Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band,Acts 10:1. Ἀνὴρ, a man) Heretofore all the facts described took place among the circumcised: now we come also to the Gentiles.—ἐν Καισαρείᾳ, at Cæsarea) Already the doctrine of salvation was not unknown there: ch. Acts 8:40. Comp. below, Acts 10:37. For which reason Peter quotes the prophets, Acts 10:43. Jerusalem was at that time the seat of the ecclesiastical government of the Jews: Cæsarea, of the civil government. The Gospel, preached as it was by those divinely taught, though unlearned men, took hold of each metropolis, which was followed by the other towns: it was so afterwards in the case of Philippi, Athens, Corinth, Ephesus, and Rome itself.—Κορνήλιος, Cornelius) A frequent name among the Romans.—Ἰταλικῆς, the Italian) A considerable portion of these soldiers were alive at the time when these things were written; and they could bear witness of their truth. Οἱ τῆς σπείρης τῆς Ἰταλικῆς πεζοἰ, the foot-soldiers of the Italian Band, are mentioned also by Arrian, as C. G. Schwarzius observes in his dissertation on the Italian and Augustan cohort or band, p. 42.
A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway.Acts 10:2. Σὺν, with) Implying the close connection of the master and his household, of the commander and his soldiers: Acts 10:7.—οἴκῳ, his house) Comp. ch. Acts 11:14.—τῷ λαῷ, to the people) Among many of the Jews there was at that time great poverty. GOD repaid the debt of the poor, in their stead. The grace of GOD towards Israel recompenses the favour of Cornelius towards the Israelites.—δεόμενος, praying) Prayer and liberality are commended here; fasting is added, Acts 10:30. The beneficent do what GOD wishes: what these same persons in praying wish for, GOD does.
He saw in a vision evidently about the ninth hour of the day an angel of God coming in to him, and saying unto him, Cornelius.Acts 10:3. Ἐν ὁράματι, in a vision) not in an ecstasy, as Peter.—φανερῶς, manifestly) So that it could not be a deception of the senses which was disturbing Cornelius, who was not accustomed to such things.—ἐννάτην, the ninth) This is about our third hour (three o’clock) in the afternoon: a time in which the senses are wont to be fresh and lively.
And when he looked on him, he was afraid, and said, What is it, Lord? And he said unto him, Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God.Acts 10:4. Ἔμφοβος γενόμενος, becoming struck with fear) owing to the brightness of the angel: Acts 10:30.—Κύριε, Lord, or Sir) So he calls the angel, as one unknown to him.—προσευχαὶ, thy prayers) These precede: the alms follow, though in respect to men they are the more conspicuous of the two [and therefore are put first in]: Acts 10:2.—ἀνέβησαν, have come up) The angel does not say that he presented them: Acts 10:31. Yet they did ascend, like a sacrifice: Revelation 8:4. Angels are not said to be ἱερεῖς, but yet they are λειτουργοί. A joyful message. O how many things fall upon the earth, not ascend!—εἰς μνημόσυνον, as a memorial) We should pray and do good, even though we do not immediately feel (perceive) the effect. [With what sweet sensations may we suppose Cornelius to have been profusely filled upon receiving this announcement!—V. g.]
And now send men to Joppa, and call for one Simon, whose surname is Peter:Acts 10:5. Μετάπεμψαι, send for, invite to come) Cornelius is not sent to Peter, but is desired to send for him, that he should not seem to have become a mere proselyte [i.e. attaching himself as a convert to the Jews], and that it might be thus intimated that so the Gospel is about to come to the Gentile nations, to each in its own country.—Πέτρος, Peter) A surname not unpleasant to the Gentiles: as also is the case with the surname Paul.
He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose house is by the sea side: he shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do.
And when the angel which spake unto Cornelius was departed, he called two of his household servants, and a devout soldier of them that waited on him continually;Acts 10:7. Ὡς, when) when first, as soon as: Acts 10:33, “Immediately therefore I sent.”—ἀπῆλθεν, was departed) He did not suddenly disappear.—δύο, two) In our days, he who is deemed to be the successor of Peter receives more splendid embassies.
And when he had declared all these things unto them, he sent them to Joppa.Acts 10:8. Ἄπαντα, all things) Implying pious (affectionate) familiarity towards his domestics, [which, without any sacrifice of their authority, experience of the Divine grace induces even illustrious (noble) men to exercise.—V. g.] Cornelius prudently (with a view to the subsequent confirmation of the faith of his household) speaks out all that he had seen. Peter prudently is silent as to his vision: Acts 10:21; with which comp. Acts 10:28 (where he only alludes to it, without going into the details).—ἀπέστειλεν, sent) There was no need of a letter.
On the morrow, as they went on their journey, and drew nigh unto the city, Peter went up upon the housetop to pray about the sixth hour:Acts 10:9. Δῶμα, the house-top) The house of the tanner had no ὑπερῷον, upper room.—προσεὑξασθαι, to pray) The time before dinner or supper (Acts 10:3) is seasonable for prayer.—ἕκτην, the sixth) dinner hour, and, before it, the hour of prayer: Psalm 55:17, “Evening, and morning, and at noon, will I pray.” Unawares (not expecting it) he meets with so great a revelation.
And he became very hungry, and would have eaten: but while they made ready, he fell into a trance,Acts 10:10. Ἐγένετο, he became) immediately after prayer.—πρόσπεινος, hungry) at the regular time of meals: however in somewhat of an extraordinary manner. The tokens of apparitions accord with the state of the natural faculties.—γεύσασθαι, to taste [to partake of food]) A verb expressing temperance.—παρασκευαζόντων, whilst they were making ready) viz. those persons whose business it was to make ready. Even when the natural faculties are not quiescent, still the Divine operation can predominate.—ἔκστασις, a state of mental transport, a trance) Prayer makes the mind adapted for receiving a revelation; and the trance fortifies a man against his own spirit.
And saw heaven opened, and a certain vessel descending unto him, as it had been a great sheet knit at the four corners, and let down to the earth:Acts 10:11. Τὸν οὐρανὸν, the heaven) The vessel was not only lifted up from the earth into heaven, but was first let down from heaven. Therefore the reception of the Gentiles into heaven presupposes the first origin of man to be heavenly (from heaven). And in heaven first are the types of the things which are afterwards made on earth for the salvation of men: comp. Hebrews 8:5.—σκεῦος, a vessel) a napkin.—τέσσαρσιν, at the four) corresponding to the same number of quarters of the world.—ἀρχαῖς, corners or extremities) These were not tied together in one knot, but were severally (separately) let down from heaven: ch. Acts 11:5.
Wherein were all manner of fourfooted beasts of the earth, and wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls of the air.Acts 10:12. Πάντα τὰ τετράποδα καὶ τὰ ἑρπετὰ τῆς γῆς, all four-footed animals and creeping things of the earth) Under the name all four-footed animals Luke comprises wild beasts also, which however recent transcribers have inserted here, from ch. Acts 11:6. By these symbols not only was it signified, that Peter is allowed to eat all kinds of food (of every nation), but that the Gentile nations themselves, who had been heretofore designated as unclean animals, are now clean: Acts 10:28.
 For this reason the reading καὶ τὰ θηρία, which the larger Ed. thought was not to be omitted, is deemed an inferior reading by Ed. 2, and is omitted also in the Germ. Vers.—E. B.
Ee support τὰ θηρία after τῆς γῆς. Orig. 1,249a has it before τῆς γῆς. Rec. Text, with later. Syr., reads τὰ θηρία before καὶ τὰ ἕρπετα. But ABC corrected, Vulg. Orig. 1,386b, 388b, omit τὰ θηρία.—E. and T.
And there came a voice to him, Rise, Peter; kill, and eat.[13. Φάγε, eat) Such food was awaiting Peter as Christ Himself is satisfied with: Isaiah 53:11, “He shall see of the travail of His soul, and shall be satisfied.”—V. g.]
But Peter said, Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean.Acts 10:14. Μηδαμῶς, by no means) A trance leaves a man liberty in respect to that particular thing which is vividly set before him: ch. Acts 22:19. But besides, it is a sign of the power being strengthened, even though the senses are bound, for example, in a dream, to maintain one’s conscientiousness. The first objection started by a man, when GOD orders something difficult, sometimes has an indulgence, ch. Acts 22:19-20 : but there ought to be no repetition of it: John 13:8 : Exodus 4:13; Deuteronomy 3:26; Ezekiel 4:14. From the delay (reluctance) of Peter, the will of GOD shines forth the more clearly. And on that account the more easily could Peter bear the doubts (hesitation) of the brethren: ch. Acts 11:2-3, “They that were of the circumcision contended with him, saying, Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat with them.”—οὐδέποτε, never) He who has once done anything, more easily repeats his act. See therefore that thou doest no evil for the first time (even once). Peter had always been observant of the law.
And the voice spake unto him again the second time, What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common.Acts 10:15. Ἐκαθάρισε, hath cleansed) hath made and declared to be clean. For nothing save what is clean (pure) is let down from heaven. Peter continued to remember well this verb: ch. Acts 15:9. Comp. as to Paul, ch. Acts 13:2, note.—σὺ, thou) who art less than GOD: Acts 10:26, ch. Acts 11:17.—μὴ κοίνου, do not thou call common) There is no third or middle term between pure (clean) and common.
This was done thrice: and the vessel was received up again into heaven.Acts 10:16. Ἐπὶ τρἰς, thrice) The decisive number, confirming the fact and signifying immediate speed. Comp. Genesis 41:32.
Now while Peter doubted in himself what this vision which he had seen should mean, behold, the men which were sent from Cornelius had made inquiry for Simon's house, and stood before the gate,Acts 10:17. Ἐν ἑαυτῷ, within himself) It is by implication indicated, that Peter was now no longer in a state of trance. Comp. ch. Acts 12:11 (Peter, after his deliverance from prison, “Now I know of a surety that the Lord,” etc.).—διηπόρει, doubted, was perplexed) The apostles were not without care for knowledge.—ἰδοὺ, behold) Often the things which encounter the godly from within and without at the one time mutually reveal one another [shed light one upon the other]. The things which thus meet and concur together are wisely to be weighed in the mind.—διερωτήσαντες) having by inquiry reached, or found out.—Σίμωνος, of Simon) The names indicated by the angel were a matter of surprise both to the inquirers and to the people of Joppa.
And called, and asked whether Simon, which was surnamed Peter, were lodged there.Acts 10:18. Φανήσαντες, having called) their boldness of speech (confidence) being now increased.
While Peter thought on the vision, the Spirit said unto him, Behold, three men seek thee.Acts 10:19. Ἰδοὺ, Behold) Peter was prepared by degrees for receiving this new direction (suggestion) of the Spirit. Believers are led gradually, so far as is sufficient for the time being, in each particular case.—ἄνδρες, men) Peter had not heard the three men ‘calling.’
 The reading ἄνδρες τρεῖς, which was pronounced to be less established by the margins of the Greek Editions, is notwithstanding received by the Germ. Vers.—E. B.
ACEe Vulg. Memph. read the τρεῖς: and so Lachm. But Dd and later Syr. omit it: and so Tisch. B has δύο: comp. ver. 7.—E. and T.
Arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them, doubting nothing: for I have sent them.Acts 10:20. Μηδὲν διακρινόμενος, nothing doubting) A requisite in the highest decree necessary in the case of a good action. Often long-continued doubt is suddenly, when need requires, taken away in life or at death.
Then Peter went down to the men which were sent unto him from Cornelius; and said, Behold, I am he whom ye seek: what is the cause wherefore ye are come?Acts 10:21. Ὃν ζητεῖτε, whom ye seek) So courage was imparted to those seeking Peter.
And they said, Cornelius the centurion, a just man, and one that feareth God, and of good report among all the nation of the Jews, was warned from God by an holy angel to send for thee into his house, and to hear words of thee.Acts 10:22. Δίκαιος, just) Occupatio [The figure by which we anticipate an objection that might be started, and refute it: ἀνθυποφόρα].—μεταπέμψασθαι, to send for) Otherwise Cornelius himself would not have hesitated to come to Peter.
Then called he them in, and lodged them. And on the morrow Peter went away with them, and certain brethren from Joppa accompanied him.Acts 10:23. Εἰσκαλεσάμενος, having called them in) Peter had not moved a step (gone forth) from his house.—ἐξένισε, entertained them as guests) not distrusting them as strangers: not disdaining them as Gentiles. At first the Gentiles came to the Jews: afterwards these latter to the former.—τῇ δὲ ἐπαύριον, but on the morrow) In the case of a matter, however good, there is not always required urgent haste.—τινὲς, some) six; ch. Acts 11:12. They were not divinely ordered to go; and yet it was with a pious feeling they did so. Many things are often left to the free discretion of the godly; in which, however, they are governed (guided) by the secret hand of GOD. Afterwards it became evident, how advantageous it was, that so many witnesses were present: ch. Acts 11:12.—ΣΥΝῆΛΘΟΝ, went with) A holy company, consisting of ten men of various ranks.
 They enabled him to meet the charge of those of the circumcision, ch. Acts 11:2—E. and T.
And the morrow after they entered into Caesarea. And Cornelius waited for them, and had called together his kinsmen and near friends.Acts 10:24. Ἦν προσδοκῶν, was waiting for them) He had not suffered himself to become immersed in other business meanwhile, but wholly devoted himself to this concern, and during the whole of this time was being made ready for it.—τοὺς συγγενεῖς, his kinsmen) The kingdom of GOD is often propagated, as external circumstances admit. Συγγενεῖς, kinsmen, are from one stock, including those so connected even collaterally.—τοὺς ἀναγκαίους, his connections, his intimate friends [Lat. necessarios, those bound to one by any tie, ‘necessitudo’]) This tie of connection is wider in extent than kindred, and is applied even to affinity, neighbourhood, colleagueship, or fellowship in the same college, etc.—φίλους, friends) Not all kinsmen and connections are friends. He called together those whom he thought likely to wish to be present. [They were therefore men who were themselves not unlike Cornelius: Acts 10:2. How often is it the case, that friendship cultivated with the good or the bad, when we are not expecting it, turns out either to our gain or to our hurt!—V. g.]
And as Peter was coming in, Cornelius met him, and fell down at his feet, and worshipped him.Acts 10:25. Εἰσελθεῖν, As it happened that Peter was entering) the house.—(συναντήσας, having met) with joy, and by way of compliment to him.—ἐπὶ τοὺς τόδας, at his feet) viz. those of Peter.—προσεκύνησεν, worshipped) Luke does not add him. A Euphemism [avoiding the expression of that which is idolatry].
But Peter took him up, saying, Stand up; I myself also am a man.Acts 10:26. Ἤγειρε, raised him up) Why then is the kissing of the Pope’s feet not only admitted, but made an ordinary ceremony?—[κἀγὼ, I also) as Cornelius, Acts 10:28. Cornelius is not said to have worshipped Peter; and yet Peter, for all that, does not fail to check him.—V. g.]—ἄνθρωπος) a man, not God. On this account we ought to control both our own exaltation (conceit of ourselves) and the admiration of others. We ought not to look with admiration on mortals, but on the gifts of GOD in them. [As the Galatians had received Paul (Galatians 4:14), so Peter had received Cornelius.—V. g.]
And as he talked with him, he went in, and found many that were come together.Acts 10:27. Συνομιλῶν, talking with them) familiarly.—εἰσῆλθε, he went in) into the inner part of the house.—πολλοὐς, many) A joyous harvest of souls to be reaped.
And he said unto them, Ye know how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep company, or come unto one of another nation; but God hath shewed me that I should not call any man common or unclean.Acts 10:28. Ὑμεῖς) ye yourselves. He addresses all in his own name, not also in the name of those accompanying him.—προσέρχεσθαι, to come unto) an act which is even less than κολλᾶσθαι, to join one’s self with.—ἀλλοφύλῳ, one of an alien nation) Euphemism [for Gentile].—καὶ) for ἀλλὰ, and for but.—ἐμοὶ, to me) This word is emphatic.—[ὁ Θεὸς, GOD) Peter might suppose the knowledge of the true GOD as existing on the part of Cornelius: Acts 10:34; Acts 10:36.—V. g.]—ἔδειξε, hath showed) The word is employed in the strict sense: Acts 10:11. He speaks sparingly as to his own hesitation, and as to the secret vision which he had seen.—ἄνθρωπον, no one that is a man) This is elegantly put last: it involves an Ætiology [the reason assigned], and intensifies the universality of the language.
Therefore came I unto you without gainsaying, as soon as I was sent for: I ask therefore for what intent ye have sent for me?Acts 10:29. Ἀναντιῤῥήτως, without gainsaying) for he had previously cleared away all the difficulties in the way of his coming, with GOD.—πυνθάνομαι, I ask) Each has his part in the speaking. [And it is by asking many questions that an opportunity of speaking is easily obtained.—V. g.]
And Cornelius said, Four days ago I was fasting until this hour; and at the ninth hour I prayed in my house, and, behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing,Acts 10:30. Ἀπὸ, from) from the beginning of the day, which, counting backwards, is the fourth day, up to the present day and this hour of the day.—τετάρτης, fourth) The first day (counting backwards, the fourth) was the day of the vision and of sending the messengers: the second, was the day of the arrival of the messengers: the third, the day of the setting out of Peter: the fourth, the day of his arrival at Cornelius’ house [Acts 10:3; Acts 10:9; Acts 10:23-24].—ἤμην νηστεύων, I was fasting) It is not meant that he fasted for four days, but on the fourth day, counting backwards. [These acts were praiseworthy; yet Cornelius recounts them with humble simplicity.—V. g.—τὴν ἐννάτην ὥραν, the ninth hour) Cornelius may have imitated the Israelites in this respect: ch. Acts 3:1, “Peter and John went up—into the temple at the hour of prayer, being the ninth hour.”—V. g.]
And said, Cornelius, thy prayer is heard, and thine alms are had in remembrance in the sight of God.
Send therefore to Joppa, and call hither Simon, whose surname is Peter; he is lodged in the house of one Simon a tanner by the sea side: who, when he cometh, shall speak unto thee.
Immediately therefore I sent to thee; and thou hast well done that thou art come. Now therefore are we all here present before God, to hear all things that are commanded thee of God.Acts 10:33. Καλῶς ἐποίησας, thou hast done well) A formula of approbation. He praises Peter, in that he has not hesitated to come: Acts 10:29.—ἐνώπιόν σου, in thy presence) A most ancient reading. A transcriber easily took τοῦ Θεοῦ for σοῦ, either from the end of the verse or from Acts 10:31.—πάρεσμεν, we are present) Cornelius, in his own house, speaks in the same way as if he and his friends were at Peter’s house. They had been religiously prepared for hearing. The soil was good; and in consequence the fruit was most speedy in its growth: Acts 10:44.—τὰ προστεταγμένα σοι, that have been commanded thee) It does not seem to have been previously told to Peter what he should say.
 Which the Germ. Vers. prefers, following the margin of Ed. 2 rather than the larger Ed.—E. B.
ABCEe (B has Κυρίου in the collation of Birch, probably an error of the collator) have τοῦ Θεοῦ. D corrected, d Vulg. Syr. and Theb. have σου.—E. and T.
Then Peter opened his mouth, and said, Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons:Acts 10:34. Ἐπʼ ἀληθείας καταλαμβάνομαι, of a truth I perceive) From the harmonious concurrence of all things. [The very narration of Cornelius suggested to Peter a full knowledge of the state of the case.—V. g.]—οὐκ ἔστι προσωπολήπτης, is no accepter or respecter of the person) Peter had not thought, previously, that God is an accepter of persons; but now for the first time he experiences that whereby it is made most manifestly conspicuous, that GOD is not a respecter or accepter of persons.—ὁ Θεὸς, God) To Him all things are ascribed, Acts 10:38; Acts 10:40, etc.
But in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.Acts 10:35. Ἐν παντὶ ἔθνει, in every nation) It is not an indifferentism of religions, but an indifferency (impartiality) as to the acceptance of nations, that is here asserted. This is even evident from the contrary opinion, viz. that as to the circumcised only being pleasing to GOD; the opinion which Peter confesses himself delivered from. Cornelius had not been utterly ignorant of the doctrine as to the Christ, and the report concerning Jesus Christ (following verses), although he had not received circumcision; GOD so ordering it in His providence. Wherefore Peter speaks with him very differently from the way in which Paul afterwards dealt with idolaters, as the Gospel advanced onwards to more remote nations. See ch. 14 and 17. Hence also in Acts 10:43 he appeals generally to the prophets: which Paul, in the passages referred to, did not: nor does he, however, as he is wont everywhere to do in addressing the Jews, specially quote the testimony of the prophets.—ὁ φοβούμενος αὐτὸν καὶ ἐργαζόμενος δικαιοσύνην, he that feareth Him and worketh righteousness) According to the measure (standard) of primitive knowledge derived from the light of nature, and (or) rather from the revealed word. An indefinite description, suited to the matter in hand and its commencement (the exordium of his speech). Such men in various grades are elegantly described: for instance, ch. Acts 17:4; Acts 17:11-12.—αὐτὸν, Him) the true God.—δεκτὸς, acceptable) one to whom grace may be vouchsafed, even without circumcision. The verb λαβεῖν, to take (“out of the Gentiles a people for His name”), corresponds to this, ch. Acts 15:14, where this very passage is had in view.
The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ: (he is Lord of all:)Acts 10:36. Τὸν λόγον ὃν ἀπέστειλε) A Hebraism, in accordance with which it is equivalent to את, this is, as in Haggai 2:5 [“According to (understood) the word that I covenanted with you”], τὸν λόγον, ὃν διεθέμην ὑμῖν. Ed. Basil or Aldin. Ludovicus de Dieu adds the passages, Zechariah 7:7; Zechariah 8:17; 2 Kings 9:25. Others, however, formerly wrote in Acts τὸν λόγον ἀπέστειλε (with which comp. Psalm 107:20, LXX., ἀπέστειλε τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ), so that τοῦτον should be understood). Comp. Matthew 19:22 (ΤῸΝ ΛΌΓΟΝ, sub. ΤΟῦΤΟΝ); John 7:40, etc. At all events, Peter seems to have had in his mind that expression of Isaiah, ch. Acts 9:8, דבר שלח, “The Lord sent a word,” and to have referred it to what goes before in that passage, concerning the Prince of Peace and His government; so as to say, “That good thing which has been vouchsafed to Israel through the Messiah, that same I say is yours.” However, I understand both passages as to the word of doctrine. Comp. Acts 13:26. It is not to be construed, ΤῸΝ ΛΌΓΟΝ ΟἼΔΑΤΕ (Acts 10:37). These new hearers knew the history, concerning which presently he speaks: they did not as yet know also its inner bearings and principles (rationes), concerning which he treats in this verse.—ἈΠΈΣΤΕΙΛΕ, sent) God. The ellipsis confirms the connection of this verse with Acts 10:34, out of which it is to be filled up. Moreover God sent, when His Son came: and “preached the Gospel of peace,” speaking through Him.—εὐαγγελιζόμενος εἰρήνην, preaching the Gospel of peace) peace between God and men, between Jews and Gentiles: Isaiah 57:19, “Peace to him that is far off, and to him that is near, saith the Lord.” Ephesians 2:17.—ΔΙᾺ, by) Construe with peace: as appears from the fact that he forthwith calls Christ Lord of all, even of the Gentiles. Comp Acts 10:42-43. The one Lord comprehends all in peace.—πάντων, of all) Masculine. Christ is Lord of all: and God, in Christ, is God of all: Acts 10:34; Ephesians 4:5-6.
 The Vers. Germ. agrees with this: although the margin of both Greek Editions has pronounced the omission of the word ὃν as less established.—E. B.
The ὃν is read by CDEe and Loth Syr. Versions: and so Tisch. AB (and, according to Lachm., but erroneously, C) Vulg. Memph. Theb. omit ὃν: and so Lachm.—E. and T.
That word, I say, ye know, which was published throughout all Judaea, and began from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached;Acts 10:37. Ὑμεῖς οἴδατε, ye know) from proofs more ancient than my coming. [Therefore they had no need of a fuller relation of these events.—V. g.]—ἀρξάμενον) The participle either by itself, or used as an adverb: with which comp. Luke 24:47, ἀρξάμενον ἀπὸ Ἱερουσαλήμ. It is employed absolutely by a frequent and elegant Græcism.—ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας, from Galilee) John 1:43; John 2:1 (Cana). Cæsarea was tolerably near to that region, but somewhat remote from Jerusalem: Acts 10:39.—μετὰ, after) John constitutes the boundary between the Old and New Testament.—τὸ βάπτισμα, the baptism) that most celebrated ordinance.
How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil; for God was with him.Acts 10:38. Ἰησοῦν—ὡς ἔχρισεν αὐτὸν ὁ Θεὸς, Jesus—how God anointed Him) This being joined by apposition with the word, τὸ—ῥῆμα, depends on ye know. Therefore the words in construction have the same force as if it were said, Ἰησοῦς ὡς ἔχρισται; which is equivalent to, τὰ περὶ Ἰησοῦ, ὃν ἔχρισεν ὁ Θεός. The sentiment is this, that Jesus, and that too as the Christ, was known to them.—ἔχρισεν αὐτὸν, anointed Him) especially in baptism. Matthew 3:16-17; Luke 4:1; Luke 4:14; Luke 4:18.—Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ καὶ δυνάμει, with the Holy Spirit and with power) The mention of the Holy Ghost is often so made, as that there is added mention of that gift of the Spirit specially which accords with the matter in hand for the time being: as in this place, where the works of Christ are the subject predicated of, there is added, with power. So in ch. Acts 6:3, the Seven, “full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom;” ch. Acts 11:24, “full of the Holy Ghost and of faith;” ch. Acts 13:52, “The disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Ghost.” Comp. the words, spirit and truth, spirit and life, John 4:23; John 6:63. The concrete and abstract nouns are joined in the same way as in 1 Peter 4:14.—εὐεργετῶν, doing good) All the miracles of Christ brought health and salvation, not injury, to men. The genus, good deeds, is followed by the species, healings.—πάντας, all) There had been, especially at that time, a great multitude of persons possessed and sick.—καταδυναστευομένους, oppressed by) with unjust force.—(μετʼ αὐτοῦ, with Him) He speaks somewhat sparingly of the Majesty of Christ, so as to adapt himself to the capacity of his hearers.
And we are witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they slew and hanged on a tree:Acts 10:39. Καὶ ἡμεῖς, and we) This has the force of Epitasis (emphatic addition). It answers to the ye in Acts 10:37.
Him God raised up the third day, and shewed him openly;
Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead.Acts 10:41. Οὐ, not) Not now any longer, as He did before His death.—οὐ παντὶ τῷ λαῷ, not to all the people) His kingdom is a kingdom of faith, which was to be propagated by witnesses, and those witnesses persons divinely approved of and trustworthy: and it is a heavenly, not a worldly kingdom; not one of vain splendour, but (as Justus Jonas expresses it) one lying hid under the (various) forms of the cross.—ἡμῖν, to us) The Apposition of the noun (μάρτυσιν) and pronoun (ἡμῖν).—συνεφάγομεν καὶ συνεπίομεν αὐτῷ, did eat and drink with Him) during two years and more before His passion. There is denoted by this phrase (concerning which comp. John 15:27), long-continued converse: nor were the apostles wont at any time to mention that they did eat with Jesus after His resurrection; for Jesus did this for their own conviction, not for that of others: and He even had spoken more widely as to not afterwards drinking of wine, Luke 22:18; Luke 22:16, “I will not any more eat thereof [of the Passover, not of any food] until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God,” than concerning the not eating of the Passover (in opposition to any se of food whatever). Therefore μετὰ, after, depends on Acts 10:40 [“Showed Him openly, after He rose from the dead;” not, “We did eat and drink with Him after He rose”]. Christ appeared after His resurrection to those who before had believed on Him, and who could bear witness that He, who was said to have risen again, was truly the Christ whom they had known before.
And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead.Acts 10:42. Παρήγγειλεν ἡμῖν, He enjoined us) viz. God: ch. Acts 5:29, “We ought to obey God rather than men.”—τῷ λαῷ, unto the people) Answering to the beginning of Acts 10:41.—διαμερτύρασθαι, to testify) Understand, even to the Gentiles: ch. Acts 1:8; Matthew 28:19.—αὐτὸς, it is He Himself).—ὡρισμένος, ordained) by an immoveable decree.—κριτὴς, judge) This name expresses by Synecdoche (a part for the whole) all the glory of Christ, and in relation to believers it denotes the crowning consummation of the benefits of Christ: 2 Timothy 4:8, with which comp. Hebrews 12:23. He will judge even the Jews, who condemned Him; even the Romans, who held the Cæsarean seat of the government of Judea; even the dead, from among whom He rose again, and who are about to rise again in their own proper time; 1 Peter 4:5. [Comp. ch. Acts 17:31. So the Lord Jesus also testified of Himself as the Judge, before that He made mention of His own ascension; John 5:22, “The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son.”—V. g.]
To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins.Acts 10:43. Πάντες, all) Those whose books are, as also those whose books are not extant: ch. Acts 3:24.—προφῆται, the prophets) In this discourse Peter had not yet cited the testimonies of the Old Testament; and now, whilst he appeals to the prophets in general, the result is accomplished at the beginning of his discourse, ch. Acts 11:15, at once, as is appropriate to the economy regarding the Gentiles, in the case of such hearers.—μαρτυροῦσιν, are witnesses) as we, Acts 10:39. Peter does not use here the term, promise, as described by the prophets.—ἄφεσιν ἀμαρτιῶν, remission of sins) which is the source (head) of all benefits.—πάντα, every one) even of the Gentiles.
While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word.Acts 10:44. Ἔτι, yet) Peter abounded in copious matter, so as to be ready to speak much more: ch. Acts 11:15; but when his hearers too received the Spirit, the work of hearing and of speaking has accomplished all that is in its province. [It is by the preaching of faith that the Spirit is received: Galatians 3:2.—V. g.]—ἐπέπεσε, fell) in a conspicuous (visible) manner. In ordinary cases, baptism was received before the coming of the Holy Ghost. But in this instance it might have been doubted whether they should be baptized without circumcision. On this account it fell immediately upon the hearers of the word. Grace has its order of operations unrestricted.
And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost.Acts 10:45. Ἐπὶ τὰ ἔθνη, on the nations) So one house is called, either because they hence inferred that the other Gentiles also were about to receive the Holy Spirit: for once that one was admitted, now henceforth the door is closed against none; and rightly from this instance they draw the conclusion as to all cases; ch. Acts 11:18, Acts 14:27 : or else because it was not convenient to use the term ἐθνικοὺς, Gentiles.
For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter,Acts 10:46. Γὰρ, for) They draw the conclusion from the effect.—γλώσσαις, tongues) various.
Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we?Acts 10:47. Τὸ ὓδωρ, water) He uses the term water for baptism by ταπείνωσις (less expressed than is implied). When the greater thing has been given, that which is less is added by the giver, and is not despised by the receiver. He does not say, They now already have the Spirit; therefore they can do without the water. They are not circumcised, and yet they are baptized. Therefore the footing on which baptism stands is much higher; comp. ch. Acts 15:8-9, which passage shows they were not to be circumcised; and yet Peter considered that they ought to be baptized.—κωλῦσαι, forbid) ch. Acts 11:17.—τὶς, any one) either I or any of the brethren.
Προσέταξε, He commanded) He did not baptize with his own hands; there were others present to whom that office could be becomingly delegated; Acts 10:45. Comp. 1 Corinthians 1:17, [Acts 10:15, “Lest any should say, I baptized in my own name.”]—Κυρίου, of the Lord) Christ Jesus.—ἐπιμεῖναι) to tarry longer,—ἡμέρας τινὰς, some days) Golden days.
 Bengel, J. A. (1860). Vol. 2: Gnomon of the New Testament (M. E. Bengel & J. C. F. Steudel, Ed.) (A. R. Fausset, Trans.) (510–610). Edinburgh: T&T Clark.
And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. Then prayed they him to tarry certain days.