Matthew 5:21
New International Version
"You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, 'You shall not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.'

New Living Translation
"You have heard that our ancestors were told, 'You must not murder. If you commit murder, you are subject to judgment.'

English Standard Version
“You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not murder; and whoever murders will be liable to judgment.’

Berean Study Bible
You have heard that it was said to the ancients, ‘Do not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.’

Berean Literal Bible
You have heard that it was said to the ancients, 'You shall not murder' and 'Whoever shall murder will be liable to the judgment.'

New American Standard Bible
"You have heard that the ancients were told, 'YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT MURDER ' and 'Whoever commits murder shall be liable to the court.'

King James Bible
Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

Christian Standard Bible
"You have heard that it was said to our ancestors, Do not murder, and whoever murders will be subject to judgment.

Contemporary English Version
You know our ancestors were told, "Do not murder" and "A murderer must be brought to trial."

Good News Translation
"You have heard that people were told in the past, 'Do not commit murder; anyone who does will be brought to trial.'

Holman Christian Standard Bible
"You have heard that it was said to our ancestors, Do not murder, and whoever murders will be subject to judgment.

International Standard Version
"You have heard that it was told those who lived long ago, 'You are not to commit murder,' and, 'Whoever murders will be subject to punishment.'

NET Bible
"You have heard that it was said to an older generation, 'Do not murder,' and 'whoever murders will be subjected to judgment.'

New Heart English Bible
"You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'Do not murder;' and 'Whoever murders will be liable to judgment.'

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
You have heard that it was said to the ancients, “Do not murder, and whoever murders is condemned to judgment.”

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"You have heard that it was said to your ancestors, 'Never murder. Whoever murders will answer for it in court.'

New American Standard 1977
“You have heard that the ancients were told, ‘YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT MURDER’ and ‘Whoever commits murder shall be liable to the court.’

Jubilee Bible 2000
Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Thou shalt not commit murder, and whosoever shall commit murder shall be guilty of the judgment;

King James 2000 Bible
You have heard that it was said by them of old time, You shall not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

American King James Version
You have heard that it was said of them of old time, You shall not kill; and whoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

American Standard Version
Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

Douay-Rheims Bible
You have heard that it was said to them of old: Thou shalt not kill. And whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment.

Darby Bible Translation
Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Thou shalt not kill; but whosoever shall kill shall be subject to the judgment.

English Revised Version
Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

Webster's Bible Translation
Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whoever shall kill, shall be in danger of the judgment:

Weymouth New Testament
"You have heard that it was said to the ancients, 'Thou shalt not commit murder', and whoever commits murder will be answerable to the magistrate.

World English Bible
"You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.'

Young's Literal Translation
'Ye heard that it was said to the ancients: Thou shalt not kill, and whoever may kill shall be in danger of the judgment;
Study Bible
Anger and Reconciliation
20For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. 21You have heard that it was said to the ancients, ‘Do not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.’ 22But I tell you that anyone who is angry with his brother will be subject to judgment. Again, anyone who says to his brother, ‘Raca,’ will be subject to the Sanhedrin. But anyone who says, ‘You fool!’ will be subject to the fire of hell.…
Cross References
Exodus 20:13
You shall not murder.

Deuteronomy 5:17
You shall not murder.

Deuteronomy 16:18
You are to appoint judges and officials for your tribes in every town the LORD your God is giving you. They are to judge the people with righteous judgment.

2 Chronicles 19:5
He appointed judges in the land, in each of the fortified cities of Judah.

Matthew 5:27
You have heard that it was said, 'Do not commit adultery.'

Matthew 5:33
Again, you have heard that it was said to the ancients, 'Do not break your oath, but fulfill your vows to the Lord.'

Matthew 5:38
You have heard that it was said, 'Eye for eye and tooth for tooth.'

Matthew 5:43
You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.'

1 John 3:15
Everyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that eternal life does not reside in a murderer.

Treasury of Scripture

You have heard that it was said of them of old time, You shall not kill; and whoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

it.

Matthew 5:27,33,43
Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: …

2 Samuel 20:18
Then she spake, saying, They were wont to speak in old time, saying, They shall surely ask counsel at Abel: and so they ended the matter.

Job 8:8-10
For inquire, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to the search of their fathers: …

by them.

Genesis 9:5,6
And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man…

Exodus 20:13
Thou shalt not kill.

Deuteronomy 5:17
Thou shalt not kill.

and.

Exodus 21:12-14
He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death…

Numbers 35:12,16-21,30-34
And they shall be unto you cities for refuge from the avenger; that the manslayer die not, until he stand before the congregation in judgment…

Deuteronomy 21:7-9
And they shall answer and say, Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it







Lexicon
You have heard
Ἠκούσατε (Ēkousate)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 2nd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 191: To hear, listen, comprehend by hearing; pass: is heard, reported. A primary verb; to hear.

that
ὅτι (hoti)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 3754: Neuter of hostis as conjunction; demonstrative, that; causative, because.

it was said
ἐρρέθη (errethē)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Passive - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 2046: Probably a fuller form of rheo; an alternate for epo in certain tenses; to utter, i.e. Speak or say.

to the
τοῖς (tois)
Article - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

ancients,
ἀρχαίοις (archaiois)
Adjective - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 744: Original, primitive, ancient. From arche; original or primeval.

‘Do not murder,
φονεύσεις (phoneuseis)
Verb - Future Indicative Active - 2nd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 5407: To murder, kill. From phoneus; to be a murderer.

and
δ’ (d’)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 1161: A primary particle; but, and, etc.

anyone who
ὃς (hos)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3739: Who, which, what, that.

murders
φονεύσῃ (phoneusē)
Verb - Aorist Subjunctive Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 5407: To murder, kill. From phoneus; to be a murderer.

will be
ἔσται (estai)
Verb - Future Indicative Middle - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 1510: I am, exist. The first person singular present indicative; a prolonged form of a primary and defective verb; I exist.

subject
ἔνοχος (enochos)
Adjective - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 1777: Involved in, held in, hence: liable, generally with dat. (or gen.) of the punishment. From enecho; liable to.

to
τῇ (tē)
Article - Dative Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

judgment.’
κρίσει (krisei)
Noun - Dative Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 2920: Decision; by extension, a tribunal; by implication, justice.
(21) By them of old time.--There is no reasonable doubt that the marginal reading, to them of old time, is right. The construction is identical with that of Romans 9:12; Romans 9:26; Galatians 3:16; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 9:4. Two questions present themselves for answer: (1) Who were "they of old time"? (2) Who was the speaker of the words quoted? (1) The words are very general, and, as interpreted by the use of "old time" in Acts 15:21, seem to point to the time when synagogues began to be established, i.e., after the return from Babylon. (2) The impersonal form, the contrast between "it was said," and "I say unto you," the tone of authority imposing a new law for that which it supersedes, seem conclusive against referring the words, even when they are found in the Law, to that Law as given by God through Moses. Stress is laid on the words "Ye heard that it was said." "This was the report of the Law given you by your teachers in school and synagogue. I give you another and truer report. Not what you so heard, but what I now say unto you is the true completion of the Law and the Prophets, and therefore the abiding law of my kingdom."

Whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment.--The fact that these words are not found in the Old Testament confirms the view that our Lord is speaking of the traditional comments on the Law, and not of the Law itself. The phrase "in danger" had a somewhat more technical sense in A.D. 1611 than it has now, and meant "legally liable to." The "judgment" spoken of was that of the local courts of Deuteronomy 16:18. They had the power of capital punishment, but the special form of death by stoning was reserved for the Sanhedrim, or Council.

Verses 21-48. - (a) Our Lord is still concerned with the relation of himself and his followers to the religion of the day, of which the Old Testament (ver. 17), and more especially the Law (ver. 18), was the accepted standard. But after having spoken of the need of careful attention to (vers. 17,18), and observance of (ver. 19), even the least commands of the Law, he goes on to point out the far-reaching character of these commands, whether they are such as we should call more (vers. 21, 27, 81) or less (vers. 33, 38, 43) impotent. It is essential to notice that our Lord refers to these commands, not merely as statements contained in the Law, but as part of the religion of the day, and that he contrasts their true bearing on life and conduct with that false bearing on this which was commonly predicated of them. By this it is not meant that our Lord was only opposing such narrow glosses and interpretations as had arisen at various times during the centuries after the promulgation of the Law (for these were for the most part perfectly natural and legitimate developments of the earliest possible interpretations of it), still less that he was thinking only of the worst of the misrepresentations of its commands, comparatively recently made by the Pharisees; but that he was now going back, beyond this so far natural and normal development of the earliest interpretations, to the first principles underlying the revelation contained in the Law. While the Jews, not unnaturally, clung to the primary, but temporary, meaning of the Law as a revelation of God's will for them as a nation, our Lord was now about to expound its commands as a revelation of God's permanent will for them and all men as men. Our Lord was now, that is to say, wishing to do more than merely cut off the excrescences that, chiefly through the Pharisaic party, had grown up round the Law, but less than root up the Law itself. He rather cuts down the whole growth that had been, notwithstanding some mere excrescences, the right and proper outcome of the Law in its original environment, in order that, in fresh environment, which corresponded better to its nature, the Law might produce a growth still more right and proper. Verses 21-26. - The sixth commandment. Verses 21-24 Matthew only; vers. 25, 26 have parts common to Luke. Verse 21. - Ye have heard (ἠκούσατε, frequentative aorist). Our Lord does not say, "ye have read" (cf. Matthew 21:42), for he was not now speaking to the learned classes, but to a large audience many of whom were probably unable to read. "Ye have heard," i.e. from your teachers whose teaching claims to be the substance of the Law. So, probably, even in John 12:34, where the multitude say that they "have heard out of the Law that the Christ abideth for ever," which, since this is hardly expressed in so many words in the Old Testament, must mean that the instructions they have received on this subject truly represent the substance of its teaching. So here our Lord says, "You have heard from your teachers (cf. Romans 2:18) that the substance of the sixth commandment is so-and-so." It is thus quite intelligible that in some of these utterances there should be found added to (vers. 21, 43) or intermingled with (ver. 33) the words of a passage of Scripture, other words which are either taken from Scripture, but from another place in it (perhaps ver. 33), or do not occur in Scripture at all, but merely help to form a compendious statement of a definite interpretation (here and ver. 43). It must remain doubtful whether our Lord himself formulated these statements of the popular teaching, or quoted them verbally as current. If the latter, as is perhaps more likely, there remains the at present still more insoluble question whether they were only oral or (cf. the case of the 'Didaehe') had already been committed to writing (cf. in this connexion Bishop Westcott, 'Hebr.,' p. 480). That it was said by them of old time (ὅτι ἐῥῤέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις). By; Revised Version, to. Similarly ver. 33. Although "by" may be defended (cf. Madvig, § 39 g), "to" (Wickliffe and Tyndale downwards) is certainly right, because

(a) it is the common usage with a passive verb;

(b) it is the constant usage with ἐῥῤέθη in the New Testament (e.g. Romans 9:12, 26);

(c) the parallelism with ἐγὼ δέ κ.τ.λ., is more exact;

(d) the popular teaching claimed to be, even in its strictest esoteric form of oral tradition, derived ultimately, not from the words of any human teachers, however primitive, but from the words of God spoken by him to them. In the case before us our Lord accepts the popular teaching of the time as truly representing the Divine utterance in the giving of the Law, so far as that utterance was then intended to be understood. Them of old time. This can hardly be limited to "the original founders of the Jewish Commonwealth," to use Trench's curiously unbiblical expression ('Syn.,' § 67.). It probably includes all who lived a generation or more before our Lord's time (cf. Weiss). Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment. The substance, according to the popular teaching, of the sixth commandment (Exodus 20:13; Deuteronomy 5:17). This the current form of it (based partly on Leviticus 24:21; Numbers 35; Deuteronomy 19:12) was that murder was not to be committed, and that if it was committed the murderer was to be brought up for trial. Shall be in danger of (ἔνοχος ἔσται); i.e. in legal danger - legally guilty of a charge which involves the judgment (cf. Matthew 26:66). The judgment; i.e. the local Sanhedrin (cf. Matthew 10:17), of apparently seven men in a smaller, twenty-three in a larger, town (cf. Schurer, II. 1. pp. 149-154). This answers to "the congregation," or "the elders" of the town to which the murderer belonged, before whom he was to be tried (Numbers 35:12, 16, 24; Deuteronomy 19:12). 5:21-26 The Jewish teachers had taught, that nothing except actual murder was forbidden by the sixth commandment. Thus they explained away its spiritual meaning. Christ showed the full meaning of this commandment; according to which we must be judged hereafter, and therefore ought to be ruled now. All rash anger is heart murder. By our brother, here, we are to understand any person, though ever so much below us, for we are all made of one blood. Raca, is a scornful word, and comes from pride: Thou fool, is a spiteful word, and comes from hatred. Malicious slanders and censures are poison that kills secretly and slowly. Christ told them that how light soever they made of these sins, they would certainly be called into judgment for them. We ought carefully to preserve Christian love and peace with all our brethren; and if at any time there is a quarrel, we should confess our fault, humble ourselves to our brother, making or offering satisfaction for wrong done in word or deed: and we should do this quickly; because, till this is done, we are unfit for communion with God in holy ordinances. And when we are preparing for any religious exercises, it is good for us to make that an occasion of serious reflection and self-examination. What is here said is very applicable to our being reconciled to God through Christ. While we are alive, we are in the way to his judgement-seat; after death, it will be too late. When we consider the importance of the case, and the uncertainty of life, how needful it is to seek peace with God, without delay!
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