Ephesians 2:3
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
All of us also lived among them at one time, gratifying the cravings of our flesh and following its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature deserving of wrath.

New Living Translation
All of us used to live that way, following the passionate desires and inclinations of our sinful nature. By our very nature we were subject to God's anger, just like everyone else.

English Standard Version
among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind.

Berean Study Bible
We all lived among them at one time in the cravings of our flesh, indulging its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature children of wrath.

Berean Literal Bible
among whom we all also once lived in the desires of our flesh, doing the things willed of the flesh and of its thoughts; and we were by nature children of wrath even as the rest.

New American Standard Bible
Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

King James Bible
Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
We too all previously lived among them in our fleshly desires, carrying out the inclinations of our flesh and thoughts, and we were by nature children under wrath as the others were also.

International Standard Version
Indeed, all of us once behaved like them in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of our flesh and senses. By nature we were destined for wrath, just like everyone else.

NET Bible
among whom all of us also formerly lived out our lives in the cravings of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath even as the rest

New Heart English Bible
among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
We also were employed in those works from the first in the desires of our flesh, and we were doing the will of our flesh and of our minds, and we were entirely children of rage, as the rest.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
All of us once lived among these people, and followed the desires of our corrupt nature. We did what our corrupt desires and thoughts wanted us to do. So, because of our nature, we deserved God's anger just like everyone else.

New American Standard 1977
Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

Jubilee Bible 2000
among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind and were by nature the children of wrath, even as all the others.

King James 2000 Bible
Among whom also we all had our behavior in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

American King James Version
Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

American Standard Version
among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:--

Douay-Rheims Bible
In which also we all conversed in time past, in the desires of our flesh, fulfilling the will of the flesh and of our thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:

Darby Bible Translation
among whom we also all once had our conversation in the lusts of our flesh, doing what the flesh and the thoughts willed to do, and were children, by nature, of wrath, even as the rest:

English Revised Version
among whom we also all once lived in the lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:--

Webster's Bible Translation
Among whom also we all had our manner of life in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Weymouth New Testament
Among them all of us also formerly passed our lives, governed by the inclinations of our lower natures, indulging the cravings of those natures and of our own thoughts, and were in our original state deserving of anger like all others.

World English Bible
among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

Young's Literal Translation
among whom also we all did walk once in the desires of our flesh, doing the wishes of the flesh and of the thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath -- as also the others,
Study Bible
Alive with Christ
2in which you used to walk when you conformed to the ways of this world and of the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit who is now at work in the sons of disobedience. 3We all lived among them at one time in the cravings of our flesh, indulging its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature children of wrath. 4But because of His great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy,…
Cross References
Psalm 51:5
Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, And in sin my mother conceived me.

Romans 1:24
Therefore God gave them up in the desires of their hearts to impurity for the dishonoring of their bodies with one another.

Romans 2:14
Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the Law, do by nature what the Law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the Law,

Romans 5:9
Therefore, since we have now been justified by His blood, how much more shall we be saved from wrath through Him!

Romans 5:10
For if, when we were enemies of God, we were reconciled to Him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!

Romans 5:12
Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, so also death was passed on to all men, because all sinned.

Galatians 2:15
We who are Jews by birth and not Gentile 'sinners,'

Galatians 5:16
So I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not gratify the desires of the flesh.

Ephesians 2:2
in which you used to walk when you conformed to the ways of this world and of the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit who is now at work in the sons of disobedience.

Colossians 1:21
Once you were alienated from God and were hostile in your minds because of your evil deeds.
Treasury of Scripture

Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

we.

Isaiah 53:6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his …

Isaiah 64:6,7 But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are …

Daniel 9:5-9 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, …

Romans 3:9-19 What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before …

1 Corinthians 6:9-11 Know you not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of …

Galatians 2:15,16 We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles…

Galatians 3:22 But the scripture has concluded all under sin, that the promise by …

Titus 3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, …

1 Peter 4:3 For the time past of our life may suffice us to have worked the will …

1 John 1:8-10 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth …

in times.

Ephesians 4:17-19 This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you from now …

Acts 14:16 Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.

Acts 17:30,31 And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commands all …

Romans 11:30 For as you in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained …

1 Peter 2:10 Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: …

1 John 2:8 Again, a new commandment I write to you, which thing is true in him …

in the.

Ephesians 4:22 That you put off concerning the former conversation the old man, …

Mark 4:19 And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and …

John 8:44 You are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father you …

Romans 1:24 Why God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their …

Romans 6:12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that you should …

Romans 13:14 But put you on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for …

Galatians 5:16-24 This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and you shall not fulfill the …

1 Timothy 6:9 But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and …

James 4:1-3 From where come wars and fights among you? come they not hence, even …

1 Peter 1:14 As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the …

1 Peter 2:11 Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain …

1 Peter 4:2 That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to …

2 Peter 2:18 For when they speak great swelling words of vanity, they allure through …

1 John 2:16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust …

Jude 1:16-18 These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; …

fulfilling.

Romans 8:7,8 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject …

2 Corinthians 7:1 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves …

Galatians 5:19-21 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, …

desires. Gr. wills.

John 1:13 Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor …

by.

Genesis 5:3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his …

Genesis 6:5 And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth…

Genesis 8:21 And the LORD smelled a sweet smell; and the LORD said in his heart, …

Job 14:4 Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one.

Job 15:14-16 What is man, that he should be clean? and he which is born of a woman, …

Job 25:4 How then can man be justified with God? or how can he be clean that …

Psalm 51:5 Behold, I was shaped in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.

Mark 7:21,22 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, …

John 3:1-6 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews…

Romans 5:12-19 Why, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; …

Romans 7:18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwells no good thing: …

Galatians 2:15,16 We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles…

children. See on ver.

Ephesians 2:2 Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world, …

Romans 9:22 What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known…

even.

Romans 3:9,22,23 What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before …

1 Corinthians 4:7 For who makes you to differ from another? and what have you that …

(3) Among whom also we all . . .--Up to this point St. Paul had addressed himself especially to the Ephesians as Gentiles: now he extends the description of alienation to "all," Jews and Gentiles alike, as formerly reckoned among the children of disobedience. It is indeed the great object of this chapter to bring out the equality and unity of both Jews and Gentiles in the Church of Christ; and this truth is naturally introduced by a statement of their former equality in alienation and sin.

In the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind.--The parallelism of these two clauses illustrates very clearly the extended sense in which the word "flesh" is used by St. Paul, as may indeed be seen by the catalogue of the works of the flesh in Galatians 5:19-20. For here "the flesh," in the first clause, includes both "the flesh and the mind" (or, more properly, the thoughts) of the second; that is, it includes both the appetites and the passions of our fleshly nature, and also the "thoughts" of the mind itself, so far as it is devoted to this visible world of sense, alienated from God, and therefore under the influence of the powers of evil. In fact, in scriptural use the sins of "the flesh," "the world," and "the devil" are not different classes of sins, but different aspects of sin, and any one of the three great enemies is made at times to represent all.

And were by nature the children of wrath, even as others (or rather, the others--that is, the heathen).--From this passage the phrase "children of wrath" has passed into Christian theology as an almost technical description of the unregenerate state. Hence it needs careful examination. (1) Now the phrase "children of wrath" (corresponding almost exactly to "children of a curse," in 2Peter 2:14) seems borrowed from the Hebrew use in the Old Testament, by which (as in 1Samuel 20:30; 2Samuel 12:5) a "son of death" is one under sentence of death, and in Isaiah 57:4 (the Greek translation) "children of destruction" are those doomed to perish. In this sense we have, in John 17:12, "the son of perdition;" and in Matthew 23:15, "the son of hell." It differs, therefore, considerably from the phrase "children of disobedience" (begotten, as it were, of disobedience) above. But it is notable that the word for "children" here used is a term expressing endearment and love, and is accordingly properly, and almost invariably, applied to our relation to God. When, therefore, it is used as in this passage, or, still more strikingly, in 1John 3:10, "children of the devil" (comp. John 8:44), there is clearly an intention to arrest the attention by a startling and paradoxical expression. "We were children," not of God, not of His love, but "of wrath"--that is, His wrath against sin; "born (see Galatians 3:10-22; Galatians 4:4) under the law," and therefore "shut up under sin," and "under the curse." (2) Next, we have the phrase "by nature," which, in the true reading of the original, is interposed, as a kind of limitation or definition, between "children" and "of wrath." In the first instance it was probably suggested by the reference to Israel, who were by covenant, not by nature, the chosen people of God. Now the word "nature," applied to humanity, indicates what is common to all, as opposed to what is individual, or what is inborn, as opposed to what is acquired. But whether it refers to humanity as it was created by God, or to humanity as it has become by "fault and corruption of nature," must always be determined by the context. Here the reference is clearly to the latter. "Nature" is opposed to "grace"--that is, the nature of man as alienated from God, to the nature of man as restored to his original birthright, the "image of God," in Jesus Christ. (See Romans 5:12-21.) The existence of an inborn sinfulness needs no revelation to make it evident to those who have eyes to see. It needs a revelation--and such a revelation the gospel gives--to declare to us that it is not man's true nature, and that what is really original is not sin, but righteousness. (3) The whole passage, therefore, describes the state of men before their call to union with Christ, as naturally "under wrath," and is well illustrated by the full description, in Romans 1:18; Romans 2:16, of those on whom "the wrath of God is revealed." There man's state is depicted as having still some knowledge of God (Romans 1:19-21), as having "the work of the law written on the heart" (Romans 2:14-15), and accordingly as being still under a probation before God (Romans 2:6-11). Elsewhere we learn that Christ, "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world," died for all, even "the ungodly" (Romans 5:6-8; Revelation 13:1); and that none are wholly excluded from His atonement but those who "tread under foot the Son of God, and count the blood of the covenant an unholy thing" (Hebrews 10:29). Hence that state is not absolutely lost or hopeless. But yet, when the comparison, as here, is with the salvation of the gospel, they are declared "children of wrath" who are "strangers to the new covenant of promise," with its two supernatural gifts of justification by faith and sanctification in the Spirit, and their condition is described, comparatively but not absolutely, as "having no hope, and without God in the world."

Verse 3. - Among whom we also all once spent our life in the lusts of our flesh. The apostle here brings Jews and Gentiles together. "We also," as well as you - we were all in the same condemnation, all in a miserable plight, not merely occasionally dipping into sin, but spending our very lives in the lusts or desires of our flesh, living fro' no noble ends, but in an element of carnal desire, as if there were nothing higher than to please the carnal nature. Fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind. Desires of the flesh, the grosser and more animal propensities (the flesh, in Scripture, has often a wider sense; see Galatians 5:19-21); and of the mind or thoughts, διανοιῶν, the objects that we thought about, whatever they might be, - the waywardness of our thoughts seems to be denoted, the random roaming of the mind hither and thither, towards this pleasure and that, sometimes serious, sometimes frivolous, but all marked by the absence of any controlling regard to the will of God. The life indicated is a life of indulgence in whatever natural feelings may arise in us-be they right or be they wrong. And we were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. This is a substantive clause, standing on its own basis, a separate fact, not merely an inference from the previous statements. The life described would have exposed us to wrath; but beyond and before this we were by nature children of wrath. "By nature" denotes something in our constitution, in our very being; and "even as the rest" denotes that this was universal, not a peculiarity affecting some, but a general feature applicable to all. "Children of wrath" denotes that we belonged to a race which had incurred the wrath of God; our individuality was so far absorbed by the social body that we shared the lot under which it had come. If there be something in this that seems contrary to justice, that seems to condemn men for the sins of others, we remark

(1) that in actual life we constantly find individuals suffering for the sin of the corporation, domestic, social, or national, with which they are identified;

(2) that apart from this altogether, our individual offenses would expose us to God's wrath; and

(3) that the moral and legal relations of the individual to the corporation is a subject of difficulty, and in this case makes a strong demand on our faith. We should accept the teaching of the Word of God upon it, and leave our righteous Judge to vindicate himself. "Wrath," as applied to God, must be regarded as essentially different from the same word when used of man. In the latter case it usually indicates a disorderly, excited, passionate feeling, as of one who has lost self-control; when used of God, it denotes the holy, calm, deep opposition of his nature to sin, compelling him to inflict the appropriate punishment. Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past,.... What the apostle says of the Gentile Ephesians before conversion, he says of himself and other Jews; and this he does, partly to show that it was not from ill will, or with a design to upbraid the Gentiles, that he said what he did; and partly to beat down the pride of the Jews, who thought themselves better than the sinners of the Gentiles; as well as to magnify the grace of God in the conversion of them both: the sense is, that the apostle and other Jews in the time of their unregeneracy, had their conversation according to the customs of the world, and to the prince of the air, and among unbelievers, as well as the Gentiles; and that they were equally sinners, and lived a like sinful course of life:

in the lusts of our flesh; by "flesh" is meant, the corruption of nature; so called, because it is propagated by natural generation; and is opposed to the Spirit, or principle of grace; and has for its object fleshly things; and discovers itself mostly in the body, the flesh; and it makes persons carnal or fleshly: and this is called "our", because it belongs to human nature, and is inherent in it, and inseparable from it in this life: and the "lusts" of it, are the inward motions of it, in a contrariety to the law and will of God; and are various, and are sometimes called fleshly and worldly lusts, and the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life: and persons may be said to have their conversations in these, when these are the ground of their conversation, when they are solicitous about them, and make provision for the fulfilling of them, and constantly employ themselves in obedience to them, as follows:

fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind: or the wills of them; what they incline to, will, and crave after: various are the degrees of sin, and its several motions; and universal is the corruption of human nature; not only the body, and the several members of it, are defiled with sin, and disposed to it, but all the powers and faculties of the soul; even the more noble and governing ones, the mind, understanding, and will, as well as the affections; and great is the power and influence which lust has over them:

and were by nature children of wrath, even as others: by which is meant, not only that they were wrathful persons, living in malice, hateful, and hating one another; but that they were deserving of the wrath of God, which comes upon the children of disobedience, among whom they had their conversation; and which is revealed from heaven against such sins as they were guilty of, though they were not appointed to it: and they were such "by nature"; really, and not in opinion, and by and from their first birth: so a Jewish commentator (s) on these words, "thy first father hath sinned", Isaiah 43:27 has this note;

"how canst thou say thou hast not sinned? and behold thy first father hath sinned, and he is the first man, for man , "is naturally in sin";''

or by nature a sinner, or sin is naturally impressed in him; and hence being by nature a sinner, he is by nature deserving of the wrath of God, as were the persons spoken of:

even as others; as the rest of the world, Jews as well as Gentiles; and Gentiles are especially designed, in distinction from the Jews, the apostle is speaking of; and who are particularly called in the Jewish dialect "others"; See Gill on Luke 18:11.

(s) Kimchi in loc. 3. also we—that is, we also. Paul here joins himself in the same category with them, passing from the second person (Eph 2:1, 2) to the first person here.

all—Jews and Gentiles.

our conversation—"our way of life" (2Co 1:12; 1Pe 1:18). This expression implies an outwardly more decorous course, than the open "walk" in gross sins on the part of the majority of Ephesians in times past, the Gentile portion of whom may be specially referred to in Eph 2:2. Paul and his Jewish countrymen, though outwardly more seemly than the Gentiles (Ac 26:4, 5, 18), had been essentially like them in living to the unrenewed flesh, without the Spirit of God.

fulfilling—Greek, doing.

mind—Greek, "our thoughts." Mental suggestions and purposes (independent of God), as distinguished from the blind impulses of "the flesh."

and were by nature—He intentionally breaks off the construction, substituting "and we were" for "and being," to mark emphatically his and their past state by nature, as contrasted with their present state by grace. Not merely is it, we had our way of life fulfilling our fleshly desires, and so being children of wrath; but we were by nature originally "children of wrath," and so consequently had our way of life fulfilling our fleshly desires. "Nature," in Greek, implies that which has grown in us as the peculiarity of our being, growing with our growth, and strengthening with our strength, as distinguished from that which has been wrought on us by mere external influences: what is inherent, not acquired (Job 14:4; Ps 51:5). An incidental proof of the doctrine of original sin.

children of wrath—not merely "sons," as in the Greek, "sons of disobedience" (Eph 2:2), but "children" by generation; not merely by adoption, as "sons" might be. The Greek order more emphatically marks this innate corruption: "Those who in their (very) nature are children of wrath"; Eph 2:5, "grace" is opposed to "nature" here; and salvation (implied in Eph 2:5, 8, "saved") to "wrath." Compare Article IX, Church of England Common Prayer Book. "Original sin (birth-sin), standeth not in the following of Adam, but is the fault and corruption of the nature of every man, naturally engendered of Adam [Christ was supernaturally conceived by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin], whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil; and therefore, in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation." Paul shows that even the Jews, who boasted of their birth from Abraham, were by natural birth equally children of wrath as the Gentiles, whom the Jews despised on account of their birth from idolaters (Ro 3:9; 5:12-14). "Wrath abideth" on all who disobey the Gospel in faith and practice (Joh 3:36). The phrase, "children of wrath," is a Hebraism, that is, objects of God's wrath from childhood, in our natural state, as being born in the sin which God hates. So "son of death" (2Sa 12:5, Margin); "son of perdition" (Joh 17:12; 2Th 2:3).

as others—Greek, "as the rest" of mankind are (1Th 4:13).2:1-10 Sin is the death of the soul. A man dead in trespasses and sins has no desire for spiritual pleasures. When we look upon a corpse, it gives an awful feeling. A never-dying spirit is now fled, and has left nothing but the ruins of a man. But if we viewed things aright, we should be far more affected by the thought of a dead soul, a lost, fallen spirit. A state of sin is a state of conformity to this world. Wicked men are slaves to Satan. Satan is the author of that proud, carnal disposition which there is in ungodly men; he rules in the hearts of men. From Scripture it is clear, that whether men have been most prone to sensual or to spiritual wickedness, all men, being naturally children of disobedience, are also by nature children of wrath. What reason have sinners, then, to seek earnestly for that grace which will make them, of children of wrath, children of God and heirs of glory! God's eternal love or good-will toward his creatures, is the fountain whence all his mercies flow to us; and that love of God is great love, and that mercy is rich mercy. And every converted sinner is a saved sinner; delivered from sin and wrath. The grace that saves is the free, undeserved goodness and favour of God; and he saves, not by the works of the law, but through faith in Christ Jesus. Grace in the soul is a new life in the soul. A regenerated sinner becomes a living soul; he lives a life of holiness, being born of God: he lives, being delivered from the guilt of sin, by pardoning and justifying grace. Sinners roll themselves in the dust; sanctified souls sit in heavenly places, are raised above this world, by Christ's grace. The goodness of God in converting and saving sinners heretofore, encourages others in after-time, to hope in his grace and mercy. Our faith, our conversion, and our eternal salvation, are not of works, lest any man should boast. These things are not brought to pass by any thing done by us, therefore all boasting is shut out. All is the free gift of God, and the effect of being quickened by his power. It was his purpose, to which he prepared us, by blessing us with the knowledge of his will, and his Holy Spirit producing such a change in us, that we should glorify God by our good conversation, and perseverance in holiness. None can from Scripture abuse this doctrine, or accuse it of any tendency to evil. All who do so, are without excuse.
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Alphabetical: All also among and as at by children cravings desires even flesh following formerly gratifying in indulging its Like lived lusts mind nature objects of one our rest sinful the them thoughts time too us we were wrath

NT Letters: Ephesians 2:3 Among whom we also all once lived (Ephes. Eph. Ep) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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