1 Timothy 6:1
Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.
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(1) Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour.—From questions connected with the presbyters and others among the recognised ministers and officials of the church, St. Paul passes on to consider certain difficulties connected with a large and important section of the congregations to whom these presbyters were in the habit of ministering—the Christian slaves.

It was perhaps the most perplexing of all the questions Christianity had to face—this one of slavery. It entered into all grades and ranks. It was common to all peoples and nations. The very fabric of society seemed knit and bound together by this miserable institution. War and commerce were equally responsible for slavery in the Old World. To attempt to uproot it—to preach against it—to represent it in public teaching as hateful to God, shameful to man—would have been to preach and to teach rebellion and revolution in its darkest and most violent form. It was indeed the curse of the world; but the Master and His chosen servants took their own course and their own time to clear it away. Jesus Christ and His disciples, such as St. Paul and St. John, left society as they found it, uprooting no ancient landmarks, alarming no ancient prejudices, content to live in the world as it was, and to do its work as they found it—trusting, by a new and lovely example, slowly and surely to raise men to a higher level, knowing well that at last, by force of unselfishness, loving self-denial, brave patience, the old curses—such as slavery—would be driven from the world. Surely the result, so far, has not disappointed the hopes of the first teachers of Christianity.

This curse at least is disappearing fast from the face of the globe. St. Paul here is addressing, in the first place, Christian slaves of a Pagan master. Let these, if they love the Lord and would do honour to His holy teaching, in their relations to their earthly masters not presume upon their new knowledge, that with the Master in Heaven “there was no respect of persons;” that “in Jesus Christ there was neither bond nor free, for all were one in Christ.” Let these not dream for an instant that Christianity was to interfere with the existing social relations, and to put master and slave on an equality on earth. Let these, by their conduct to unbelieving masters, paying them all loving respect and honour, show how the new religion was teaching them to live.

That the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.—There would indeed be a grave danger of this, if the many Christian slaves, instead of showing increased zeal for their masters’ service, should, as the result of the teaching of the new society they had joined, become morose, impatient of servitude, rebellious. Very soon in Pagan society would the name of that Redeemer they professed to love, and the beautiful doctrines He had preached, be evil spoken of, if the teaching were for one moment suspected of inculcating discontent or suggesting rebellion. An act, or course of acting, on the part of professed servants of God which gives occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, is ever reckoned in Holy Scripture as a sin of the deepest dye. Compare Nathan’s words to King David (2Samuel 12:14) and St. Paul’s reproach to the Jews (Romans 2:24).

1 Timothy 6:1-2. Because the law of Moses (Exodus 21:2) did not allow Israelites to be made slaves for life, without their own consent, it seems the Judaizing teachers, with a view to allure slaves to their party, encouraged them in disobeying the commands, of their masters. This doctrine the apostle condemns here, as in his other epistles, (1 Corinthians 7:20-22; Colossians 3:22,) by enjoining Christian slaves to obey their masters, whether believers or unbelievers. Let servants — Or slaves, rather; (see on Ephesians 6:5, and Colossians 3:22;) under the yoke — Of heathen masters; count them worthy of all honour — All the honour due from a servant to a master, and show it by their obedience and respectful behaviour. That the name of God — God himself; and his doctrine — The doctrine of the gospel; be not blasphemed — That is, evil spoken of, as tending to destroy the political rights of mankind. And they that have believing masters — Which for any to have is a great privilege; let them not despise them — Pay them the less honour or obedience; because they are brethren — In Christ, believers; and in that respect on a level with them. They that live in a religious community know the danger of this, and that greater grace is requisite to bear with the faults of a brother than of a man of the world, or even of an infidel. But rather do them service —

Serve them so much the more diligently; because they are faithful — Or believers, as πιστοι may be rendered; and beloved — Of God; partakers of the benefit — The common salvation. “Instead of encouraging slaves to disobedience, the gospel makes them more faithful and conscientious. And by sweetening the temper of masters, and inspiring them with benevolence, it renders the condition of slaves more tolerable than formerly. For, in proportion as masters imbibe the true spirit of the gospel, they will treat their slaves with humanity, and even give them their freedom, when their services merit such a favour.” — Macknight. These things teach and exhort — Thus Paul the aged gives young Timothy a charge to dwell upon practical holiness. Less experienced teachers are apt to neglect the superstructure, while they lay the foundation. But of so great importance did St. Paul see it to enforce obedience to Christ, as well as to preach faith in his blood, that after urging the life of faith on professors, (1 Timothy 6:12,) he even adds another charge for the strict observance of it, 1 Timothy 6:13, &c.

6:1-5 Christians were not to suppose that religious knowledge, or Christian privileges, gave them any right to despise heathen masters, or to disobey lawful commands, or to expose their faults to others. And such as enjoyed the privilege of living with believing masters, were not to withhold due respect and reverence, because they were equal in respect to religious privileges, but were to serve with double diligence and cheerfulness, because of their faith in Christ, and as partakers of his free salvation. We are not to consent to any words as wholesome, except the words of our Lord Jesus Christ; to these we must give unfeigned consent. Commonly those are most proud who know least; for they do not know themselves. Hence come envy, strife, railings, evil-surmisings, disputes that are all subtlety, and of no solidity, between men of corrupt and carnal minds, ignorant of the truth and its sanctifying power, and seeking their worldly advantage.Let as many servants - On the word here rendered "servants" - δοῦλοι douloi - see the notes on Ephesians 6:5. The word is that which was commonly applied to a slave, but it is so extensive in its signification as to be applicable to any species of servitude, whether voluntary or involuntary. If slavery existed in Ephesus at the time when this Epistle was written, it would be applicable to slaves; if any other kind of servitude existed, the word would be equally applicable to that. There is nothing in the word itself which essentially limits it to slavery; examine Matthew 13:27; Matthew 20:27; Mark 10:44; Luke 2:29; John 15:15; Acts 2:18; Acts 4:29; Acts 16:17; Romans 1:1; 2 Corinthians 4:5; Jde 1:1; Revelation 1:1; Revelation 2:20; Revelation 7:3. The addition of the phrase "under the yoke," however, shows undoubtedly that it is to be understood here of slavery.

As are under the yoke - On the word yoke, see the notes on Matthew 11:29. The phrase here properly denotes slavery, as it would not be applied to any other species of servitude; see Leviticus 26:13; Dem. 322, 12. ζεῦγος δουλοσύνης zeugos doulosunēs. Robinson's Lexicon. It sometimes denotes the bondage of the Mosaic law as being a severe and oppressive burden; Acts 15:10; Galatians 5:1. It may be remarked here that the apostle did not regard slavery as a light or desirable thing. He would not have applied this term to the condition of a wife or of a child.

Count their own masters worthy of all honour - Treat them with all proper respect. They were to manifest the right spirit themselves, whatever their masters did; they were not to do anything that would dishonor religion. The injunction here would seem to have particular reference to those whose masters were not Christians. In the following verse, the apostle gives particular instructions to those who had pious masters. The meaning here is, that the slave ought to show the Christian spirit toward his master who was not a Christian; he ought to conduct himself so that religion would not be dishonored; he ought not to give his master occasion to say that the only effect of the Christian religion on the mind of a servant was to make him restless, discontented, dissatisfied, and disobedient. In the humble and trying situation in which he confessedly was - under the yoke of bondage - he ought to evince patience, kindness, and respect for his master, and as long as the relation continued he was to be obedient. This command, however, was by no means inconsistent with his desiring his freedom, and securing it, if the opportunity presented itself; see the notes on 1 Corinthians 7:21; compare, on the passage before us, the Ephesians 6:5-8 notes, and 1 Peter 2:18 note.

That the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed - That religion be not dishonored and reproached, and that there may be no occasion to say that Christianity tends to produce discontent and to lead to insurrection. If the effect of religion had been to teach all who were servants that they should no longer obey their masters, or that they should rise upon them and assert their freedom by violence, or that their masters were to be treated with indignity on account of their usurped rights over others, the effect would have been obvious. There would have been a loud and united outcry against the new religion, and it could have made no progress in the world. Instead of this, Christianity taught the necessity of patience, and meekness, and forbearance in the endurance of all wrong - whether from private individuals Matthew 5:39-41; 1 Corinthians 6:7, or under the oppressions and exactions of Nero Romans 13:1-7, or amidst the hardships and cruelties of slavery. These peaceful injunctions, however, did not demonstrate that Christ approved the act of him "that smote on the one cheek," or that Paul regarded the government of Nero as a good government, - and as little do they prove that Paul or the Saviour approved of slavery.


1Ti 6:1-21. Exhortations as to Distinctions of Civil Rank; the Duty of Slaves, in Opposition to the False Teachings of Gain-seekers; Timothy's Pursuit Is to Be Godliness, Which Is an Everlasting Possession: Solemn Adjuration to Do So against Christ's Coming; Charge to Be Given to the Rich. Concluding Exhortation.

1. servants—to be taken as predicated thus, "Let as many as are under the yoke (as) slaves" (Tit 2:9). The exhortation is natural as there was a danger of Christian slaves inwardly feeling above their heathen masters.

their own masters—The phrase "their own," is an argument for submissiveness; it is not strangers, but their own masters whom they are required to respect.

all honour—all possible and fitting honor; not merely outward subjection, but that inward honor from which will flow spontaneously right outward conduct (see on [2483]Eph 5:22).

that the name of God—by which Christians are called.

blasphemed—Heathen masters would say, What kind of a God must be the God of the Christians, when such are the fruits of His worship (Ro 2:24; Tit 2:5, 10)?1 Timothy 6:1,2 The duty of servants.

1 Timothy 6:3-5 Those who teach not according to the apostle’s doctrine

are to be avoided, as corrupters of Christianity.

1 Timothy 6:6-8 The gain of godliness with content.

1 Timothy 6:9,10 The evil of covetousness.

1 Timothy 6:11-16 What Timothy is to flee, and what to follow and perform.

1 Timothy 6:17-19 A charge to the rich not to be proud and confident in

their riches, but to be beneficent and liberal.

1 Timothy 6:20,21 Timothy is enjoined to adhere to the true faith, and

to shun profane and vain controversies.

Let as many servants as are under the yoke; under the yoke of servitude, not being manumised, or made free.

Count their own masters worthy of all honour; abundant honour: let Christian servants give their masters, instead of less, double the honour which pagan servants do. That the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed; for the credit of the gospel, and for the honour of God; that none may say that religion teacheth servants any disobedience, or breaketh the bands of civil relations: but on the contrary, that it obligeth professors to a more faithful and full discharge of such duties, servants to be the best of servants, &c.

Let as many servants as are under the yoke,.... Not under the yoke of the law of God, or under the yoke of Christ; though the servants here spoken of were under both; but "under the yoke of government", as the Arabic version renders it; that is, under the yoke of men, in a state of servitude, under the government of masters, and in their service; being either apprentices to them, or bought with their money, or hired by them:

count their own masters worthy of all honour; and give it to them; which includes subjection to them; obedience to all their lawful commands, which are consistent with religion and reason, with the laws of God, and with the light of nature; and all reverence of them, and respect unto them, expressed by words and gestures: and all this is to be given to their own masters to whom they belong; who have a property in them; whose money or goods they are; and that be they what they will, as to their religion and temper; whether they be believers or unbelievers; or whether they be good and gentle, kind and humane; or whether they be froward, peevish, and ill natured:

that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed; by unbelieving masters, who, should their believing servants be refractory, disobedient, rebellious, or disrespectful, would be apt to say, what a God do these men serve? is this their religion? is this the Gospel they talk of? does their doctrine teach them such things, to be disobedient to their masters, and carry it disrespectfully to them? does it disengage them from the laws of nature, and dissolve the bonds of civil society, and destroy the relation that subsists between man and man? If this be the case, away with their God and their doctrine too. Wherefore the apostle exhorts, that if believing servants have any regard to that name they are called by, and call upon, and to the doctrine of the Gospel they have embraced and professed; that they would be obedient and respectful to their masters; that they may have no occasion to speak reproachfully of God, and of the Gospel.

Let {1} as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, {2} that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.

(1) He adds also rules for the servant's duty towards their masters: upon which matter there were no doubt many questions asked by those who took occasion by the Gospel to trouble the normal manner of life. And this is the first rule: let servants that have come to the faith and have the unfaithful for their masters, serve them nonetheless with great faithfulness.

(2) The reason: lest God should seem by the doctrine of the Gospel to stir up men to rebellion and all wickedness.

1 Timothy 6:1-2. Precept regarding the conduct of Christian slaves.

ὅσοι εἰσὶν ὑπὸ ζυγὸν δοῦλοι] δοῦλοι is added to explain εἰσὶν ὑπὸ ζ. Paul does not say simply ὅσοι εἰσὶν δοῦλοι, because he wishes to mark the oppressive circumstances of the condition of a slave. ζυγός is not used elsewhere in the N. T. of the yoke of slavery (in Herodotus: δούλιον ζυγόν). The expression is not to be limited to those slaves who were oppressed more than usual by their masters, as Heydenreich thinks, quoting 1 Peter 2:18. It is clear from the clause ἵνα κ.τ.λ., as well as from the contrast in 1 Timothy 6:2, that Paul is thinking here of the slaves who had heathen masters.

τοὺς ἰδίους δεσπότας] ἰδίους is so far emphatic, that it directs attention to the circumstance of the personal relation more than would be done by the usual pronoun.

πάσης τιμῆς (i.e. of all honour which is due to them as masters) ἀξίους ἡγείσθωιν (f. ἀξιοῦν, 1 Timothy 5:17); comp. the exhortations in Titus 2:9; Ephesians 6:5-8; Colossians 3:22-25; 1 Peter 2:18.

In confirmation, Paul adds ἵνα μὴ τὸ ὄνομα κ.τ.λ.; comp. Titus 2:10. The meaning is correctly given by Chrysostom: ὁ ἄπιστος ἂν μὲν ἴδῃ τοὺς δούλους διὰ τὴν πίστιν αὐθάδως προφερομένους, βλασφημήσει πολλάκις ὡς στάσιν ἐμποιοῦν τὸ δόγμα· ὅταν δὲ ἴδῃ πειθομένους, μᾶλλον πεισθήσεται, μᾶλλον προσέξει τοῖς λεγομένοις.

τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Θεοῦ] comp. Romans 2:24.

ἡ διδασκαλία] the gospel, as the doctrine prevailing among Christians.—1 Timothy 6:2. οἱ δὲ πιστοῦς ἔχοντες δεσπότας] The adversative δέ shows that the apostle is here speaking of other slaves than in 1 Timothy 6:1, viz., as he himself says, of those whose masters are πιστοί, not keeping their slaves as ὑπὸ ζυγόν, but treating them kindly and gently because of their πίστις. This last point is, indeed, not formally expressed here, but it is presupposed in μὴ καταφρονείτωσαν.

πιστούς is either to be joined with δεσπότας as an adjective, or to be taken as a substantive, δεσπότας defining it more precisely: “who have believers as masters.” The order of the words might give the preference to the latter view.

μὴ καταφρονείτωσαν] καταφρονεῖν denotes here conduct towards masters in which the honour due to them is not given.

ὅτι ἀδελφοί εἰσιν] These words are not the ground of the previous exhortation; they are the ground on which the δοῦλοι might be led to think their masters of little worth; not the slaves, but the masters, form the subject (de Wette, Wiesinger, van Oosterzee, and others).

ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον δουλευέτωσαν] μᾶλλον, equivalent to “all the more.”

ὅτι πιστοί εἰσι καὶ ἀγαπητοί, οἱ κ.τ.λ.] With ἀγαπητοί we must supply Θεοῦ (Romans 1:7; comp. Romans 11:28): “beloved of God;” this is supported by the close connection with πιστοί.

The subject is formed not by the slaves (Wetstein: intelligo non de dominis, sed de servis, qui dant operam, ut dominis beneficiant et bene de iis mereantur), still less by both slaves and masters (Matthies), but by the masters only. The only possible construction is this, that οἱἀντιλαμβανόμενοι forms the subject, πιστοὶἀγαπητοί the predicate; for the article shows that the words οἱ τῆς κ.τ.λ. do not give a more precise definition of what precedes. Most recent expositors (de Wette, Wiesinger, van Oosterzee, Plitt, also hitherto in this commentary) understand by ἡ εὐεργεσία the kindness which the slaves show to their masters by faithful service, and explain ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι as equivalent to “receive, accept;” but this explanation cannot be justified by usage.[198] In the N. T. the word occurs only in Luke 1:54 and Acts 20:35, in the sense of “accept of some one.” This sense it has also in classic Greek, when it refers to persons; in reference to things, it means: “carry on something eagerly,” also: “make oneself master of a thing.” Hofmann accordingly is not incorrect in translating: “devote themselves to kindness, making it their business.” If we keep strictly to this meaning, as indeed we must, then the words οἱ τ. εὐεργ. ἀντιλαμβανόμενοι apply to the Christian masters in regard to their conduct towards their slaves, so that the meaning of the exhortation is: “Serve (your masters) all the more, that they, devoting themselves to kindness towards you, are believers and beloved (of God).” So rightly Theophylact: οἱ τῆς εὐεργεσίας ἀντιλαμβανόμενοι, τουτέστι: οἱ δεσπόται οἱ φροντίζοντες τοῦ εὐεργετεῖν τοὺς δούλους; so, too, Chrysostom, Grotius, Wegscheider, Leo, and others. De Wette, against this explanation, maintains that “it makes the predicate ‘believing, somewhat superfluous, because the masters, being kindly towards their slaves, are already showing their Christian faith in action.” He is wrong; for, on the one hand, εὐεργεσία towards slaves might be true even of heathen; and, on the other, Paul wishes to insist on the Christian belief of the masters as a motive for careful and faithful service. Hofmann is wrong in thinking that καὶἀντιλαμβ. does not depend on ὅτι, but forms an independent clause in this sense, that the slaves who serve their masters willingly in distributing their alms, are beloved (viz. by their fellow-Christians). This view is opposed not only by the καί (for to what previous sentence is it to be attached?), but also by this, that whereas the ἀντιλαμβανόμενοι are the slaves, τῶν δεσπότων is arbitrarily supplied with εὐεργεσίας.

The apostle concludes the exhortations given in regard to the slaves with the words: ταῦτα δίδασκε καὶ παρακάλει, which Lachm. Buttm. and Tisch. wrongly refer to what follows; comp. 1 Timothy 4:11, 1 Timothy 5:7; the right construction is given by de Wette, Wiesinger, van Oosterzee, and others.

[198] De Wette wrongly seeks to justify this meaning by saying that ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι also means: “perceive with the senses,” and that in Porphyrias, De Abstin. i. 46, it means: μήτε ἐσθίων πλειόνων ἡδονῶν ἀντιλήψεται. Though the Vulg. translates it: “qui beneficii participes sunt,” and Luther: “and are partakers of the benefit,” the word is taken in a sense foreign to it. The same is true of Heydenreich’s explanation: “συγκοινωνοὶ τῆς χάριτος” (Php 1:7), wherein he also arbitrarily takes εὐεργεσία as equivalent to χάρις.

1 Timothy 6:1-2. The duty of Christian slaves to heathen and Christian masters respectively.

1. as many servants as are under the yoke] The position of the Greek words and their meaning are against this rendering. There would be no servants (slaves) who would not be ‘under the yoke;’ but since they were in actual position ‘under bondage’ as slaves, let them recognise facts. Render with R.V. as many as are bondservants under the yoke. ‘The yoke of slavery’ is applied metaphorically, Galatians 5:1, to the old legal dispensation. The use of the word is derived from the old custom of making prisoners of war pass under a ‘yoke’ formed of a spear laid crosswise on two upright spears, to denote the yoke of slavery being laid upon them. The reference in Christ’s words, Matthew 11:29, ‘take my yoke’ is rather to the yoke coupling cattle for drawing.

their own masters] The adjective here rendered ‘their own’ is in N.T. ‘used instead of a personal pronoun by the same kind of misuse as when in later Latin proprius takes the place of eius or suus;’ Winer, § 22, 7. As Alford on Ephesians 5:22 says, it serves ‘to intensify the relationship and enforce its duties.’ We have sixteen instances of the use in these Epistles, e.g. Titus 2:9.

his doctrine] Again the special teaching of the Christian religion, which would be ‘evil spoken of’ by being supposed to teach a subversive socialism.

1, 2. Timothy’s duties in regard to slaves

The last of the four sections of special charge (commenced in the previous chapter) is Timothy’s attitude towards Christian slaves. The position taken by Christ and His apostles in regard to slavery and the whole ‘social order’ of the world is well known. The existing basis of society with its relationships was recognised; while the eternal principles of Christian equality and love were boldly proclaimed, and trusted, as the true solvents of all that was amiss between man and man in God’s own time and His own patient way of working both for the material and spiritual world.

The present teaching of St Paul, an echo of similar exhortations (Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22), is in entire harmony with the Divine wisdom of the Master’s oracle ‘Render unto Cæsar the things which be Cæsar’s, and unto God the things which be God’s.’ Nothing is more wonderful in the life of Christianity than the slow gradual establishment of women’s position in the family, and of social and civil freedom in the state, in accordance with the seed-principles of Christ’s law; unless it be watching the same growth (hardly yet more than infantile), in the wider sphere of international brotherhood and the signs of a ‘Christian conscience’ stirring in the intercourse of state with state. See Appendix, J.

1 Timothy 6:1. Ὑπὸ ζυγὸν) under the yoke, viz. of heathen masters. The antithesis is, but, 1 Timothy 6:2. Service therefore, in the case of believers, is not a yoke.—ἰδίους, their own) Let them not turn from them, and attach themselves to others. Confusion [confounding of the existing order of things] is forbidden.—τιμῆς, honour) although they are without, i.e. not Christians. The opposite, despise, occurs presently.—ἀξίους, worthy) although they be without virtue [any remarkable merit].—ἡγείσθωσαν, let them count) with affection, and in their actual conduct.—ἵνα μὴ, that not) For the masters would say, that this was the cause of their contumacious disrespect; comp. Titus 2:5.

Verse 1. - Are servants for servants as are, A.V.; the doctrine for his doctrine, A.V. Servants; literally, slaves. That slaves formed a considerable portion of the first Christian Churches may be inferred from the frequency with which their duties are pressed upon them (see 1 Corinthians 7:21-22; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Ephesians 6:5-8; Colossians 3:11, 22; 1 Peter 2:18 (οἱ οἰκέται); see also 1 Corinthians 1:27-29). It must have been an unspeakable comfort to the poor slave, whose worldly condition was hopeless and often miserable, to secure his place as one of Christ's freemen, with the sure hope of attaining "the glorious liberty of the children of God." Under the yoke; i.e. "the yoke of bondage" (Galatians 5:1). Perhaps the phrase contains a touch of compassion for their state (comp. Acts 15:10). How beautiful is the contrast suggested in Matthew 11:29, 30! Masters (δεσπότας); the proper word in relation to δοῦλος. The doctrine (ἡ διδασκαλία); equivalent to "Christianity," as taught by the apostles and their successors (see the frequent use of the word in the pastoral Epistles, though with different shades of meaning (1 Timothy 1:10; 1 Timothy 4:6, 13, 16; 1 Timothy 5:17; 2 Timothy 3:10; 2 Timothy 4:3; Titus 1:9; Titus 2:10, etc.). Blasphemed (compare the similar passage, Titus 2:5, where ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ answers to ἡ διδασκαλία here). Βλασφημεῖν does not necessarily mean "blaspheme" in its restricted sense, but as often means "to speak evil of," "to defame," and the like. If Christian slaves withheld the honor and respect due to their masters, it would be as sure to bring reproach upon the Christian doctrine as if it taught insubordination and rebellion. 1 Timothy 6:1As many servants as are under the yoke (ὅσοι εἰσὶν ὑπὸ ζυγὸν δοῦλοι)

Incorrect. Rather, as many as are under the yoke as bondservants. As bondservants is added in explanation of under the yoke, which implies a hard and disagreeable condition. Yoke is used only here of the state of slavery. In Galatians 5:1; Acts 15:10, of the Mosaic law. See on Matthew 11:29.

Their own (τοὺς ἰδίους)

Lit. private, personal, peculiar, as 1 Corinthians 3:8; 1 Corinthians 7:7. Sometimes strange, eccentric. Contrasted with δημόσιος public or κοινός common. See Acts 4:32. Sometimes without emphasis, substantially equals possessive pronoun, just as Lat. proprius passes into suus or ejus, or οἰκεῖος belonging to one's house into the simple one's own. See on Galatians 6:10, and comp. Matthew 22:5; Matthew 25:14. In lxx commonly with the emphatic sense. Very often in the phrase κατ' ἰδίαν privately, as Mark 4:34; Luke 9:10; Galatians 2:2, but nowhere in Pastorals.

Masters (δεσπότας)

Comp. Titus 2:9, and see on 2 Peter 2:1. Not in Paul, who styles the master of slaves κύριος Lord. See Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 4:1.

Count (ἡγείσθωσαν)

Implying a more conscious, a surer judgment, resting on more careful weighing of the facts. See Philippians 2:3, Philippians 2:6.

Be not blasphemed (μη - βλασφημῆται)

Or be evil spoken of. See on blasphemy, Mark 7:22, and be evil spoken of, Romans 14:16; 1 Corinthians 10:30. Paul uses the word, but not in the active voice as in the Pastorals.

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