Ephesians 2:3
Parallel Verses
New International Version
All of us also lived among them at one time, gratifying the cravings of our flesh and following its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature deserving of wrath.

New Living Translation
All of us used to live that way, following the passionate desires and inclinations of our sinful nature. By our very nature we were subject to God's anger, just like everyone else.

English Standard Version
among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind.

New American Standard Bible
Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

King James Bible
Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
We too all previously lived among them in our fleshly desires, carrying out the inclinations of our flesh and thoughts, and we were by nature children under wrath as the others were also.

International Standard Version
Indeed, all of us once behaved like them in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of our flesh and senses. By nature we were destined for wrath, just like everyone else.

NET Bible
among whom all of us also formerly lived out our lives in the cravings of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath even as the rest

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
We also were employed in those works from the first in the desires of our flesh, and we were doing the will of our flesh and of our minds, and we were entirely children of rage, as the rest.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
All of us once lived among these people, and followed the desires of our corrupt nature. We did what our corrupt desires and thoughts wanted us to do. So, because of our nature, we deserved God's anger just like everyone else.

Jubilee Bible 2000
among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind and were by nature the children of wrath, even as all the others.

King James 2000 Bible
Among whom also we all had our behavior in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

American King James Version
Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

American Standard Version
among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:--

Douay-Rheims Bible
In which also we all conversed in time past, in the desires of our flesh, fulfilling the will of the flesh and of our thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:

Darby Bible Translation
among whom *we* also all once had our conversation in the lusts of our flesh, doing what the flesh and the thoughts willed to do, and were children, by nature, of wrath, even as the rest:

English Revised Version
among whom we also all once lived in the lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:--

Webster's Bible Translation
Among whom also we all had our manner of life in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Weymouth New Testament
Among them all of us also formerly passed our lives, governed by the inclinations of our lower natures, indulging the cravings of those natures and of our own thoughts, and were in our original state deserving of anger like all others.

World English Bible
among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

Young's Literal Translation
among whom also we all did walk once in the desires of our flesh, doing the wishes of the flesh and of the thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath -- as also the others,
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

2:1-10 Sin is the death of the soul. A man dead in trespasses and sins has no desire for spiritual pleasures. When we look upon a corpse, it gives an awful feeling. A never-dying spirit is now fled, and has left nothing but the ruins of a man. But if we viewed things aright, we should be far more affected by the thought of a dead soul, a lost, fallen spirit. A state of sin is a state of conformity to this world. Wicked men are slaves to Satan. Satan is the author of that proud, carnal disposition which there is in ungodly men; he rules in the hearts of men. From Scripture it is clear, that whether men have been most prone to sensual or to spiritual wickedness, all men, being naturally children of disobedience, are also by nature children of wrath. What reason have sinners, then, to seek earnestly for that grace which will make them, of children of wrath, children of God and heirs of glory! God's eternal love or good-will toward his creatures, is the fountain whence all his mercies flow to us; and that love of God is great love, and that mercy is rich mercy. And every converted sinner is a saved sinner; delivered from sin and wrath. The grace that saves is the free, undeserved goodness and favour of God; and he saves, not by the works of the law, but through faith in Christ Jesus. Grace in the soul is a new life in the soul. A regenerated sinner becomes a living soul; he lives a life of holiness, being born of God: he lives, being delivered from the guilt of sin, by pardoning and justifying grace. Sinners roll themselves in the dust; sanctified souls sit in heavenly places, are raised above this world, by Christ's grace. The goodness of God in converting and saving sinners heretofore, encourages others in after-time, to hope in his grace and mercy. Our faith, our conversion, and our eternal salvation, are not of works, lest any man should boast. These things are not brought to pass by any thing done by us, therefore all boasting is shut out. All is the free gift of God, and the effect of being quickened by his power. It was his purpose, to which he prepared us, by blessing us with the knowledge of his will, and his Holy Spirit producing such a change in us, that we should glorify God by our good conversation, and perseverance in holiness. None can from Scripture abuse this doctrine, or accuse it of any tendency to evil. All who do so, are without excuse.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 3. - Among whom we also all once spent our life in the lusts of our flesh. The apostle here brings Jews and Gentiles together. "We also," as well as you - we were all in the same condemnation, all in a miserable plight, not merely occasionally dipping into sin, but spending our very lives in the lusts or desires of our flesh, living fro' no noble ends, but in an element of carnal desire, as if there were nothing higher than to please the carnal nature. Fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind. Desires of the flesh, the grosser and more animal propensities (the flesh, in Scripture, has often a wider sense; see Galatians 5:19-21); and of the mind or thoughts, διανοιῶν, the objects that we thought about, whatever they might be, - the waywardness of our thoughts seems to be denoted, the random roaming of the mind hither and thither, towards this pleasure and that, sometimes serious, sometimes frivolous, but all marked by the absence of any controlling regard to the will of God. The life indicated is a life of indulgence in whatever natural feelings may arise in us-be they right or be they wrong. And we were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. This is a substantive clause, standing on its own basis, a separate fact, not merely an inference from the previous statements. The life described would have exposed us to wrath; but beyond and before this we were by nature children of wrath. "By nature" denotes something in our constitution, in our very being; and "even as the rest" denotes that this was universal, not a peculiarity affecting some, but a general feature applicable to all. "Children of wrath" denotes that we belonged to a race which had incurred the wrath of God; our individuality was so far absorbed by the social body that we shared the lot under which it had come. If there be something in this that seems contrary to justice, that seems to condemn men for the sins of others, we remark

(1) that in actual life we constantly find individuals suffering for the sin of the corporation, domestic, social, or national, with which they are identified;

(2) that apart from this altogether, our individual offenses would expose us to God's wrath; and

(3) that the moral and legal relations of the individual to the corporation is a subject of difficulty, and in this case makes a strong demand on our faith. We should accept the teaching of the Word of God upon it, and leave our righteous Judge to vindicate himself. "Wrath," as applied to God, must be regarded as essentially different from the same word when used of man. In the latter case it usually indicates a disorderly, excited, passionate feeling, as of one who has lost self-control; when used of God, it denotes the holy, calm, deep opposition of his nature to sin, compelling him to inflict the appropriate punishment.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past,.... What the apostle says of the Gentile Ephesians before conversion, he says of himself and other Jews; and this he does, partly to show that it was not from ill will, or with a design to upbraid the Gentiles, that he said what he did; and partly to beat down the pride of the Jews, who thought themselves better than the sinners of the Gentiles; as well as to magnify the grace of God in the conversion of them both: the sense is, that the apostle and other Jews in the time of their unregeneracy, had their conversation according to the customs of the world, and to the prince of the air, and among unbelievers, as well as the Gentiles; and that they were equally sinners, and lived a like sinful course of life:

in the lusts of our flesh; by "flesh" is meant, the corruption of nature; so called, because it is propagated by natural generation; and is opposed to the Spirit, or principle of grace; and has for its object fleshly things; and discovers itself mostly in the body, the flesh; and it makes persons carnal or fleshly: and this is called "our", because it belongs to human nature, and is inherent in it, and inseparable from it in this life: and the "lusts" of it, are the inward motions of it, in a contrariety to the law and will of God; and are various, and are sometimes called fleshly and worldly lusts, and the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life: and persons may be said to have their conversations in these, when these are the ground of their conversation, when they are solicitous about them, and make provision for the fulfilling of them, and constantly employ themselves in obedience to them, as follows:

fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind: or the wills of them; what they incline to, will, and crave after: various are the degrees of sin, and its several motions; and universal is the corruption of human nature; not only the body, and the several members of it, are defiled with sin, and disposed to it, but all the powers and faculties of the soul; even the more noble and governing ones, the mind, understanding, and will, as well as the affections; and great is the power and influence which lust has over them:

and were by nature children of wrath, even as others: by which is meant, not only that they were wrathful persons, living in malice, hateful, and hating one another; but that they were deserving of the wrath of God, which comes upon the children of disobedience, among whom they had their conversation; and which is revealed from heaven against such sins as they were guilty of, though they were not appointed to it: and they were such "by nature"; really, and not in opinion, and by and from their first birth: so a Jewish commentator (s) on these words, "thy first father hath sinned", Isaiah 43:27 has this note;

"how canst thou say thou hast not sinned? and behold thy first father hath sinned, and he is the first man, for man , "is naturally in sin";''

or by nature a sinner, or sin is naturally impressed in him; and hence being by nature a sinner, he is by nature deserving of the wrath of God, as were the persons spoken of:

even as others; as the rest of the world, Jews as well as Gentiles; and Gentiles are especially designed, in distinction from the Jews, the apostle is speaking of; and who are particularly called in the Jewish dialect "others"; See Gill on Luke 18:11.

(s) Kimchi in loc.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

3. also we—that is, we also. Paul here joins himself in the same category with them, passing from the second person (Eph 2:1, 2) to the first person here.

all—Jews and Gentiles.

our conversation—"our way of life" (2Co 1:12; 1Pe 1:18). This expression implies an outwardly more decorous course, than the open "walk" in gross sins on the part of the majority of Ephesians in times past, the Gentile portion of whom may be specially referred to in Eph 2:2. Paul and his Jewish countrymen, though outwardly more seemly than the Gentiles (Ac 26:4, 5, 18), had been essentially like them in living to the unrenewed flesh, without the Spirit of God.

fulfilling—Greek, doing.

mind—Greek, "our thoughts." Mental suggestions and purposes (independent of God), as distinguished from the blind impulses of "the flesh."

and were by nature—He intentionally breaks off the construction, substituting "and we were" for "and being," to mark emphatically his and their past state by nature, as contrasted with their present state by grace. Not merely is it, we had our way of life fulfilling our fleshly desires, and so being children of wrath; but we were by nature originally "children of wrath," and so consequently had our way of life fulfilling our fleshly desires. "Nature," in Greek, implies that which has grown in us as the peculiarity of our being, growing with our growth, and strengthening with our strength, as distinguished from that which has been wrought on us by mere external influences: what is inherent, not acquired (Job 14:4; Ps 51:5). An incidental proof of the doctrine of original sin.

children of wrath—not merely "sons," as in the Greek, "sons of disobedience" (Eph 2:2), but "children" by generation; not merely by adoption, as "sons" might be. The Greek order more emphatically marks this innate corruption: "Those who in their (very) nature are children of wrath"; Eph 2:5, "grace" is opposed to "nature" here; and salvation (implied in Eph 2:5, 8, "saved") to "wrath." Compare Article IX, Church of England Common Prayer Book. "Original sin (birth-sin), standeth not in the following of Adam, but is the fault and corruption of the nature of every man, naturally engendered of Adam [Christ was supernaturally conceived by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin], whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil; and therefore, in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation." Paul shows that even the Jews, who boasted of their birth from Abraham, were by natural birth equally children of wrath as the Gentiles, whom the Jews despised on account of their birth from idolaters (Ro 3:9; 5:12-14). "Wrath abideth" on all who disobey the Gospel in faith and practice (Joh 3:36). The phrase, "children of wrath," is a Hebraism, that is, objects of God's wrath from childhood, in our natural state, as being born in the sin which God hates. So "son of death" (2Sa 12:5, Margin); "son of perdition" (Joh 17:12; 2Th 2:3).

as others—Greek, "as the rest" of mankind are (1Th 4:13).

Ephesians 2:3 Additional Commentaries
Context
Alive with Christ
2in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience. 3Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 4But God, being rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us,…
Cross References
Psalm 51:5
Surely I was sinful at birth, sinful from the time my mother conceived me.

Romans 1:24
Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another.

Romans 2:14
(Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law.

Romans 5:9
Since we have now been justified by his blood, how much more shall we be saved from God's wrath through him!

Romans 5:10
For if, while we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of his Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through his life!

Romans 5:12
Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all people, because all sinned--

Galatians 2:15
"We who are Jews by birth and not sinful Gentiles

Galatians 5:16
So I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not gratify the desires of the flesh.

Ephesians 2:2
in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient.

Colossians 1:21
Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior.

1 Thessalonians 4:13
Brothers and sisters, we do not want you to be uninformed about those who sleep in death, so that you do not grieve like the rest of mankind, who have no hope.

1 Thessalonians 5:6
So then, let us not be like others, who are asleep, but let us be awake and sober.

2 Peter 2:14
With eyes full of adultery, they never stop sinning; they seduce the unstable; they are experts in greed--an accursed brood!

1 John 2:16
For everything in the world--the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life--comes not from the Father but from the world.
Treasury of Scripture

Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

we.

Isaiah 53:6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his …

Isaiah 64:6,7 But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are …

Daniel 9:5-9 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, …

Romans 3:9-19 What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before …

1 Corinthians 6:9-11 Know you not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of …

Galatians 2:15,16 We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles…

Galatians 3:22 But the scripture has concluded all under sin, that the promise by …

Titus 3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, …

1 Peter 4:3 For the time past of our life may suffice us to have worked the will …

1 John 1:8-10 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth …

in times.

Ephesians 4:17-19 This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you from now …

Acts 14:16 Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.

Acts 17:30,31 And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commands all …

Romans 11:30 For as you in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained …

1 Peter 2:10 Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: …

1 John 2:8 Again, a new commandment I write to you, which thing is true in him …

in the.

Ephesians 4:22 That you put off concerning the former conversation the old man, …

Mark 4:19 And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and …

John 8:44 You are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father you …

Romans 1:24 Why God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their …

Romans 6:12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that you should …

Romans 13:14 But put you on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for …

Galatians 5:16-24 This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and you shall not fulfill the …

1 Timothy 6:9 But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and …

James 4:1-3 From where come wars and fights among you? come they not hence, even …

1 Peter 1:14 As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the …

1 Peter 2:11 Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain …

1 Peter 4:2 That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to …

2 Peter 2:18 For when they speak great swelling words of vanity, they allure through …

1 John 2:16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust …

Jude 1:16-18 These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; …

fulfilling.

Romans 8:7,8 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject …

2 Corinthians 7:1 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves …

Galatians 5:19-21 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, …

desires. Gr. wills.

John 1:13 Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor …

by.

Genesis 5:3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his …

Genesis 6:5 And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth…

Genesis 8:21 And the LORD smelled a sweet smell; and the LORD said in his heart, …

Job 14:4 Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one.

Job 15:14-16 What is man, that he should be clean? and he which is born of a woman, …

Job 25:4 How then can man be justified with God? or how can he be clean that …

Psalm 51:5 Behold, I was shaped in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.

Mark 7:21,22 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, …

John 3:1-6 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews…

Romans 5:12-19 Why, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; …

Romans 7:18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwells no good thing: …

Galatians 2:15,16 We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles…

children. See on ver.

Ephesians 2:2 Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world, …

Romans 9:22 What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known…

even.

Romans 3:9,22,23 What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before …

1 Corinthians 4:7 For who makes you to differ from another? and what have you that …

Jump to Previous
Anger Body Children Conversation Cravings Deserving Desires Flesh Following Formerly Fulfilling Governed Inclinations Indulging Lower Lust Manner Mind Nature Natures Once Original Passed Passions Past Rest State Thoughts Times Wrath
Jump to Next
Anger Body Children Conversation Cravings Deserving Desires Flesh Following Formerly Fulfilling Governed Inclinations Indulging Lower Lust Manner Mind Nature Natures Once Original Passed Passions Past Rest State Thoughts Times Wrath
Links
Ephesians 2:3 NIV
Ephesians 2:3 NLT
Ephesians 2:3 ESV
Ephesians 2:3 NASB
Ephesians 2:3 KJV

Ephesians 2:3 Bible Apps
Ephesians 2:3 Bible Suite
Ephesians 2:3 Biblia Paralela
Ephesians 2:3 Chinese Bible
Ephesians 2:3 French Bible
Ephesians 2:3 German Bible

Alphabetical: All also among and as at by children cravings desires even flesh following formerly gratifying in indulging its Like lived lusts mind nature objects of one our rest sinful the them thoughts time too us we were wrath

NT Letters: Ephesians 2:3 Among whom we also all once lived (Ephes. Eph. Ep) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools

Bible Hub
Ephesians 2:2
Top of Page
Top of Page