Romans 8:4
That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.
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(4) The consequence of this was a great change. Hitherto the Law could not be kept because of the antagonistic influence of the flesh; henceforth it may be kept for the reason that this influence has ceased and that its place is taken by the influence of the Spirit.

The righteousness.—The just requirement of the Law, its due and rightful claims.

Might be fulfilled in us.—That we might be examples of its fulfilment.

Who walk not after the flesh.—Who direct our conduct not as the flesh would guide us. but according to the dictates and guidance of the Spirit—i.e., the indwelling Spirit of Christ, as in Romans 8:2.

8:1-9 Believers may be chastened of the Lord, but will not be condemned with the world. By their union with Christ through faith, they are thus secured. What is the principle of their walk; the flesh or the Spirit, the old or the new nature, corruption or grace? For which of these do we make provision, by which are we governed? The unrenewed will is unable to keep any commandment fully. And the law, besides outward duties, requires inward obedience. God showed abhorrence of sin by the sufferings of his Son in the flesh, that the believer's person might be pardoned and justified. Thus satisfaction was made to Divine justice, and the way of salvation opened for the sinner. By the Spirit the law of love is written upon the heart, and though the righteousness of the law is not fulfilled by us, yet, blessed be God, it is fulfilled in us; there is that in all true believers, which answers the intention of the law. The favour of God, the welfare of the soul, the concerns of eternity, are the things of the Spirit, which those that are after the Spirit do mind. Which way do our thoughts move with most pleasure? Which way go our plans and contrivances? Are we most wise for the world, or for our souls? Those that live in pleasure are dead, 1Ti 5:6. A sanctified soul is a living soul; and that life is peace. The carnal mind is not only an enemy to God, but enmity itself. The carnal man may, by the power of Divine grace, be made subject to the law of God, but the carnal mind never can; that must be broken and driven out. We may know our real state and character by inquiring whether we have the Spirit of God and Christ, or not, ver. 9. Ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit. Having the Spirit of Christ, means having a turn of mind in some degree like the mind that was in Christ Jesus, and is to be shown by a life and conversation suitable to his precepts and example.That the righteousness of the law - That we might be conformed to the Law, or be obedient to its requirements, and no longer under the influence of the flesh and its corrupt desires.

Might be fulfilled - That we might be obedient, or comply with its demands.

Who walk - Note, Romans 8:1.

4. That the righteousness of the law—"the righteous demand," "the requirement" [Alford], Or "the precept" of the law; for it is not precisely the word so often used in this Epistle to denote "the righteousness which justifies" (Ro 1:17; 3:21; 4:5, 6; 5:17, 18, 21), but another form of the same word, intended to express the enactment of the law, meaning here, we believe, the practical obedience which the law calls for.

might be fulfilled in us—or, as we say, "realized in us."

who walk—the most ancient expression of the bent of one's life, whether in the direction of good or of evil (Ge 48:15; Ps 1:1; Isa 2:5; Mic 4:5; Eph 4:17; 1Jo 1:6, 7).

not after—that is, according to the dictates of

the flesh, but after the spirit—From Ro 8:9 it would seem that what is more immediately intended by "the spirit" here is our own mind as renewed and actuated by the Holy Ghost.

That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us: here is another end of God’s sending his Son, as before; it was that he might perfectly fulfil the righteousness of the law in or for us, which for us ourselves to do in our own persons was utterly impossible; and yet upon which (as being imputed unto them, and accepted of God on our behalf) we shall be accounted just and righteous, as if we had done it ourselves. Christ’s being a sacrifice for sin was not sufficient to answer all the ends and demands of the law; there must be doing of what it commanded, as well as suffering of what it threatened: therefore Christ was sent for both, and both were accomplished by him; and what he did and suffered is accounted unto us as if we had done and suffered it. This is the imputed righteousness which was so often spoken of, Romans 4:1-25; and in reference to this he is said to be made righteousness for us, 1 Corinthians 1:30, and we are said to be made the righteousness of God in him, Romans 5:19 2 Corinthians 5:21.

Who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit: this was the description before of those that had union with Christ, and exemption from condemnation; and it is again set down, as the description of those who partake of the righteousness of Christ in this way of imputation; and it is added here again, to stave off all others from laying claim to this grace. None but holy walkers can warrantably apply Christ’s fulfilling or satisfying the law to themselves: because Christ hath fulfilled the righteousness of the law for us, none may infer there is nothing for us to do, we may live as we list; for though Christ hath fulfilled the law in all respects, yet all those for whom he hath so done, or have benefit thereby, are, and must be, such as walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit: for the opening of which terms, see Romans 8:1.

That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us,.... By the righteousness of the law, is not meant the righteousness of the ceremonial law, though that was fulfilled by Christ; but of the moral law, which requires holiness of nature, righteousness of life, and death in case of disobedience; active righteousness, or obedience to the precepts of the law, is designed here. This is what the law requires; obedience to the commands of it is properly righteousness; and by Christ's obedience to it we are made righteous, and this gives the title to eternal life: now this is said to be "fulfilled in us"; this is not fulfilled by us in our own persons, nor can it be; could it, where would be the weakness of the law? man might then be justified by it, and so the grace of God, and the righteousness of Christ, must be set aside: there never was any mere man that could fulfil it; for obedience to it must not only be performed perfectly, but with intenseness of mind and spirit; a man must be sinless in thought, word, and deed; and this would be to put man upon a level with Adam in a state of innocence, and the angels in heaven: nor is this to be understood of any righteousness inherent in man; internal holiness is never called the righteousness of the law; and could it be thought to be righteousness, yet it can never be reckoned the whole righteousness of the law: and though it is a fruit of Christ's death, it is the work of the Spirit, and is neither the whole, nor any part of our justification: but this is to be understood of the righteousness of the law fulfilled by Christ, and imputed to us; Christ has fulfilled the whole righteousness of the law, all the requirements of it; this he has done in the room and stead of his people; and is imputed to them, by virtue of a federal union between him and them, he being the head, and they his members; and the law being fulfilled by him, it is reckoned all one as it was fulfilled in, or if by them; and hence they are personally, perfectly, and legally justified; and this is the end of Christ's being sent, of sin being laid on him, and condemned in him. The descriptive character of the persons, who appear to be interested in this blessing, is the same with that in Romans 8:1,

who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit: See Gill on Romans 8:1.

That the {l} righteousness of the law might be fulfilled {5} in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

(l) The very substance of the law of God might be fulfilled, or that same which the law requires, that we may be found just before God: for if with our justification there is joined that sanctification which is imputed to us, we are just, according to the perfect form which the Lord requires.

(5) He returns to that which he said, that the sanctification which is begun in us is a sure testimony of our ingrafting into Christ, which is a most plentiful fruit of a godly and honest life.

Romans 8:4. The purpose which God had in this κατέκρ. τ. ἁμ. ἐν τ. ς. was: in order that (now that the rule of sin which hindered the fulfilment of the law has been done away) the rightful requirement of the law might be fulfilled, etc.

τὸ δικ. τ. νόμου] Quite simply, as in Romans 1:32, Romans 2:26 (comp. also on 16, and Krüger on Thuc. i. 41. 1): what the law has laid down as its rightful demand. The singular comprehends these collective (moral) claims of right as a unity. Others, contrary to the signification of the word, have taken it as justification (Vulg.), understanding thereby sometimes the making righteous as the aim of the law, which desires sinlessness (Chrysostom and his followers, including Theodore of Mopsuestia), sometimes the satisfaction of justice (Rothe; comp. on Romans 5:16). Köllner, following Eckermann, makes it the justifying sentence of the law: “that the utterance of the law, which declares as righteous, and thus not only frees from the punishment of sin, but secures also the reward of righteousness, might be fulfilled on us, if we,” etc. Substantially so (δικ. = sententia absolutoria), Fritzsche, Philippi, and Ewald (“the verdict of the law, since it has condemnation only for the sinners, and good promises for the remainder, Deuteronomy 28:1-14”). But against this it may be urged, first, that δικαίωμα τ. νόμου, because the genitive is a rule-prescribing subject, cannot, without urgent ground from the context, be taken otherwise than as demand, rightful claim (comp. also Luke 1:6; Hebrews 9:1; Hebrews 9:10; LXX. Numbers 31:21); secondly, that Romans 8:3-4 contain the proof, not for οὐδὲν κατάκριμα in Romans 8:1, but for Romans 8:2, and consequently ἽΝΑἩΜῖΝ must be the counterpart of the state of bondage under the law of sin and death (Romans 8:2)—the counterpart, however, not consisting in the freedom from punishment and the certainty of reward, but in the morally free condition in which one does what the law demands, being no longer hampered by the power of sin and death, so that the fulfilment of the ΔΙΚΑΊΩΜΑ ΤΟῦ ΝΌΜΟΥ is the antithesis of the ἉΜΑΡΤΊΑ so strongly emphasized previously; thirdly, that ΤΟῖς ΜῊΠΝΕῦΜΑ is not the condition of justification (that is faith), but of the fulfilment of the law; and finally, that in Romans 8:7, Τῷ ΓᾺΡ ΝΌΜῼ Τ. ΘΕΟῦ ΟὐΧ ὙΠΟΤΆΣΣΕΤΑΙ, ΟὐΔῈ ΓᾺΡ ΔΎΝΑΤΑΙ is manifestly the counterpart of ΤῸ ΔΙΚ. Τ. ΝΌΜΟΥ ΠΛΗΡΩΘῇ in Romans 8:3.

ΠΛΗΡΩΘῇ] as in Matthew 3:15; Acts 14:26; Romans 13:8; Galatians 5:14, al. Those commentators who take δικαίωμα as sententia absolutoria take πληρ. as may be accomplished on us (ἐν ἡμῖν).

ἘΝ ἩΜῖΝ] Not: through us, nor yet: in us, which is explained as either: in our life-activity (de Wette), or as referring to the inward fulfilling of the law (Reiche, Klee, and Hofmann), and to the fact that God fulfils it in man (Olshausen; comp. Tholuck); but, as shown by the following τοῖςπεριπατοῦσιν κ.τ.λ.: on us, so that the fulfilling of the law’s demand shall be accomplished and made manifest in the entire walk and conversation of Christians. This by no means conveys the idea of a merely outward action (as Hofmann objects), but includes also the inner morality accordant with the law; comp. Ernesti Ethik d. Ap. P. p. 69 f. Regarding this use of ἐν, see Bernhardy, p. 211 f.; Winer, p. 361 [E. T. 483]. The passive form (not: ἵνα πληρώσωμεν) is in keeping with the conception that here the law, and that so far as it must be fulfilled, stands out in the foreground of the divine purpose. The accomplishment of its moral requirement is supposed to present itself as realized in the Christian, and that ἀδύνατον τοῖ νόμου of Romans 8:3 is assumed to be thereby remedied.

ΤΟῖς ΜῊ ΚΑΤᾺ ΣΆΡΚΑ Κ.Τ.Λ.] quippe qui ambularemus, etc. These words give negatively and positively the specific moral character, which is destined to be found in Christians, so far as the just requirement of the law is fulfilled in them. The μὴ is here, on account of the connection with ἽΝΑ, quite according to rule; Baeumlein, Partik. p. 287 f. In what that fulfilment manifests itself (Hofmann) Paul does not say, but he announces the moral regulative that is to determine the inward and outward life of the subjects. He walks according to the flesh, who obeys the sinful lust dwelling in the σάρξ (Romans 7:18); and he walks according to the Spirit, who follows the guidance, the impelling and regulating power (Romans 8:2), of the Holy Spirit. The one excludes the other, Galatians 5:16. To take πνεῦμα without the article (which, after the nature of a proper noun, it did not at all need), in a subjective sense, as the pneumatic nature of the regenerate man, produced by the Holy Spirit (see esp. Harless on Ephesians 2:22, and van Hengel)—as it is here taken, but independently of the putting the article, by Bengel, Rückert, Philippi, and others, following Chrysostom—is erroneous. See on Galatians 5:16. It never means, not even in contrast to σάρξ, the “renewed spiritual nature of man” (Philippi), but the sanctifying divine principle itself, objectively, and distinct from the human πνεῦμα. The appeal to John 3:6 is erroneous. See on that passage.

Romans 8:4. All this was done ἵνα τὸ δικ. τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν: that the just requirement of the law (i.e., a righteous life) might be fulfilled in us. See note on Romans 3:31. ἐν ἡμῖν (not ὑφʼ ἡμῶν), for it is not our doing, though done in us (Weiss). τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα κ.τ.λ. = inasmuch as we walk not, etc. This is the condition under which the Divine purpose is fulfilled: there is no physical necessity in it. κατὰ σάρκα: the flesh meant is our corrupt human nature. κατὰ πνεῦμα: the spirit is the Divine spirit which is given to those who are in Christ Jesus. It is in them “both law and impulse”.

4. that the righteousness of the law, &c.] Here is the (for us) Final Cause of the Atonement. Both as a satisfaction of the Law as regards God, and as the manifestation and pledge of Divine Love as regards man, it was to give man peace with God (see on ch. Romans 5:1, &c.), and so to bring his will into real working harmony with the will of God. Atonement was to result in love and holiness.

righteousness] Better, legal claim; that which the Law laid down as the requisite for man, as his only possible right state. (The form of the Gr. word is different from that usually rendered “righteousness.”) What this “claim” is we find in the Lord’s definition of the Great Commandments; supreme love to God, and unselfish love to man.

fulfilled] The context, as now interpreted, will explain this word. The saints “fulfil” the law’s “claim” not in the sense of sinless perfection, (for see last chapter, and cp. 1 John 1:8-10,) but in that of a true, living, and working consent to its principles; the consent of full conviction, and of a heart whose affections are won to God. The Law could not compel them to “delight with” itself; but the gift and work of the Son of the Father do draw them “with the cords of love” to find the Law (as the expression of His now all-beloved will) “good, perfect, and acceptable.” This state of things is further described in the next clause.

in us] The justified.

who walk, &c.] “Who live and act;” a very frequent Scripture metaphor, from Genesis 5:22 onwards.—“After the flesh:”—on its principles, by its rule. So “after the Spirit:”—as the Spirit animates and guides.

The Flesh—The Spirit

This seems to be a proper place for a few general remarks on these two important words.

A. The Flesh. In N. T. usage, on the whole, this word bears in each place (where its meaning is not merely literal) one of two meanings. It denotes either (a) human nature as conditioned by the body; (e.g. Romans 9:3; Romans 9:5; Romans 9:8; 2 Corinthians 7:5, &c. &c.;) or (b) human nature as conditioned by the Fall, or in other words by the dominion of sin, which then began, and which works so largely through the conditions of bodily life that those conditions are almost, in language, identified with sinfulness. (See e.g. the present passage, and Romans 7:5; Romans 7:18; Romans 7:25, Romans 13:14; Galatians 5:17-24, &c., &c.) In the first connexion “the flesh” may bear a neutral, or a holy, meaning; (John 1:14;) in the second, it means a state which is essentially evil, and which may be described with practical correctness as (1) the state of man unregenerate, and (2), in the regenerate, the state of that element of the being which still resists grace. For manifestly (see Galatians 5:17) “the flesh” is an element still in the regenerate, not only in the sense of corporeal conditions, but in that of sinful conditions. But, in the latter sense, they are no longer characterized by it; they are not “fleshly,” because the dominant element is now not “the flesh,” but the renewed will, energized by the Divine Spirit.

B. The Spirit. In the present context this word, in our view, denotes the Holy Ghost, except in Romans 8:10; Romans 8:16, where the human spirit is spoken of. That it means here the Holy Ghost seems plain, because it is regarded as a regulating principle, and immediately below (Romans 8:13-14) the Divine Spirit is described as the regulator of the will of the saints. We do not of course deny the reality of the human spirit, even in the unregenerate (1 Corinthians 2:11; Ecclesiastes 12:7). But here, as in a large majority of N. T. passages, the personal Divine Spirit is depicted as in such a sense inhabiting and informing the regenerate human spirit that He, rather than it, is regarded as the dominant rule and influence in the being. Thus, Romans 8:9, the regenerate are said to be “in the Spirit,” not “in the flesh,” not because their human spirits are in command of their being, but because the Divine Spirit dwells in them. He does not dispossess their spirit, but so possesses it that He in and through it is the ruler of the man.

As regards the human spirit, (Romans 8:10; Romans 8:16;) the word, in both O. T. and N. T., has now a wider, now a narrower meaning. Now it is the whole incorporeal element of the being—the whole antithesis of “the body;” now it is the “nobler powers” of that element—the antithesis of “the soul,” in that narrower sense of “soul” which concerns instincts rather than conscience, reflection, and deliberate affections. Man is thus sometimes “body and soul;” (e.g. Matthew 10:28, and cf. Revelation 6:9;) and sometimes “body, soul, and spirit;” (e.g. 1 Thessalonians 5:23). And in 1 Corinthians 15:44, in the Gr., a remarkable contrast is drawn between the present body, “characterized by soul,” and the future body, “characterized by spirit.”—It must be remembered, however, that, unless in passages of exceptional antithesis, the distinction of soul and spirit may easily be pressed too far, and that in no case are they to be thought of as distinct in the sense in which they both are distinct from the body. We have no hint that they are two separable elements; they are rather different aspects and exercises of the same incorporeal element.

Romans 8:4. Τὸ δικαίωμα, the law’s just commandment [jus. Engl. Vers. ‘righteousness’]) an antithesis to condemnation, Romans 8:1.—πληρωθῇ, might be fulfilled) That fulfilment is presently after described, Romans 8:5-11; thence it is that we have the for, Romans 8:5. Works of justice [righteousness] follow him that is justified [i.e. follow as the consequent fruits of his justification]: sin is condemned, he who had been a sinner, now acts rightly, and the law does not prosecute its claims against him.—ἐν ἡμῖν) in us.—μὴ κατὰ σαρκὰ, not after the flesh) an antithesis to, in the flesh, Romans 8:3. Now at length Paul has come to the open distinction between flesh and spirit.[89] The spirit denotes either the Spirit of God, or the spirit of believers, Romans 8:16. The latter is a new power produced and maintained in us by Him; and it is to this that the reference is, wherever flesh stands in opposition.

[89] A proof against the words ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα, ver. 1, which would be too premature a distinguishing of πνεῦμα and σὰρξ.—ED.

Verse 4. - That the ordinance (or, righteous requirement, rather than righteousness, as in the Authorized Version. The word is δίκαιωμα, not δικαιοσύνη. It Occurs elsewhere in the New Testament, Luke 1:6; Romans 1:32; Romans 2:26; Hebrews 9:1; and in a like sense often in the LXX.; also, though with a difference of meaning, Romans 5:16, 18) of the Law may be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. This, then, is the purpose of Christ's victory over sin - that the requirement of the Law in us too may be fulfilled; which evidently means more -than that his victory may be imputed to us, on the ground of our faith only, while we remain as we were. The expression, δὶκαιωμα πληρωθῆ, and also the condition appended at the end of the verse, imply that the "Spirit of life" must so dominate over the flesh in ourselves that the Law may forfeit its claims over us. The sinful propensions of the flesh remain in us still (as the verses that follow distinctly show); but the Spirit that is in us is strong enough to overcome them now (cf. Galatians 5:16-18). It does not follow from this that any Christians will actually avoid all sin, or that they can be accepted on the ground of their own performance: to say this would be to contradict other Scripture (cf. James 2:10; 1 John 1:8); and Paul confessed himself to be not already perfected (Philippians 3:12). But perfection, through Christ who lives in them, is put before us as, at any rate, the aim of the regenerate (cf. Matthew 5:48); and by actual and progressive holiness they are to show that their union with Christ is real. His Spirit within them must, at any rate, give a new direction and tone to their characters and lives. Romans 8:4Righteousness (δικαίωμα)

Rev., ordinance. Primarily that which is deemed right, so as to have the force of law; hence an ordinance. Here collectively, of the moral precepts of the law: its righteous requirement. Compare Luke 1:6; Romans 2:26; Hebrews 9:1. See on Romans 5:16.

The Spirit (πνεῦμα)

From πνέω to breathe or blow. The primary conception is wind or breath. Breath being the sign and condition of life in man, it comes to signify life. In this sense, physiologically considered, it is frequent in the classics. In the psychological sense, never. In the Old Testament it is ordinarily the translation of ruach. It is also used to translate chai life, Isaiah 38:12; nshamah breath, 1 Kings 17:17.

In the New Testament it occurs in the sense of wind or breath, John 3:8; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Hebrews 1:7. Closely related to the physiological sense are such passages as Luke 8:55; James 2:26; Revelation 13:15.

Pauline Usage:

1. Breath, 2 Thessalonians 2:8.

2. The spirit or mind of man; the inward, self-conscious principle which feels and thinks and wills (1 Corinthians 2:11; 1 Corinthians 5:3; 1 Corinthians 7:34; Colossians 2:5).

In this sense it is distinguished from σῶμα body, or accompanied with a personal pronoun in the genitive, as my, our, his spirit (Romans 1:9; Romans 8:16; 1 Corinthians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 16:18, etc.). It is used as parallel with ψυχή soul, and καρδία heart. See 1 Corinthians 5:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:17; and compare John 13:21 and John 12:27; Matthew 26:38 and Luke 1:46, Luke 1:47. But while ψυχή soul, is represented as the subject of life, πνεύμα spirit, represents the principle of life, having independent activity in all circumstances of the perceptive and emotional life, and never as the subject. Generally, πνεύμα spirit, may be described as the principle, ψυχή soul, as the subject, and καρδία heart, as the organ of life.

3. The spiritual nature of Christ. Romans 1:4; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Timothy 3:16.

4. The divine power or influence belonging to God, and communicated in Christ to men, in virtue of which they become πνευματικοί spiritual - recipients and organs of the Spirit. This is Paul's most common use of the word. Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 2:13; Galatians 4:6; Galatians 6:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:8. In this sense it appears as: a. Spirit of God. Romans 8:9, Romans 8:11, Romans 8:14; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 1 Corinthians 2:11, 1 Corinthians 2:12, 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 7:40; 2 Corinthians 3:3; Ephesians 3:16. b. Spirit of Christ. Romans 8:9; 2 Corinthians 3:17, 2 Corinthians 3:18; Galatians 4:6; Philippians 1:19. c. Holy Spirit. Romans 5:5; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 1 Corinthians 12:3; Ephesians 1:13; 1 Thessalonians 1:5, 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:8, etc. d. Spirit. With or without the article, but with its reference to the Spirit of God or Holy Spirit indicated by the context. Romans 8:16, Romans 8:23, Romans 8:26, Romans 8:27; 1 Corinthians 2:4, 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 12:4, 1 Corinthians 12:7, 1 Corinthians 12:8, 1 Corinthians 12:9; Ephesians 4:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:13, etc.

5. A power or influence, the character, manifestations, or results of which are more peculiarly defined by qualifying genitives. Thus spirit of meekness, faith, power, wisdom. Romans 8:2, Romans 8:15; 1 Corinthians 4:21; 2 Corinthians 4:13; Galatians 6:1; Ephesians 1:17; 2 Timothy 1:7, etc.

These combinations with the genitives are not mere periphrases for a faculty or disposition of man. By the spirit of meekness or wisdom, for instance, is not meant merely a meek or wise spirit; but that meekness, wisdom, power, etc., are gifts of the Spirit of God. This usage is according to Old Testament analogy. Compare Exodus 28:3; Exodus 31:3; Exodus 35:31; Isaiah 11:2.

6. In the plural, used of spiritual gifts or of those who profess to be under spiritual influence, 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 14:12.


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