Galatians 5:19
Parallel Verses
New International Version
The acts of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity and debauchery;

New Living Translation
When you follow the desires of your sinful nature, the results are very clear: sexual immorality, impurity, lustful pleasures,

English Standard Version
Now the works of the flesh are evident: sexual immorality, impurity, sensuality,

New American Standard Bible
Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality, impurity, sensuality,

King James Bible
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Now the works of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, moral impurity, promiscuity,

International Standard Version
Now the actions of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity, promiscuity,

NET Bible
Now the works of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity, depravity,

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
For the works of the flesh are known, which are fornication, impurity, whoredom,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Now, the effects of the corrupt nature are obvious: illicit sex, perversion, promiscuity,

Jubilee Bible 2000
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these: Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

King James 2000 Bible
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, impurity, licentiousness,

American King James Version
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

American Standard Version
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these : fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

Douay-Rheims Bible
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are fornication, uncleanness, immodesty, luxury,

Darby Bible Translation
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are fornication, uncleanness, licentiousness,

English Revised Version
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

Webster's Bible Translation
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these, Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

Weymouth New Testament
Now you know full well the doings of our lower natures. Fornication, impurity, indecency, idol-worship, sorcery;

World English Bible
Now the works of the flesh are obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness, lustfulness,

Young's Literal Translation
And manifest also are the works of the flesh, which are: Adultery, whoredom, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

5:16-26 If it be our care to act under the guidance and power of the blessed Spirit, though we may not be freed from the stirrings and oppositions of the corrupt nature which remains in us, it shall not have dominion over us. Believers are engaged in a conflict, in which they earnestly desire that grace may obtain full and speedy victory. And those who desire thus to give themselves up to be led by the Holy Spirit, are not under the law as a covenant of works, nor exposed to its awful curse. Their hatred of sin, and desires after holiness, show that they have a part in the salvation of the gospel. The works of the flesh are many and manifest. And these sins will shut men out of heaven. Yet what numbers, calling themselves Christians, live in these, and say they hope for heaven! The fruits of the Spirit, or of the renewed nature, which we are to do, are named. And as the apostle had chiefly named works of the flesh, not only hurtful to men themselves, but tending to make them so to one another, so here he chiefly notices the fruits of the Spirit, which tend to make Christians agreeable one to another, as well as to make them happy. The fruits of the Spirit plainly show, that such are led by the Spirit. By describing the works of the flesh and fruits of the Spirit, we are told what to avoid and oppose, and what we are to cherish and cultivate; and this is the sincere care and endeavour of all real Christians. Sin does not now reign in their mortal bodies, so that they obey it, Ro 6:12, for they seek to destroy it. Christ never will own those who yield themselves up to be the servants of sin. And it is not enough that we cease to do evil, but we must learn to do well. Our conversation will always be answerable to the principle which guides and governs us, Ro 8:5. We must set ourselves in earnest to mortify the deeds of the body, and to walk in newness of life. Not being desirous of vain-glory, or unduly wishing for the esteem and applause of men, not provoking or envying one another, but seeking to bring forth more abundantly those good fruits, which are, through Jesus Christ, to the praise and glory of God.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 19. - Now the works of the flesh are manifest (φανερὰ δέ ἐστι τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός). The apostle's purpose is here altogether one of practical exhortation. Having in ver. 13 emphatically warned the Galatians against making their emancipation from the Mosaic Law an occasion for the flesh, and in ver. 16 affirmed the incompatibility of a spiritual walk with the fulfilment of the desire of the flesh, he now specifies samples of the vices, whether in outward conduct or in inward feeling, in which the working of the flesh is apparent, as if cautioning them; adducing just those into which the Galatian converts would naturally be most in danger of falling. Both in the list which he gives them of .,ins, and in that of Christian graces, he is careful to note those relative to their Church life as well as those bearing upon their personal private life. Instances of enumeration of sins which may be compared with that here given, are found, with respect to the heathen world, in Romans 1:29-31; with reference to Christians, Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 6:9, 10; 2 Corinthians 12:20, 21; Ephesians 5:3-5, followed by a brief indication of fruits of the Spirit in ver. 9; Colossians 3:5-9; 1 Timothy 1:9, 10; 2 Timothy 3:2-4. "Manifest;" namely, to our moral sense; we at once feel that these are the outcome of an evil nature, and are incompatible with the influence of the Spirit of God. "Works of the flesh" means works in which the prompting of the flesh is recognizable. The phrase is equivalent to "the deeds or doings of the body," which we are called to "mortify, put to death, by the Spirit" (Romans 8:13). In Romans 13:12 and Ephesians 5:13 they are styled "works of darkness," that is, works belonging properly to a state in which the moral sense has not been quickened by the Spirit, or in which the light of Christ's presence has not shone. Which are these (ἅτινά ἐτι); of which sort are. Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness (πορνεία [Receptus, μοιχεία πορνεία], ἀκαθαρσία ἀσέλγεια). This is the first group, consisting of offences against chastity - sins against which the Church has to contend in all ages and in all countries; but which idolatry, especially such idolatry as that of Cybele in Galatia, has generally much fostered. The first in our English Bible, "adultery," is rejected from the Greek text by the general consent of editors. But in fact, "fornication" (πορνεία) may be taken as including it (Matthew 5:32), though it may also stand at its side as a distinct species of unchastity. "uncleanness" covers a wider range of sensual sin ("all uncleanness," Ephesians 4:19); solitary impurity, whether in thought or deed; unnatural lust (Romans 1:24), though it can hardly be taken as meaning this lust alone. "Lasciviousness," or "wantonness," is scarcely an adequate rendering of ἀσέλγεια in this connection; it appears to point to reckless shamelessness in unclean indulgences. In classical Greek the adjective ἀσέλγης describes a man insolently and wantonly reckless in his treatment of others; but in the New Testament it generally appears to point more specifically to unabashed open indulgence in impurity. The noun is connected with "uncleanness" and "fornication' 'in 2 Corinthians 12:21; with "uncleanness' ' in Ephesians 4:19; is used of the men of Sodom in 2 Peter 2:7; comp. also 2 Peter 2:18; l Peter 4:3; Jude 1:4 (cf. 7). Only in Mark 7:22 can it from the grouping be naturally taken in its classical sense.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Now the works of the flesh are manifest,.... By "flesh" is meant corrupt nature, as before, and by the works of it, not only external acts of sin, but inward lusts; for such are here mentioned among its works, as "hatred", "wrath", "envyings", &c. and both external and internal acts are so called, because they spring from the flesh, or corrupt nature, and are what that urges and solicits to, and are wrought thereby, and are what denominate and show men to be carnal: these are said to be "manifest"; not that they are all, and always publicly done, and are open to the sight of men; for they are works of darkness, and often done in secret, though they are always manifest to God the searcher of hearts, and will be brought to light in the day of judgment; but they are known to be sins in some measure by the light of nature, and especially by the law of God; and a clear case it is, that they are contrary to the Spirit, both to the Spirit of God, and to the principle of grace he forms in the heart; and that such who live in the commission of them are not led by him, nor are under the influence of his grace:

which are these; though all are not mentioned, only some of the chief, by which judgment may be made of the rest:

adultery; this is left out in the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Ethiopic versions, and in the Alexandrian copy; it is a defilement of the marriage bed, and is the sin of uncleanness committed by two persons, one of which at least is in a married state, is condemned by the law of God and light of nature:

fornication; which though by many of the Gentiles was reckoned no sin, or a very small one, stands here among the works of the flesh, that are manifest and to be avoided; it is the sin of uncleanness committed by persons in a single state;

uncleanness, it is a general name for all unchastity, in thought, word, or action; and may here design more especially all unnatural lusts, as

sodomy, self-pollution, &c.

lasciviousness; or wantonness, all lustful dalliance, everything that leads on to acts of uncleanness, or attends them, as impure words, filthy gestures, and the like.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

19-23. Confirming Ga 5:18, by showing the contrariety between the works of the flesh and the fruit of the Spirit.

manifest—The hidden fleshly principle betrays itself palpably by its works, so that these are not hard to discover, and leave no doubt that they come not from the Spirit.

which are these—Greek, "such as," for instance.

Adultery—omitted in the oldest manuscripts.

lasciviousness—rather, "wantonness" petulance, capricious insolence; it may display itself in "lasciviousness," but not necessarily or constantly so (Mr 7:21, 22, where it is not associated with fleshly lusts) [Trench]. "Works" (in the plural) are attributed to the "flesh," because they are divided, and often at variance with one another, and even when taken each one by itself, betray their fleshly origin. But the "fruit of the Spirit" (Ga 5:23) is singular, because, however manifold the results, they form one harmonious whole. The results of the flesh are not dignified by the name "fruit"; they are but works (Eph 5:9, 11). He enumerates those fleshly "works" (committed against our neighbor, against God, and against ourselves) to which the Galatians were most prone (the Celts have always been prone to disputations and internal strifes): and those manifestations of the fruit of the Spirit most needed by them (Ga 5:13, 15). This passage shows that "the flesh" does not mean merely sensuality, as opposed to spirituality: for "divisions" in the catalogue here do not flow from sensuality. The identification of "the natural (Greek, 'animal-souled') man," with the "carnal" or fleshly man (1Co 2:14), shows that "the flesh" expresses human nature as estranged from God. Trench observes, as a proof of our fallen state, how much richer is every vocabulary in words for sins, than in those for graces. Paul enumerates seventeen "works of the flesh," only nine manifestations of "the fruit of the Spirit" (compare Eph 4:31).

Galatians 5:19 Additional Commentaries
Living by the Spirit
18But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the Law. 19Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality, impurity, sensuality, 20idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, disputes, dissensions, factions,…
Cross References
Matthew 15:19
For out of the heart come evil thoughts--murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false testimony, slander.

Romans 8:5
Those who live according to the flesh have their minds set on what the flesh desires; but those who live in accordance with the Spirit have their minds set on what the Spirit desires.

1 Corinthians 6:9
Or do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor men who have sex with men

1 Corinthians 6:18
Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a person commits are outside the body, but whoever sins sexually, sins against their own body.

2 Corinthians 12:21
I am afraid that when I come again my God will humble me before you, and I will be grieved over many who have sinned earlier and have not repented of the impurity, sexual sin and debauchery in which they have indulged.

Colossians 3:5
Put to death, therefore, whatever belongs to your earthly nature: sexual immorality, impurity, lust, evil desires and greed, which is idolatry.

Hebrews 13:4
Marriage should be honored by all, and the marriage bed kept pure, for God will judge the adulterer and all the sexually immoral.

Revelation 21:8
But the cowardly, the unbelieving, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those who practice magic arts, the idolaters and all liars--they will be consigned to the fiery lake of burning sulfur. This is the second death."

Revelation 22:15
Outside are the dogs, those who practice magic arts, the sexually immoral, the murderers, the idolaters and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.
Treasury of Scripture

Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

the works.

Galatians 5:13,17 For, brothers, you have been called to liberty; only use not liberty …

Galatians 6:8 For he that sows to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption…

Psalm 17:4 Concerning the works of men, by the word of your lips I have kept …

John 3:6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born …

Romans 7:5,18,25 For when we were in the flesh, the motions of sins, which were by …

Romans 8:3,5,9,13 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, …

1 Corinthians 3:3 For you are yet carnal: for whereas there is among you envying, and …

1 Peter 4:2 That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to …


Ezekiel 22:6-13 Behold, the princes of Israel, every one were in you to their power …

Matthew 15:18,19 But those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the …

Mark 7:21-23 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, …

Romans 1:21-32 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, …

1 Corinthians 6:9,10 Know you not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of …

2 Corinthians 12:20,21 For I fear, lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I would, …

Ephesians 4:17-19 This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you from now …

Ephesians 5:3-6 But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not …

Colossians 3:5-8 Mortify therefore your members which are on the earth; fornication, …

1 Timothy 1:9,10 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for …

Titus 3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, …

James 3:14,15 But if you have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, …

1 Peter 4:3,4 For the time past of our life may suffice us to have worked the will …

Revelation 21:8 But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, …

Revelation 22:15 For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and fornicators, and murderers, …

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