Obadiah 1:10
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
Because of the violence against your brother Jacob, you will be covered with shame; you will be destroyed forever.

New Living Translation
"Because of the violence you did to your close relatives in Israel, you will be filled with shame and destroyed forever.

English Standard Version
Because of the violence done to your brother Jacob, shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off forever.

New American Standard Bible
"Because of violence to your brother Jacob, You will be covered with shame, And you will be cut off forever.

King James Bible
For thy violence against thy brother Jacob shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever.

Christian Standard Bible
You will be covered with shame and destroyed forever because of violence done to your brother Jacob.

Contemporary English Version
You were cruel to your relatives, the descendants of Jacob. Now you will be destroyed, disgraced forever.

Good News Translation
"Because you robbed and killed your relatives, the descendants of Jacob, you will be destroyed and dishonored forever.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
You will be covered with shame and destroyed forever because of violence done to your brother Jacob.

International Standard Version
"Shame will overwhelm you because of the violence you inflicted on your brother Jacob, and you will be excluded forever.

NET Bible
"Because you violently slaughtered your relatives, the people of Jacob, shame will cover you, and you will be destroyed forever.

New Heart English Bible
For the violence done to your brother Jacob, shame will cover you, and you will be cut off forever.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"Because of the violence you did to Jacob, your relative, you will be covered with shame. You will be destroyed forever.

JPS Tanakh 1917
For the violence done to thy brother Jacob shame shall cover thee, And thou shalt be cut off for ever.

New American Standard 1977
“Because of violence to your brother Jacob, You will be covered with shame, And you will be cut off forever.

Jubilee Bible 2000
For thy violence against thy brother Jacob, shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever.

King James 2000 Bible
For your violence against your brother Jacob shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off forever.

American King James Version
For your violence against your brother Jacob shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off for ever.

American Standard Version
For the violence done to thy brother Jacob, shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever.

Douay-Rheims Bible
For the slaughter, and for the iniquity against thy brother Jacob, confusion shall cover thee, and thou shalt perish for ever.

Darby Bible Translation
Because of violence against thy brother Jacob, shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever.

English Revised Version
For the violence done to thy brother Jacob shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever.

Webster's Bible Translation
For thy violence against thy brother Jacob shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever.

World English Bible
For the violence done to your brother Jacob, shame will cover you, and you will be cut off forever.

Young's Literal Translation
For slaughter, for violence to thy brother Jacob, Cover thee doth shame, And thou hast been cut off -- to the age.
Study Bible
The Destruction of Edom
9"Then your mighty men will be dismayed, O Teman, So that everyone may be cut off from the mountain of Esau by slaughter. 10"Because of violence to your brother Jacob, You will be covered with shame, And you will be cut off forever. 11"On the day that you stood aloof, On the day that strangers carried off his wealth, And foreigners entered his gate And cast lots for Jerusalem-- You too were as one of them.…
Cross References
Genesis 27:41
So Esau bore a grudge against Jacob because of the blessing with which his father had blessed him; and Esau said to himself, "The days of mourning for my father are near; then I will kill my brother Jacob."

Deuteronomy 23:7
"You shall not detest an Edomite, for he is your brother; you shall not detest an Egyptian, because you were an alien in his land.

2 Chronicles 28:17
For again the Edomites had come and attacked Judah and carried away captives.

Psalm 137:7
Remember, O LORD, against the sons of Edom The day of Jerusalem, Who said, "Raze it, raze it To its very foundation."

Proverbs 10:6
Blessings are on the head of the righteous, But the mouth of the wicked conceals violence.

Ezekiel 25:12
'Thus says the Lord GOD, "Because Edom has acted against the house of Judah by taking vengeance, and has incurred grievous guilt, and avenged themselves upon them,"

Ezekiel 35:5
"Because you have had everlasting enmity and have delivered the sons of Israel to the power of the sword at the time of their calamity, at the time of the punishment of the end,

Ezekiel 35:9
"I will make you an everlasting desolation and your cities will not be inhabited. Then you will know that I am the LORD.

Joel 3:19
Egypt will become a waste, And Edom will become a desolate wilderness, Because of the violence done to the sons of Judah, In whose land they have shed innocent blood.

Amos 1:11
Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Edom and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because he pursued his brother with the sword, While he stifled his compassion; His anger also tore continually, And he maintained his fury forever.
Treasury of Scripture

For your violence against your brother Jacob shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off for ever.


Genesis 27:11,41 And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, Behold, Esau my brother is …

Numbers 20:14-21 And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, Thus said …

Psalm 83:5-9 For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate …

Psalm 137:7 Remember, O LORD, the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem; who …

Lamentations 4:21 Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, that dwell in the land of …

Ezekiel 25:12 Thus said the Lord GOD; Because that Edom has dealt against the house …

Ezekiel 35:5,6,12-15 Because you have had a perpetual hatred…

Amos 1:11 Thus said the LORD; For three transgressions of Edom, and for four, …


Psalm 69:7 Because for your sake I have borne reproach; shame has covered my face.

Psalm 89:45 The days of his youth have you shortened: you have covered him with …

Psalm 109:29 Let my adversaries be clothed with shame, and let them cover themselves …

Psalm 132:18 His enemies will I clothe with shame: but on himself shall his crown flourish.

Jeremiah 3:25 We lie down in our shame, and our confusion covers us: for we have …

Jeremiah 51:51 We are confounded, because we have heard reproach: shame has covered …

Ezekiel 7:18 They shall also gird themselves with sackcloth, and horror shall …

Micah 7:10 Then she that is my enemy shall see it, and shame shall cover her …


Jeremiah 49:13,17-20 For I have sworn by myself, said the LORD, that Bozrah shall become …

Ezekiel 25:13,14 Therefore thus said the Lord GOD; I will also stretch out my hand …

Ezekiel 35:6,7,15 Therefore, as I live, said the Lord GOD, I will prepare you to blood, …

Malachi 1:3,4 And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for …


This justification takes the form of a warning against a repetition of the crimes which have already called forth the sentence of Divine wrath against Edom. Various acts of hostility and treachery towards Israel are specified by the prophet, in a manner to lead to the feeling that though his tone is prohibitory, he is recalling instances of past malignity on Edom's part, as types of what might be found in the future.

(10) For thy violence . . .--Literally, for injury of thy brother Jacob, &c.; the genitive of the object, as in Joel 3:19. The crime was the more heinous because against the brother tribe. Probably the birth-name, Jacob, of the twin brother of Esau is used purposely to bring out the full wickedness of the descendants of Esau. In spite of all provocations, Israel long maintained the duty of a friendly feeling for the kindred race--maintained it as a religious duty (Deuteronomy 2:5; Deuteronomy 23:7). On the other hand, Edom from the first assumed a jealous and hostile attitude (Numbers 20:14, seqq.), never imitating the generous disposition of their great ancestor (Genesis 33:4).

Shame shall cover thee.--Comp. Micah 7:10; Jeremiah 3:25.

(11) In the day . . .--Literally, In the day of thy standing over against, as if to particularise some one occasion; but instead of proceeding to state it, the prophet recalls other events of the same time, and sums up Edom's offence in the charge, "thou, too, as one of them," acting the part of an enemy instead of that of a friend, though probably in the base character of a neutral (comp. "My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my sore," Psalm 38:11), ready to take the winning side.

Forces.--It is difficult to choose between this and the marginal reading, substance. Shavah is usually "to take prisoner," but there are many instances of its use in the sense of carrying off booty (1Chronicles 5:21; 2Chronicles 21:17, where see marg., and 2Chronicles 14:14). And chayil, whose root-meaning is strength, while often meaning forces, has eleven times the meaning riches (Isaiah 8:4, &c.), and eight times substance (Job 5:5, &c.).

The three clauses in this verse form a climax:--(1) The plunder of the open country; (2) entry into the gates of the cities; (3) casting lots for the spoil in the very capital itself. It is natural to regard this latter event as identical with that in Joel 3:3, the final destruction of Jerusalem and dispersion of its inhabitants into captivity. But for the question of the event intended and its connection with the date of the prophecy, see Excursus.

(12) Thou shouldest not . . .--Here, and in Obadiah 1:13-14, correctly as in marg., Do not, &c. Al with the apoc. pres. or fut. must be prohibitory. Calasio's Concordance supplies 207 instances (see Pusey's note). But the warning against these particular offences undoubtedly springs from the reminiscence of such conduct in former times. The passage is neither definitely historical nor definitely prophetic. What has happened in the past becomes a type of what will happen in the future. For look (raah), with the sense of disdain or scorn, comp. Song of Solomon 1:6; Job 40:11; Job 41:34 (Heb. 26). The word is repeated with the same sense in Obadiah 1:13. Pusey remarks: "Malicious gazing on human calamity, forgetful of man's common origin and common liability to ill, is the worst form of human hate. It was one of the contumelies of the Cross."

In the day that he became a stranger.--Literally, in the day of his strangeness. The form nokher is only found here, and in Job 31:3 (nekher) with different pointing, where it is translated "strange punishment." The adjective nokhri, also, has always the sense of strange, though the root-verb seems to have the signification to recognise. From to recognise an apparent stranger to treat as a stranger (which the derived conjugations, that alone are used, sometimes mean) is a natural transition. Perhaps here, "unheard of calamity."

Spoken proudly.--Literally, as in marg., made thy mouth great (comp. Psalm 35:21; Isaiah 57:4). The mention of grimaces adds to the graphic character of the picture. Again we are reminded of the wanton and savage insolence around the Cross.

(13) The day of their calamity.--Thrice repeated, to bring into prominence the malignity of Edom's conduct. The same expression used by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 35:5), in the same connection, probably with reference to the same occasion.

Calamity.--Heb., eyd. Variously derived and explained, either as load of trouble or dark gloomy time.

(14) Crossway.--Heb., perek = separated (English, fork). It only occurs here and in Nahum 3:1, where it is translated robbery--i.e., that which is torn or divided. Or it may mean at the division of the prey, but "crossway" is better.

Delivered.--Margin, shut up--i e., either made prisoners of them, or cut them off at the cross-roads from any chance of escape.

For the open violence assumed by the Edomites when they saw their chance was come, comp. Psalm 137:7; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11; Ezekiel 35

(15) The day of the Lord.--Whether this phrase first makes its appearance in written prophecy in Joel or Obadiah depends, of course, on the question of the relative date of the two. But probably it had become a recognised prophetic expression long before it was committed to writing. The primary meaning is not the day of judgment, but the day on which Jehovah reveals His majesty and omnipotence in a glorious manner, to overthrow all ungodly powers and to complete His kingdom. As the misfortunes of Israel increased, and the hostility of surrounding nations gathered to a successful head, it was natural that the idea of retribution upon them for their violence to the chosen race should usurp the prominent place in prophecy. The "day of Jehovah" became the day of Jehovah's wrath (Zephaniah 1:18) and Jehovah's vengeance (Isaiah 34:8). The fading of the temporal hopes implied in the expression naturally led to its higher religious use; and the various phrases for the same idea--"the day," "the great day," "the day of judgment," "the last day"--passed first into Jewish, and afterwards into Christian, eschatology, taking with them all the prophetic imagery which painted the expectancy of Israel: imagery of the splendour of victory and triumph on the one side, of terrible overthrow and slaughter on the other, but rich as well with its infinite spiritual suggestiveness.

As thou hast done . . .--For this stern announcement of the lex talionis on the offending nation, comp. (in addition to the reference in marg.) Joel 3:7; Psalm 137:8.

(16) As ye have drunk . . .--For the figure, so common in prophecy and so expressive, comp. Jeremiah 25:27-28; Psalm 75:8; Isaiah 51:17; Revelation 18:3-6. But who are addressed, the people of Jerusalem or the Edomites? The question is perplexed. If we keep the tropical sense of drink in both clauses, which is the most natural way, understanding by it the cup of suffering, since it is said to have been drunk on Mount Zion, it must have been drained by Israelites, as Ewald and others take the passage. On the other hand, it seems awkward to make the prophet turn from addressing Edom to Judah, not else addressed in his prophecy. If taken in a literal sense, the drinking on Mount Zion would, of course, refer to the carousing and revelry which always followed heathen victory, and sometimes with terrible aggravation (Joel 3:3). Taking the passage in this sense, we must understand the prophet to take Edom as a type of all heathen in their attitude towards Israel, so that what he says of one nation applies to all. But it is quite possible that our text embodies an old oracular saying addressed to Israel. This is Ewald's view.

Swallow down.--Margin, sup up. The substantive loa' signifies a throat. (Comp. Job 6:3 : "Therefore my words are swallowed up.")

Shall be as though they had not been.--For the expression, comp. Job 10:19. Here, totally insensible from the effects of the draughty, therefore dead, destroyed.

The word continually offers some difficulty. Ewald translates immediately, but this is not the natural sense of tamid, which seems rather to express that continuous display of the Divine purpose and judgment in the overthrow overtaking successively the proud monarchies of the heathen. "God employs each nation in turn to give that cup to the other. So Edom drank it at the hand of Babylon, and Babylon from the Medes, and the Medes and Persians from the Macedonians, and the Macedonians from the Romans, and they from the barbarians."

Verses 10-14. - § 2. The cause of Edom's destruction. This punishment falls upon her as the result of the malice and unfriendliness which she has displayed to wards Israel in the time of calamity, in that she rejoiced at her sister's disaster and took part with her enemies. Verse 10. - For thy violence against thy brother Jacob. The special action to which Obadiah alludes, and which he particularizes in the following verses, occurred at the time of the invasion of Judaea by Philistines and Arabians during the reign of Jehoram, when the Edomites sided with the enemy, and acted as the prophet intimates (2 Chronicles 21:16, etc.; see Introduction, § III.). The iniquity of such conduct is aggravated by the fact that the victim was the "brother Jacob," who was commanded not to hate the Edomites (Deuteronomy 23:7). This enjoined friendship was not reciprocated by the descendants of Esau. Whether from envy at the superior privileges of Israel, or from other causes, the Edomites, from the time of Moses, had always been actively hostile to the Israelites. They had been subdued by David, but had lately rebelled and scoured their independence, and were always looking for an opportunity of revenging themselves on their conquerors (comp. Amos 1:11; Ezekiel 25:12; Ezekiel 35:5). Shame shall cover thee. Shame for the destruction that hath overtaken thee (Micah 7:10). Thou shalt be cut off forever (comp. Malachi 1:4; see Introduction, § I.). Terrible retribution fell on Idumea in the time of the Maccabees (see 1 Macc. 5:3; 2 Macc. 10:15, etc.; Josephus, 'Ant.,' 12:08. 1), Before that time they had been dispossessed of Petra by the Nabathaeans. For thy violence against thy brother Jacob,.... Which is aggravated: by being against Jacob, an honest plain hearted man, and whom the Lord loved; his brother, his own brother, a twin brother, yea, his only brother; yet this is to be understood, not so much of the violence of Esau against Jacob personally, though there is an allusion to that; as of the violence of the posterity of the one against the posterity of the other; and not singly of the violence shown at the destruction of Jerusalem, but in general of the anger they bore, the wrath they showed, and the injuries they did to their brethren the Jews, on all occasions, whenever they had an opportunity, of which the following is a notorious instance; and for which more especially, as well as for the above things, they are threatened with ruin:

shame shall cover thee; as a garment; they shall be filled with blushing, and covered with confusion, when convicted of their sin, and punished for it:

and thou shalt be cut off for ever; from being a nation; either by Nebuchadnezzar; or in the times of the Maccabees by Hyrcanus, when they were subdued by the Jews, and were incorporated among them, and never since was a separate people or kingdom. 10. against thy brother—This aggravates the sin of Esau, that it was against him who was his brother by birth and by circumcision. The posterity of Esau followed in the steps of their father's hatred to Jacob by violence against Jacob's seed (Ge 27:41).

Jacob—not merely his own brother, but his twin brother; hence the name Jacob, not Israel, is here put emphatically. Compare De 23:7 for the opposite feeling which Jacob's seed was commanded to entertain towards Edom's.

shame … cover thee—(Ps 35:26; 69:7).

for ever—(Isa 34:10; Eze 35:9; Mal 1:4). Idumea, as a nation, should be "cut off for ever," though the land should be again inhabited.1:1-16 This prophecy is against Edom. Its destruction seems to have been typical, as their father Esau's rejection; and to refer to the destruction of the enemies of the gospel church. See the prediction of the success of that war; Edom shall be spoiled, and brought down. All the enemies of God's church shall be disappointed in the things they stay themselves on. God can easily lay those low who magnify and exalt themselves; and will do it. Carnal security ripens men for ruin, and makes the ruin worse when it comes. Treasures on earth cannot be so safely laid up but that thieves may break through and steal; it is therefore our wisdom to lay up for ourselves treasures in heaven. Those that make flesh their trust, arm it against themselves. The God of our covenant will never deceive us: but if we trust men with whom we join ourselves, it may prove to us a wound and dishonour. God will justly deny those understanding to keep out of danger, who will not use their understandings to keep out of sin. All violence, all unrighteousness, is sin; but it makes the violence far worse, if it be done against any of God's people. Their barbarous conduct towards Judah and Jerusalem, is charged upon them. In reflecting on ourselves, it is good to consider what we should have done; to compare our practice with the Scripture rule. Sin, thus looked upon in the glass of the commandment, will appear exceedingly sinful. Those have a great deal to answer for, who are idle spectators of the troubles of their neighbours, when able to be active helpers. Those make themselves poor, who think to make themselves rich by the ruin of the people of God; and those deceive themselves, who call all that their own on which they can lay their hands in a day of calamity. Though judgment begins at the house of God, it shall not end there. Let sorrowful believers and insolent oppressors know, that the troubles of the righteous will soon end, but those of the wicked will be eternal.
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