Zephaniah 1:5
New International Version
those who bow down on the roofs to worship the starry host, those who bow down and swear by the LORD and who also swear by Molek,

New Living Translation
For they go up to their roofs and bow down to the sun, moon, and stars. They claim to follow the LORD, but then they worship Molech, too.

English Standard Version
those who bow down on the roofs to the host of the heavens, those who bow down and swear to the LORD and yet swear by Milcom,

Berean Study Bible
those who bow on the rooftops to worship the heavenly host, those who bow down and swear by the LORD but also swear by Molech,

New American Standard Bible
"And those who bow down on the housetops to the host of heaven, And those who bow down and swear to the LORD and yet swear by Milcom,

King James Bible
And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

Christian Standard Bible
those who bow in worship on the rooftops to the stars in the sky; those who bow and pledge loyalty to the LORD but also pledge loyalty to Milcom;

Contemporary English Version
Not a trace will be found of those who worship stars from their rooftops, or bow down to the god Milcom, while claiming loyalty to me, the LORD.

Good News Translation
I will destroy anyone who goes up on the roof and worships the sun, the moon, and the stars. I will also destroy those who worship me and swear loyalty to me, but then take oaths in the name of the god Molech.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
those who bow in worship on the rooftops to the heavenly host; those who bow and pledge loyalty to the LORD but also pledge loyalty to Milcom;

International Standard Version
I'll wipe out those who worship the stars that they view from their housetops, those who bow down and swear to the LORD and who also swear by Milcom,

NET Bible
I will remove those who worship the stars in the sky from their rooftops, those who swear allegiance to the LORD while taking oaths in the name of their 'king,'

New Heart English Bible
those who worship the host of heaven on the housetops, those who worship and swear by the LORD and also swear by Malcam,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
I will remove those who worship all the stars in the sky on their rooftops and those who worship by swearing loyalty to the LORD while also swearing loyalty to the god Milcom.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; And them that worship, that swear to the LORD And swear by Malcam;

New American Standard 1977
“And those who bow down on the housetops to the host of heaven, And those who bow down and swear to the LORD and yet swear by Milcom,

Jubilee Bible 2000
and those that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops and those that worship swearing by the LORD and by their king

King James 2000 Bible
And those that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and those that worship and that swear by the LORD, and yet swear by Milcom;

American King James Version
And them that worship the host of heaven on the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

American Standard Version
and them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship, that swear to Jehovah and swear by Malcam;

Brenton Septuagint Translation
and them that worship the host of heaven upon the house-tops; and them that worship and swear by the Lord, and them that swear by their king;

Douay-Rheims Bible
And them that worship the host of heaven upon the tops of houses, and them that adore, and swear by the Lord, and swear by Melchom.

Darby Bible Translation
and them that bow down to the host of the heavens upon the housetops; and them that bow down to Jehovah, that swear by [him], and swear by Malcham;

English Revised Version
and them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship, which swear to the LORD and swear by Malcam;

Webster's Bible Translation
And them that worship the host of heaven upon the house-tops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

World English Bible
those who worship the army of the sky on the housetops, those who worship and swear by Yahweh and also swear by Malcam,

Young's Literal Translation
And those bowing themselves On the roofs to the host of the heavens, And those bowing themselves, Swearing to Jehovah, and swearing by Malcham,
Study Bible
Zephaniah Prophesies Judgment on Judah
4“I will stretch out My hand against Judah and against all who dwell in Jerusalem. I will cut off from this place every remnant of Baal, the names of the idolatrous and pagan priests— 5those who bow on the rooftops to worship the heavenly host, those who bow down and swear by the LORD but also swear by Molech, 6and those who turn back from following the LORD and neither seek the LORD nor inquire of Him.”…
Cross References
Acts 10:9
The next day at about the sixth hour, as the men were approaching the city on their journey, Peter went up on the roof to pray.

1 Kings 11:5
Solomon followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians and Molech the abomination of the Ammonites.

1 Kings 11:33
For they have forsaken Me to worship Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Molech the god of the Ammonites. They have not walked in My ways, nor done what is right in My eyes, nor kept My statutes and judgments, as Solomon's father David did.

2 Kings 17:32
So the new residents worshiped the LORD, but they also appointed for themselves priests of all sorts to serve in the shrines of the high places.

2 Kings 17:41
So these nations worshiped the LORD but also served their idols, and to this day their children and grandchildren continue to do as their fathers did.

2 Kings 23:12
He pulled down the altars that the kings of Judah had set up on the roof near the upper chamber of Ahaz, and the altars Manasseh had set up in the two courtyards of the house of the LORD. The king pulverized them there and threw their dust into the Kidron Valley.

Jeremiah 5:2
Although they say, "As surely as the LORD lives," they are swearing falsely.

Jeremiah 5:7
"Why should I forgive you? Your children have forsaken Me and sworn by gods that are not gods. I satisfied their needs, yet they committed adultery and assembled at the houses of prostitutes.

Jeremiah 7:9
Will you steal and murder, commit adultery and perjury, burn incense to Baal, and follow other gods that you have not known,

Jeremiah 7:10
and then come and stand before Me in this house, which bears My name, and say, "We are delivered, so we can continue with all these abominations"?

Jeremiah 8:2
They will be exposed to the sun and moon, and all the host of heaven which they have loved, served, followed, consulted, and worshiped. Their bones will not be gathered up or buried, but will become like dung lying on the ground.

Jeremiah 12:16
And if they will diligently learn the ways of My people--to swear by My name, 'As surely as the LORD lives,' just as they taught My people to swear by Baal--then they will be established among My people.

Jeremiah 19:13
The houses of Jerusalem and the houses of the kings of Judah will be defiled like that place, Topheth--all the houses on whose rooftops they burned incense to all the heavenly hosts and poured out drink offerings to other gods."

Jeremiah 49:1
Concerning the Ammonites, this is what the LORD says: "Has Israel no sons? Is he without heir? Why then has Molech taken possession of Gad and his people settled in their cities?

Hosea 10:2
Their hearts are devious; now they must bear their guilt. The LORD will break down their altars and demolish their sacred pillars.

Treasury of Scripture

And them that worship the host of heaven on the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

worship.

2 Kings 23:12
And the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, did the king beat down, and brake them down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron.

Jeremiah 19:13
And the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, shall be defiled as the place of Tophet, because of all the houses upon whose roofs they have burned incense unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink offerings unto other gods.

Jeremiah 32:29
And the Chaldeans, that fight against this city, shall come and set fire on this city, and burn it with the houses, upon whose roofs they have offered incense unto Baal, and poured out drink offerings unto other gods, to provoke me to anger.

and them.

1 Kings 18:21
And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long halt ye between two opinions? if the LORD be God, follow him: but if Baal, then follow him. And the people answered him not a word.

2 Kings 17:33,41
They feared the LORD, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence…

Matthew 6:24
No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

and that.

Deuteronomy 10:20
Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; him shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and swear by his name.

Isaiah 48:1
Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, which swear by the name of the LORD, and make mention of the God of Israel, but not in truth, nor in righteousness.

Jeremiah 4:2
And thou shalt swear, The LORD liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the nations shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory.

by the Lord.

Isaiah 44:5
One shall say, I am the LORD'S; and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the LORD, and surname himself by the name of Israel.

Isaiah 45:23
I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.

Romans 14:11
For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.

swear by.

Joshua 23:7
That ye come not among these nations, these that remain among you; neither make mention of the name of their gods, nor cause to swear by them, neither serve them, nor bow yourselves unto them:

Malcham.

1 Kings 11:33
Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do that which is right in mine eyes, and to keep my statutes and my judgments, as did David his father.







Lexicon
those who bow
הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִ֥ים (ham·miš·ta·ḥă·wîm)
Article | Verb - Hitpael - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 7812: To depress, prostrate

on
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

the rooftops
הַגַּגּ֖וֹת (hag·gag·gō·wṯ)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 1406: A roof, the top of an altar

to worship the heavenly
הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם (haš·šā·mā·yim)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 8064: Heaven, sky

host,
לִצְבָ֣א (liṣ·ḇā)
Preposition-l | Noun - common singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 6635: A mass of persons, reg, organized for, war, a campaign

those who bow down
הַמִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוִים֙ (ham·miš·ta·ḥă·wîm)
Article | Verb - Hitpael - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 7812: To depress, prostrate

and swear
הַנִּשְׁבָּעִ֣ים (han·niš·bā·‘îm)
Article | Verb - Nifal - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 7650: To seven oneself, swear

by the LORD
לַֽיהוָ֔ה (Yah·weh)
Preposition-l | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

but also swear
וְהַנִּשְׁבָּעִ֖ים (wə·han·niš·bā·‘îm)
Conjunctive waw, Article | Verb - Nifal - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 7650: To seven oneself, swear

by Molech,
בְּמַלְכָּֽם׃ (bə·mal·kām)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 4445: Malcham -- a Benjamite
Verse 5. - I will also stretch out mine hand. This expression is used when God is about to do great things or inflict notable punishment (see Exodus 3:20; Exodus 15:12; Deuteronomy 4:34; Isaiah 5:25; Jeremiah 51:25, etc.). Judah. In so far as Judah was rebellious and wicked, it should incur the judicial punishment. Judgment was to begin at the house of God (1 Peter 4:17), the sin of the chosen people being more heinous than that of heathens. Hence it is added, upon all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, because, having in their very midst the temple of God, with its services and priests, they ought especially to have abhorred idolatry and maintained the true faith. The remnant of Baal; i.e. the last vestige. One cannot argue from this expression that the reform was already carried so far that Baal worship had almost disappeared. The next verse shows that idolatry still flourished; but the term implies merely that God would exterminate it so entirely that no trace of it should remain. The LXX. has, "the names of Baal," τὰ ὀνόματα τῆς Βάαλ (Hosea 2:17). (For Josiah's reform of these iniquities, see 2 Kings 23:4, etc.) The name of the Chemarims (Chemarim). The word means "black-robed," and is applied to the idolatrous priests whom the kings had appointed to conduct worship in high places (2 Kings 23:5; Hosea 10:5). "The name," says Dr. Pussy, "is probably the Syriac name of 'priest,' used in Holy Scripture of idolatrous priests, because the Syrians were idolaters" Not only shall the persons of these priests be cut off, but their very name and memory shall vanish (Zechariah 13:2). With the priests (kohanim). Together with the legitimate priests who had corrupted the worship of Jehovah (Zephaniah 3:4; Jeremiah 2:8; Ezekiel 8:11). Verse 5. - That worship the host of heaven upon the house tops. In this verse two classes of fame worshippers are mentioned, viz. star worshippers, and waverers. The worship of the sun, moon, and stars was a very ancient form of error, the heavenly bodies being regarded as the representatives of the powers of nature and the originators of events on earth (see Deuteronomy 4:19; Deuteronomy 17:3; Job 31:26, 27; 2 Kings 17:16). It was especially prevalent in the time of Manasseh (2 Kings 21:3), On the flat roofs of the houses, which were used as places of meditation, recreation, or conference (comp. Joshua 2:6; 1 Samuel 9:25; 2 Samuel 11:2; Acts 10:9), they erected altars for family worship of the heavenly bodies. Here they both burned incense (Jeremiah 19:13) and offered animal sacrifices (2 Kings 23:12). "In Syrian cities," says Dr. Thomson, "the roofs are a great comfort. The ordinary houses have no other place where the inmates, can either see the sun, smell the air, dry their clothes, set out their flower pots, or do numberless other things essential to their health and comfort. During a large part of the year the roof is the most agreeable place about the establishment, especially in the morning and evening. There multitudes sleep during the summer" ('The Land and the Book,' p. 39). Them that worship and that, etc.; rather, the worshippers who, etc. These were people who endeavoured to blend the worship of God with that of Baal, or halted between two opinions (1 Kings 18:21). Swear by the Lord; rather, swear to the Lord; i.e. bind themselves by oath to him, and at the same time swear by Malcham; swear by their king, Baal, or Moloch; call upon him as god. Septuagint, κατὰ τοῦ βασιλέως αὐτῶν, "by their king." But it is, perhaps, best to retain the name untranslated, in which ease it would be the appellation of the god Moloch, who could hardly be omitted in enumerating the objects of idolatrous worship (see Jeremiah 49:1, 3; and notes on Amos 1:15; 5:26). 1:1-6 Ruin is coming, utter ruin; destruction from the Almighty. The servants of God all proclaim, There is no peace for the wicked. The expressions are figurative, speaking every where desolation; the land shall be left without inhabitants. The sinners to be consumed are, the professed idolaters, and those that worship Jehovah and idols, or swear to the Lord, and to Malcham. Those that think to divide their affections and worship between God and idols, will come short of acceptance with God; for what communion can there be between light and darkness? If Satan have half, he will have all; if the Lord have but half, he will have none. Neglect of God shows impiety and contempt. May none of us be among those who draw back unto perdition, but of those who believe to the saving of the soul.
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