2:9.—εὐπροσδέκτους, acceptable) Isaiah 56:7, αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν ἔσονται δεκταὶ ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριόν μου· Their sacrifices shall be accepted on My altar.—διὰ, by) Christ is both precious in Himself, and makes us accepted; for He is the altar. See Isa. as quoted above.

Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.
1 Peter 2:6. Περιέχει, it is contained) Used here as an impersonal verb.—ἰδοὺ, behold) See Romans 9:33, note.—ἐκλεκτὸν, ἔντιμον, elect, precious) Elect, has special reference to the stone; precious, to the chief corner-stone. In Hebrew אבן, a stone בחן פנת יקרת מוסד מוסד of searching out, a corner-stone of preciousness, most firmly laid. The term elect is also used of believers, 1 Peter 2:9. From the word precious is derived the word ἡ τιμὴ, the preciousness, the price, 1 Peter 2:7.—ὁ πιστεύων, he that believeth) From this is derived the word believing [unto you who believe], 1 Peter 2:7οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ, shall not be put to shame) He shall experience that the preciousness of Christ abounds towards him (whilst) believing.

Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner,
1 Peter 2:7. Ἡ τιμὴ, the preciousness or price) Supply ἐστὶν, exists, is well known; that is, He is precious towards (in the estimation of) you., that, refers to precious, 1 Peter 2:6, note. The abstract, preciousness or price, expresses the view in which the faithful regard Christ.—λίθονγωνίας, a stoneof the corner) See Matthew 21:42, note. Peter had quoted the same saying, Acts 4:11; and in this place he quotes it most appropriately. Λίθον, κ.τ.λ. The Syriac translator, or Greek copyist, before him, passing from λίθον to λίθος, omitted the intermediate words, as sometimes happens. But these plainly belong to the subject. Peter quotes three sayings in 1 Peter 2:6-7 : the first from Isaiah, the second from the Psalms, the third again from Isaiah. He makes allusion to the third in 1 Peter 2:8; but he alluded to the second and the first in 1 Peter 2:4, even then revolving them both in his mind. Therefore the words, ἀποδεδοκιμασμένον, rejected, and ἀπεδοκίμασαν, they rejected, in 1 Peter 2:4; 1 Peter 2:7, have reference to each other. The dative, ἀπειθοῦσι, to them that are disobedient, as just before ὑμῖν τοῖς πιστεύουσιν, to you that believe, accords with the Hebrew prefix ל, with this meaning, as relates to those that believe not; and the remaining part of this verse coheres with this dative, and the construction is easy: ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας καὶ λίθος προσκόμματος, κ.τ.λ., was made the head of the corner and a stone of stumbling, etc.; the conjoining of the two sayings (Dicta) softening the disparity of the accusative and the nominative case, εἰς κεφαλὴνλίθος. The saying of the Psalm has a twofold agreement with this. For 1st, They who ἀπεδοκίμασαν, rejected the stone, were truly ἀπειθοῦντες, disobedient. 2d, The same persons, while they rejected the stone, were unconsciously contributing to its becoming κεφαλὴ γωνίας, the head of the corner; nor can they now prevent this, however much they may be grieved [lit. snarl at it], and they shall experience, to their great misery, that He is the head of the corner: Matthew 21:44.—κεφαλὴν, the head) Christ is the head of the corner, especially with reference to believers, who are built upon Him; yet unbelievers experience this in another way.

And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.
1 Peter 2:8. Οἱ προσκόπτουσι, τῷ λόγῷ ἀπειθοῦντες, who stumble, not believing the word) In 1 Peter 2:7, he expressed the different judgments of believers and unbelievers respecting Christ; now he sets forth the difference itself between believers and unbelievers. Many construct προσκόπτουσι τῷ λόγῳ, stumble at the word. But προσκόπτουσι, put absolutely (as in John 11:9), is derived from προσκόμματος, the word quoted from Isaiah; and the declaration follows, τῷ λόγῳ ἀπειθοῦντες, not believing the word, as ch. 1 Peter 4:17, Τὶ τὸ τέλος τῶν ἀπειθούντων τῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ εὐαγγελίῳ; What shall be the end of those who obey not the Gospel of God? and certainly ch. 1 Peter 3:1, εἴ τινες ἀπειθοῦσι τῷ λόγῳ: If any obey not the word. It is in the Gospel-word that the preciousness of Christ is set forth: they who do not believe the word, despise Christ, and stumble at Him.—εἰς ὃ καὶ ἐτέθησαν, to which also they were appointed) Which refers to stumble: they who do not believe, stumble; they who stumble are also appointed for stumbling. This appointment follows unbelief and stumbling, as even the intensive particle, also, and the order of this clause which is placed last, signify. And yet stumble is present. They were appointed has the force of a past tense; by which it is implied, that by a most just judgment of God, unbelievers stumble more and more from day to day. Are appointed answers to I lay (or appoint), 1 Peter 2:6; but with some difference: for God is said, in the active, to appoint Christ and the elect: unbelievers, in the passive, are said to be appointed. Comp. Romans 9:22, note.

But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light:
1 Peter 2:9. Ὑμεῖς δὲ, but ye) Supply are. After the mention of a subject so sorrowful he consoles the pious; as 2 Thessalonians 2:13.—γένοςεἰς περιποίησιν, a generationfor a peculiar possession) He twice mentions two remarkable sentences, which signify the relation of believers, as towards their Father and towards their God: Isaiah 43:20-21, Septuagint, τὸ γένος μου τὸ ἐκλεκτόν· λαόν μου ὃν περιεποιησάμην, τὰς ἀρετάς μου διηγεῖσθαι: My nation [“people”], My chosen: My people whom I have reserved as a possession [“formed”] for Myself, to “show forth My praises.” Exodus 19:5-6, λαὸς περιούσιος ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν, βασίλειον ἱεράτευμα, καὶ ἔθνος ἅγιον: a peculiar people from all the nations, a royal priesthood, and a holy nation. Περὶ in composition often denotes something surviving: as περιγίνεσθαι, to conquer, the enemy being driven back; περιποιεῖσθαι, to reserve something, when you give up the rest; περιβιοῦν, not to put to death; περιόντες, שרידים, the surviving, Job 27:15. And thus for סגלה the Septuagint has περιούσιος, Exodus, as quoted above, etc.; περιουσιασμὸς and περιποίησις, Malachi 3:17. Peter does not add, ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἔθνων, from all the nations; because he honours the Gentiles also with this title: 1 Peter 2:10.—ἐκλεκτὸν) chosen, excellent.—βασίλειον ἱεράτευμα, ἔθνος ἅγιον, λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for a peculiar possession) A kingdom of priests is a Hebrew expression. God is a king; His priests are the faithful: Revelation 1:6. Comp. 2 Samuel 8:18 with 1 Chronicles 18:17. A holy nation, the property of God. Περιποίησις in the abstract is the same as περιούσιος in the concrete, in the Septuagint. Comp. Ephesians 1:14, note.—τὰς ἀρετὰς, His excellencies) His wonderful glory in this verse, His mercy in the following verse, His goodness in 1 Peter 2:3.[15] St Paul only once uses the word ἀρετὴ, Php 4:8, of the righteous: St Peter, in this one passage only of this Epistle, of God: in the second Epistle, ch. 1 Peter 1:3, he employs it a second time of God, and in 1 Peter 2:5 (of the same chapter) he uses it of the faithful. The Hebrew is תהלתי at the passage already quoted; which word in Isaiah 42:8; Isaiah 42:12; Isaiah 63:7, the Septuagint translates by ἀρετὰς, just as they put ἀρετὴ for הוד, Habakkuk 3:3; Zechariah 6:13. Eustathius on Hom. Odyss. Σ., ἀρετὴν οὐ μίαν τινὰ λέγει, ἀλλὰ τὸ εὔδαιμον τῆς ζώῆς καὶ μακαριστὸν, ἢ καὶ πᾶσαν δεξιότητα, οὐ μόνον τὴν κατὰ φρένας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν κατὰ ἔργα καὶ οἰκονομίαν καὶ ὅσα τοιαῦτα: he does not speak of any one excellency, but of the happiness and blessedness of life, or even all cleverness, not only in mind, but in deed and in management, and things of this kind. And so he says everywhere.—ἘΞΑΓΓΕΊΛΗΤΕ, should show forth or declare) The sense is, that ye acknowledge and declare. Septuagint, Isaiah 42:12, ΤᾺς ἈΡΕΤᾺς ΑὐΤΟῦ ἘΝ ΤΑῖς ΝΉΣΟΙς ἈΝΑΓΓΕΛΟῦΣΙ, they shall declare His praises in the islands. Ἐξ in ἐξαγγείλητε expresses the ignorance of many, to whom the faithful ought to declare the excellencies of God.—τοῦ) of God: 2 Peter 1:3, note.

[15] Comp. Numbers 14:17.—V. g.

Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.
1 Peter 2:10. Οἱ ποτὲ, who in time past) See Romans 9:25, note; and with “in time past,” comp. presently after, “ye were,” 1 Peter 2:25. The quotation from Hosea is a kind of enigma. In Hosea, if taken literally, it has reference to the Jews; for, according to the context, as an axiom it is only applied to a particular subject (hypothesis[16]); but there may be a more general question (thesis) in the mind of the speaker, and then it may be applied to other subjects. I will call them My people, who were not (My) people, is applicable to Jews and Gentiles. Thus care is taken that the sense of the text may not necessarily appear to be twofold.—οὐ λαὸς, not a people) Romans 10:19, note: not even a people, much less the people of God. The former half of the verse has special reference to the Gentiles; the latter to the Jews. Concerning the latter, see Titus 3:4, and the context: concerning the former, Acts 15:14.

[16] Hypothesis is a particular definite question: thesis, where the subject of inquiry is general and unlimited. Cic. in Top.: Quæstionum duo sunt genera, alterum infinitum, alterum definitum; definitum est, quod ὑπόθεσιν Græci, nos causam; infinitum, quod θέσιν illi appellant, nos propositum possumus nominare.—T.

Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;
1 Peter 2:11. Ἀγαπητοὶ, dearly beloved) A friendly and well-disposed exhortation.—παρακαλῶ, I beseech you) So ch. 1 Peter 5:1. [A great exhortation, of which the former part begins here; the second part in the middle of 1 Peter 2:15, ch. 3. Both parts have ἵνα ἐν ᾧ, κ.τ.λ., ch. 1 Peter 2:12, and 1 Peter 3:16.—Not. Crit.]—παροίκους καὶ παρεπιδήμονς, strangers and foreigners) A gradation: ye are not only as in a strange house, but even as in a foreign city, ye who believe of the Jews and Gentiles. The reason why ye should abstain. Leviticus 25:23, Septuagint, προσήλυτοι καὶ πάροικοι ὑμεῖς ἐστε ἐναντίον ἐμοῦ, ye are strangers and sojourners before Me. Psalm 39:12, ὅτι πάροικος ἐγώ εἰμι ἐν τῇ γῇ καὶ παρεπίδημος, καθὼς πάντες οἱ πατέρες μον, for I am a stranger on the earth and a sojourner, as all my fathers were. Comp. Hebrews 11:13, note.—ἀπέχεσθε, abstain) The Imperative,[17] as ch. 1 Peter 5:1-2, I exhortfeed. Thus cohere the words, having your conversation, etc., 1 Peter 2:12, and ch. 1 Peter 3:7-9, and the word ready [ἕτοιμοι coming after the previous Imperative, as ἔχοντες here], ch. 1 Peter 3:15.—σαρκικῶν, carnal) 2 Peter 2:10; 2 Peter 2:18.—στρατεύονται, war) Not only do they hinder, but attack. A fine word.

[17] Not the Infinitive ἀπέχεσθαι, as B Vulg. and Rec. Text. But ἀπέχεσθε in AC, both Syr. Versions, Memph. and Cyprian.—E.

Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles: that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.
1 Peter 2:12. Τὴν ἀναστροφὴν, your conversation) There are two things in which strangers and foreigners ought to conduct themselves well: The conversation, which is prescribed in excellent terms for subjects, 1 Peter 2:13; for servants, 1 Peter 2:18; for wives, ch. 1 Peter 3:1; for husbands, ch. 1 Peter 3:7; for all, 1 Peter 2:8 : and confession, ch. 1 Peter 3:15-16, which passage has a manifest reference to this. Each passage is derived from the will of God: ch. 1 Peter 2:15, 1 Peter 3:17.—καταλαλοῦσιν, speak against you) That was common even then, 1 Peter 2:15, ch. 1 Peter 3:16, 1 Peter 4:4; 1 Peter 4:14.—ὡς κακοποιῶν, as evil-doers) As though ye were not obedient to authorities and magistrates and good laws: 1 Peter 2:13-14.—ἐκ, from) Constructed with they may glorify.—καλῶν ἔργων, good works) Hence well-doing, 1 Peter 2:14-15. This is true submission.—ἐποπτεύσαντες, closely inspecting) The same word occurs, ch. 1 Peter 3:2. Other men narrowly look into the actions of the righteous.—δοξάσωσι τὸν Θεὸν, they may glorify God) God, who has children like unto Himself.—ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπισκοπῆς, in the day of visitation) ἡμέρᾳ, in the day, used indefinitely. [The note in the Germ. Vers. interprets it of the last day.—E. B.] There is an allusion to the divine visitation, when God brings to light the innocence of the righteous, which has long been hidden: and He often brings about this result by means of even hostile magistrates, during the process of inquiry, and he often converts adversaries themselves. Thus Septuagint, ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς, in the day of visitation, Isaiah 10:3; ἐν καιρῷ ἐπισκοπῆς, at the season of visitation, Jeremiah 6:15. Until such a day arrives, there is need of patience.

Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme;
1 Peter 2:13. Πάσῃ ἀνθρωπίνῃ κτίσει, to every creation of man) A king or Cæsar is called a creation, and so are governors sent by him; the abstract being put by Metonymia for the concrete, as in political language the phrase, cine Creator, to create a magistrate, is often used (comp. κτίσις, a building, Hebrews 9:11): hence the word every is divided by the words, whether, or. And they are called creations of man, because they govern the affairs of men, after the manner of men: which saying savours of the heavenly perception (sense) of the apostle, raised above all human things. And under this very name, they who have attained to the nobility of faith, might look down upon the whole of that creation. Peter guards against this, and orders them to submit themselves, for the sake of the Lord Christ, who once became subject, though all things are subject to Him.—διὰ, on account of) The highest obligation, by the name of Jesus Christ, whose honour is at stake.—βασιλεῖ, to the king) Cæsar. For they were Roman provinces into which Peter was sending. The Jewish zealots refused obedience.—ὑπερέχοντι, supreme) Among the French, Souverain.

Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.
1 Peter 2:14. Ἀγαθοποιῶν, those that do well) A word of frequent occurrence in this Epistle.

For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men:
1 Peter 2:15. Φιμοῦν, to stop) to put to silence.—ἀγνωσίαν, the ignorance) for instance, respecting the integrity of Christians. This word contains the reason why Christians ought to pity the heathen.

As free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants of God.
1 Peter 2:16. Ὡς ἐλεύθεροι, as free) without maliciousness. This depends on 1 Peter 2:13. Concerning liberty, comp. 1 Peter 2:9.—κακίας) maliciousness, the vice of a slave.

Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.
1 Peter 2:17. Πάντας, all) to whom honour is due: Romans 13:7.—τιμήσατε, honour) They who are unconnected with us, are to be treated with courtesy; brethren, with familiarity. This Aorist is followed by three Presents. The king must be honoured in such a way, that the love of the brotherhood, and the fear of God, be not violated.—τὸν ἀδελφότητα, the brotherhood) The abstract, ch. 1 Peter 5:9. Brethren are to be loved, because they are brethren.—τὸν Θεὸν, God) Proverbs 24:21, Septuagint, φοβοῦ τὸν Θεὸν, υἱὲ, καὶ βασιλέα, “Fear God, my son, and the king.”—τὸν βασιλέα, the king) 1 Peter 2:13.—τιμᾶτε, honour) in action also, and not in feeling only.

Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.
1 Peter 2:18. Οἱ οἰκέται, servants) He prescribes duties to these, and not to masters, the greater part of whom were heathens.—ὑποτασσόμενοι, subject) The participle, for the imperative, depending upon ὑ̔ποτάγητε, 1 Peter 2:13; from which the form of the imperative ought to be repeated by Zeugma. So also ch. 1 Peter 3:1.—οὐ μόνον, not only) Gentleness obtains obedience more easily than harshness.—ἀγαθοῖς, to the good) who inflict no injury.—ἐπιεικέσιν, the gentle or indulgent) who readily pardon errors.—σκολιοῖς, the froward) who without cause have recourse to severity, blows, and reproaches.

For this is thankworthy, if a man for conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully.
1 Peter 2:19. Χάρις [“thank-worthy”], favour) with God: 1 Peter 2:20.—διὰ συνείδησιν Θεοῦ, for conscience toward God) On account of the consciousness of a mind which does things good and pleasing to God, even though they please no man (let the force of κλέος, which presently follows, be considered).[18]—ἀδίκως, unjustly) that is, suffering those things, which are unjustly inflicted. חנם, ἀδίκως, Septuagint, Proverbs 1:11; Proverbs 1:17.

[18] When a just man is not approved of by men, though doing what is good, and when he does not acquire, either before or afterwards, either their assent, support, or the intimation of a grateful mind, nay, rather experiences everything of an opposite kind, he may possibly be affected with no small chagrin and sorrow. But, if his conscience can only have God propitious, nothing but an unmixed feeling of delight remains.—V. g.

For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God.
1 Peter 2:20. Κλέος, glory) Κλέος denotes praise, not so much from many, as from the good; and here proceeding from God Himself, in return for insults.—κολαφιζόμενοι, beaten with blows) The punishment of slaves, and that instantaneous.—πάσχοντες, suffering) afflicted with deliberate evils.—χάρις [“acceptable,” thank-worthy], favour) Peter imitates the phrase which he himself, when a recent disciple, had heard from the Lord. Luke 6:32, and following verses.

For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps:
1 Peter 2:21. Εἰς τοῦτο, to this) to the imitation of Christ; who condescends to propose His own example to servants, as He Himself was formerly esteemed as a servant.—ἐκλήθητε, ye were called) with a heavenly calling, whereas it found you in a state of slavery.—ὑπολιμπάνων, leaving) on His departure to the Father.[19]—ὑπογραμμαὸν, an example) Ὑπογραμμὸς, a copy, a lesson for imitation, is adapted to the capacity of a tiro, learning to paint. Thus Peter in this passage plainly paints before the eyes of servants the example of Christ, expressing those features which are especially adapted to the case of servants.—ἴχνεσιν, footsteps) of innocence and patience. The same word occurs, Romans 4:12; see note.

[19] Into glory, V. g.; in contrast to the previous “shame.”

Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth:
1 Peter 2:22. Ὃς ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ ἐποίησεν, οὐδὲ εὑρέθη δόλος, κ.τ.λ., who did no sin, neither was guile found, etc.) Isaiah 53:9, Septuagint, ὅτι ἀνομίαν οὐκ ἐποίησεν, οὐδὲ δόλον ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ, that is, He committed neither open nor secret sin. Words most suitable for the admonition of servants, who easily fall into sins and deceits, reproaches towards their fellow-servants, and threats, arising from anger without strength.

Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:
1 Peter 2:23. Οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει, He reviled not again) Isaiah 53:7.—οὐκ ἠπείλει, He threatened not) although, as Lord, He might have done so.[20] The more befitting is it that servants should exercise patience.[21]—παρεδίδου δὲ, but committed) viz. the judgment.—δικαίως, righteously) The righteousness of God is the foundation of tranquility to the afflicted.

[20] And although He openly declared His coming again, Matthew 26:64.—V. g.

[21] It is in fact arms of this sort which are often used by those who are feeble: such as slaves especially were, who might therefore be readily disposed to threaten their masters with the Divine judgment.—V. g.

Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.
1 Peter 2:24. Ὃς, who) Peter infers, that we are able, and ought to follow the footsteps of Christ.—αὐτὸς ἀνήνεγκεν, Himself bare) αὐτουργία, personal exertion, becomes a servant, so that he himself should do what is to be done. [Er muss selber daran.—Not. Crit.] Jesus Christ Himself undertook the part of others: He did not substitute others for Himself, as they do at the present day, who assign [locant, let out] Canonical Hours to others. Peter agrees with Isaiah 53:11, Septuagint, καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν αὐτὸς ἁνοίσει, And He Himself shall bear their sins. Comp. Hebrews 9:28, note.—ἐν τῷ σώματι αὐτοῦ, in His own body) which was most afflicted.—ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον, upon the tree) Slaves were accustomed to be punished with the tree the cross, the fork.[22]—ἵνα, that) This word, that, declares that the expiation of sins, properly so called, was made on the cross of Christ: inasmuch as the fruit of it, and of it alone, was our deliverance from the slavery of sin.—ἀπογενόμενοι, being dead) This expression appositely describes our deliverance from the slavery of sin: for a slave is said to become the property of any one, γενέσθαι τινὸς. Ἀπὸ signifies separation; as Job 15:4, Septuagint, ἀπεποιήσω φόβον, thou castest off fear: German, ohne werden. The opposite term is πρσγενέσθαι in the Septuagint. The Body of Christ ἀπεγένετο, was presently taken away from that tree to which He had borne our sins: so ought we to be removed from sin.—τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ, to righteousness) Righteousness is altogether one; sin is manifold, to sins. Respecting righteousness, comp. Isaiah 53:11.—ζήσωμεν, we may live) in a free service.

[22] The furca consisted of two pieces of wood in the shape of the letter V, which pressed upon the neck and back, while the hands were bound to the two ends. A slave thus punished was called furcifer.—T.

For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.
1 Peter 2:25. Οὑ τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ ἰάθητε ἦτε γὰρ ὡς πρόβατα πλανώμενα, by whose stripe ye were healed; for ye were as sheep going astray) Isaiah 53:5-6, Septuagint, τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς ἰάθημεν· πάντες ὡς πρόβατα ἐπλανήθημεν. A paradox of the apostle: Ye were healed with a stripe. But μώλωψ, a weal, is common on the person of a slave: Sir 23:10.—ποιμένα καὶ ἐπίσκοπον, shepherd and bishop) whom you are bound to obey. Synonymous words. Comp. ch 1 Peter 5:2.

Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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