Luke 22
Vincent's Word Studies
Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.
Feast (ἑορτὴ)

Properly festival. See on Mark 14:1.

Drew nigh

Imperfect: "was drawing nigh."

And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people.

Imperfect, were seeking, contemporaneously with the approach of the feast.

Kill (ἀνέλωσιν)

Lit., to take up and carry off, and so to make way with.

Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.

See on Luke 13:16.


See on Matthew 10:5.

And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them.
Captains (στρατηγοῖς)

The leaders of the temple-guards Compare Acts 4:1.

And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.
And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.
Promised (ἐξωμολόγησεν)

See on Matthew 3:6; and Matthew 11:25. The idea is that of an open and fair consent or pledge.

Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed.
And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat.
And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?
And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in.
A man - pitcher

See on Mark 14:13.

And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?

See on Mark 14:14.

And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.
And he (κἀκεῖνος)

See on Mark 14:15.


See on Mark 14:15. Wyc., strewed.

And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.
The apostles

Both Matthew and Mark have the twelve.

And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:
With desire I have desired

Expressing intense desire. Compare John 3:29, rejoiceth with joy; Acts 4:17, threaten with threatening.

For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:
For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.
And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.
Bread (ἄρτον)

Better, a loaf.

Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.
The cup

See on Mark 14:23.

Testament (διαθήκη) - shed

See on Matthew 26:28.

But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.
Betrayeth (παραδιδόντος)

The present participle: is now engaged in betraying.

With me

"He does not say with you: thus separating the traitor from the rest of the disciples, and showing that now he alone has to do with that wretch, as with an enemy" (Bengel).

And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!
And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.
And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest.
A strife (φιλονεικία)

Properly, "an eager contention." Only here in New Testament.


Strictly, greater.

Luke 22:24A strife (φιλονεικία)

Properly, "an eager contention." Only here in New Testament.


Strictly, greater.

And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.
But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
Doth serve

See on minister, Matthew 20:26.

Luke 22:26Doth serve

See on minister, Matthew 20:26.

For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth.
Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations.
Continued (διαμεμενηκότες)

Lit., "have remained through" (διά).

Luke 22:28Continued (διαμεμενηκότες)

Lit., "have remained through" (διά).

And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me;
I appoint (διατίθεμαι)

Implying allotment: assigning in the course of distribution (διά). Wyc., dispose. Luke is especially fond of compounds with διά.

Luke 22:29I appoint (διατίθεμαι)

Implying allotment: assigning in the course of distribution (διά). Wyc., dispose. Luke is especially fond of compounds with διά.

That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat:
Hath desired (ἐξῃτήσατο)

Only here in New Testament. It sometimes means to obtain by asking, or to beg off. So Xenophon, "Anabasis," i., 1, 3. The mother of Cyrus, who is charged with an attempt to kill his brother, begged him off (ἐξαιτησαμένη). Rev., in margin, obtained you by asking. The result proved that Satan had obtained him for the time.

Sift (σινιάσαι)

Only here in New Testament.

Wheat (σῖτον)

A general term, grain.

But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.
Prayed (ἐδεήθην)

See on prayers, Luke 5:33.

Art converted (ἐπιστρέψας)

Converted is simply the Latinized rendering of the word to turn round (convertere). Rev. renders the aorist participle, denoting a definite act, by once: "when once thou hast turned again."

Strengthen (στήρισον)

See on Luke 16:25, and 1 Peter 5:10. Rev., stablish, which is much better. Strengthen may denote only a temporary effect. The word implies fixedness.

And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death.
And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.

The only instance of Christ's directly addressing him as Peter. He refers to him by that name, Mark 16:7.

The cock

See on Matthew 26:34


See on Mark 14:30.

And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing.
Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.
He that hath no sword, etc

But sword is not governed by hath. It is too far off in the sentence. The meaning is, he that hath not purse or scrip (and is therefore penniless), let him sell his garment and buy a sword. So Wyc.

For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end.
Have an end (τέλος ἔχει)

The phrase is synonymous with be accomplished (τελεσθῆναι, Rev., fulfilled). In classical Greek this latter word is often used of the fulfilment of an oracle: also of things which are settled beyond controversy. The two expressions here give the two meanings. The prophecy is fulfilled; the things concerning me are finally settled.

And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.
And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him.
And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation.
The place

See on Gethsemane, Matthew 26:36.

And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed,
Was withdrawn (ἀπεσπάσθη)

The Vulgate has avulsus est, "he was torn away," as by an inward urgency. Godet adopts this view, and so, apparently, Wyc., he was taken away. Meyer inclines to it; De Wette decidedly rejects it. Compare Acts 21:1.


Imperfect, began to pray.

Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.
And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.
There appeared (ὤφθη)

The word most commonly used in the New Testament of seeing visions. See Matthew 17:3; Mark 9:4; Luke 1:11; Luke 22:43; Acts 2:17; Acts 7:35. The kindred noun ὀπτασία, wherever it occurs in the New Testament, means a vision. See Luke 1:2; Luke 24:23, etc.

Strengthening (ἐνισχύων)

Only here and Acts 9:19. See on was not able, Luke 14:30; and cannot, Luke 16:3. Commonly intransitive; to prevail in or among. Used transitively only by Hippocrates and Luke.

And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.
Being in an agony (γενόμενος ἐν ἀγωνίᾳ)

There is in the aorist participle a suggestion of a growing intensity in the struggle, which is not conveyed by the simple being. Literally, though very awkwardly, it is, having become in an agony: having progressed from the first prayer (began to pray, Luke 22:41) into an intense struggle of prayer and sorrow. Wycliffe's rendering hints at this: and he, made in agony, prayed. Agony occurs only here. It is used by medical writers, and the fact of a sweat accompanying an agony is also mentioned by them.

More earnestly (ἐκτενέστερον)

See on fervently, 1 Peter 1:22.

Was (ἐγένετο)

More correctly, as Rev., became. See on γενόμενος, being, above.

Great drops (θρόμβοι)

Only here in New Testament: gouts or clots. Very common in medical language. Aristotle mentions a bloody sweat arising from the blood being in poor condition; and Theophrastus mentions a physician who compared a species of sweat to blood.

And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow,
For sorrow

The mention of the cause of the drowsiness is characteristic.

And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.
And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him.
Multitude - one of the twelve

See on Matthew 26:47

To kiss

See on Matthew 26:49.

But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?
When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword?
And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.
The servant

See on Matthew 26:51.

His right ear

Lit., his ear, the right one. See on Matthew 26:51; and compare Mark 14:47. Both Matthew and Mark use diminutives.

And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him.
Suffer ye thus far

This is variously interpreted. I think the text requires that the words should be addressed to the disciples, and taken as the answer to the question, shall we smite, etc. The meaning then is, permit them to go so far as to seize me. The expression thus corresponds with Matthew 26:52,

Ear (ὠτίου)

This time Luke uses the diminutive. Wyc., little ear.


Only Luke records the healing.

Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?
Thief (λῃστὴν)

See on Matthew 26:55; and Luke 10:30; Mark 11:17.

When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest's house. And Peter followed afar off.
And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them.
Kindled (περιαψάντων)

Lit., kindled all round (περί): set in full blaze.


Or court. See on Mark 14:54.

But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him.
By the fire (πρὸς τὸ φῶς)

See on Mark 14:54.

And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.
And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not.
And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilaean.
And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.
And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.
And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him.
Smote (δέροντες)

Originally to flay; thence to cudgel. Compare our vulgarism, to tan or hide.

And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?
And many other things blasphemously spake they against him.
And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying,
The elders (πρεσβυτέριον)

More correctly, the assembly of the elders. So Rev.

Art thou the Christ? tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe:
And if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go.
Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God.
Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.
And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.
Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent [1886].
Text Courtesy of Internet Sacred Texts Archive.

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