Daniel 8:23
Parallel Verses
New International Version
"In the latter part of their reign, when rebels have become completely wicked, a fierce-looking king, a master of intrigue, will arise.

New Living Translation
"At the end of their rule, when their sin is at its height, a fierce king, a master of intrigue, will rise to power.

English Standard Version
And at the latter end of their kingdom, when the transgressors have reached their limit, a king of bold face, one who understands riddles, shall arise.

New American Standard Bible
"In the latter period of their rule, When the transgressors have run their course, A king will arise, Insolent and skilled in intrigue.

King James Bible
And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Near the end of their kingdoms, when the rebels have reached the full measure of their sin, an insolent king, skilled in intrigue, will come to the throne.

International Standard Version
"Toward the end of their rule, as the desecrations proceed, an insolent king will arise, proficient at deception.

NET Bible
Toward the end of their rule, when rebellious acts are complete, a rash and deceitful king will arise.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"In the last days of those kingdoms, when rebellions are finished, a stern-looking king who understands mysterious things will rise to power.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And at the end of their empire, when the prevaricators are come to the full, a king of arrogant countenance and expert in enigmas shall raise himself up.

King James 2000 Bible
And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors have come to their fullness, a king of bold countenance, and understanding riddles, shall stand up.

American King James Version
And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

American Standard Version
And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And after their reign, when iniquities shall be grown up, there shall arise a king of a shameless face, and understanding dark sentences.

Darby Bible Translation
And at the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors shall have come to the full, a king of bold countenance, and understanding riddles, shall stand up.

English Revised Version
And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

Webster's Bible Translation
And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

World English Bible
In the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce face, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

Young's Literal Translation
'And in the latter end of their kingdom, about the perfecting of the transgressors, stand up doth a king, fierce of face, and understanding hidden things;
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

8:15-27 The eternal Son of God stood before the prophet in the appearance of a man, and directed the angel Gabriel to explain the vision. Daniel's fainting and astonishment at the prospect of evils he saw coming on his people and the church, confirm the opinion that long-continued calamities were foretold. The vision being ended, a charge was given to Daniel to keep it private for the present. He kept it to himself, and went on to do the duty of his place. As long as we live in this world we must have something to do in it; and even those whom God has most honoured, must not think themselves above their business. Nor must the pleasure of communion with God take us from the duties of our callings, but we must in them abide with God. All who are intrusted with public business must discharge their trust uprightly; and, amidst all doubts and discouragements, they may, if true believers, look forward to a happy issue. Thus should we endeavour to compose our minds for attending to the duties to which each is appointed, in the church and in the world.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 23. - And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up. The versions here are, on the whole, in agreement with the Massoretic. The Greek versions read, "their sins," as if it were the iniquities of the successors of Alexander that had become full, and thus afforded the occasion of the appearance of Epiphanes. The Peshitta and Jerome have "iniquities" generally, without reference to the kings, but with probable reference to the Jewish people. The probability is decidedly in favour of the Massoretic reading; it was an easy suggestion that the iniquities to be punished were those of the heathen kings. The whole analogy of Scripture leads us to look at the iniquity of the people of God being the cause of evil befalling them. Certainly immediately before the persecution inflicted on the Jews by Antiochus, the progress of the unbelieving Hellenizing party had been very great, as we see by 1 Macc. 1:13-16. It was "like people, like priest;" the people devoted themselves to Grecian games with all their heathen associations, and strove to hide their Hebrew origin and the covenant of their faith, and high priests were ready to abet their practices. A king of fierce countenance; "strong of countenance." This refers to courage and success in war. Thus Amaziah (2 Kings 14:8), when he wishes to challenge Joash King of Israel, desires to "look in his face." Epiphanes' countenance was one that could successfully stand a hostile meeting. The Greek versions render עַצ ('az) by ἀναιδής, "reckless." Understanding dark sentences. There may be some reference to incantations and superstitious observances; it may mean that he was well acquainted with omens, and how to benefit by them. Regardlessness in the matter of religion was a prominent characteristic of Antiochus; but it is quite a possible thing that, like most irreligious men, he was superstitious. He certainly was very keen-sighted in observing the political signs of the times, and very adroit at availing himself of what made for his own advantage. This last is the interpretation of Ewald. Zockler and Hitzig think it means that the king here pictured "will be cunning to hide his own designs from friend and foe." Yet more common is the view of Keil, Behrmann, Stuart, and Bevan, that it refers generally to his mastery in the use of artifice. The main difficulty in regard to this view is that usage, does not support assigning such a meaning to heedoth. On the other hand, when we bear in mind that here we have the language of symbol and prophecy, so tricks of strategy and chicane of policy may all be symbolized by "dark sayings," without necessary reference to sentences such as those with which the Queen of Sheba tested the wisdom of Solomon.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

And in the latter time of their kingdom,.... Toward the close of the kingdom of the four kings that divided Alexander's kingdom; for though they were four distinct kings, and had four separate kingdoms, yet these all belonged to one kingdom or monarchy, the Grecian empire; and when that was decreasing, and coming into the hands of the Romans, there rose up, stood, and flourished awhile, King Antiochus, afterwards described, who began to reign in the hundred and thirty seventh year of the Seleucidae,

"And there came out of them a wicked root Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king, who had been an hostage at Rome, and he reigned in the hundred and thirty and seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks.'' (1 Maccabees 1:10)

and 166 B.C., and the same year that he set up the abomination of desolation in the temple at Jerusalem, as Mr. Mede (p) has observed, Aemilius the Roman consul conquered Perseus king of Macedon, whereby all Greece came into the hands of the Romans; so that this king may be truly said to arise and stand in the latter part of the Grecian empire, when that was declining, and the Roman empire was taking place:

when the transgressors are come to the full; many among the Jews, who apostatized from their religion, turned Heathens, even some of the priests, when their number was completed, and they had filled up the measure of their iniquities; in the Apocrypha:

"In those days went there out of Israel wicked men, who persuaded many, saying, Let us go and make a covenant with the heathen that are round about us: for since we departed from them we have had much sorrow. &c.'' (1 Maccabees 1:11)

a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up; meaning Antiochus; as is generally agreed, both by Jewish and Christian interpreters, and to whom these characters agree: he was "hard of face" (q), as it may be rendered; an impudent brasen faced man, who had no shame nor fear in him; regarded neither God nor man; committed the most atrocious crimes in the most public manner; and particularly was daring and impudent in his blasphemy against God and the true religion; and it may also signify that he was cruel, barbarous, and inhuman, especially to the Jews, as his persecution of them abundantly proves: and his "understanding dark sentences", or "riddles" (r), which he could both propose and answer, shows him to be sagacious and cunning, well versed in wicked craft and policy; he had the art of inveigling and deceiving men; it was by deceit and cunning he got the kingdom from his nephew; and, by the wicked art of persuasion he was master of, he seduced many of the Jews to relinquish their religion, and embrace Heathenism; and so well skilled he was in wicked politics, that he could cover his own designs, and penetrate into the secrets of others; according to Jacchiades, he was skilful in the art of magic and astrology. This is the little horn that was to rise out of one of the four horns or kingdoms; as Antiochus did from that of Seleucus, and stood and reigned more than twelve years.

(p) Works, B. 3. c. 11. p. 654. (q) "durus facie", Calvin, Piscator; "validus facie", Michaelis. (r) "aenigmata", Pagninus, Montanus, Munster, Calvin, Piscator, Polanus.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

23. transgressors are come to the full—This does not hold good of the times of Antiochus, but of the closing times of the Christian era. Compare Lu 18:8, and 2Ti 3:1-9, as to the wickedness of the world in general just before Christ's second coming. Israel's guilt, too, shall then be at the full, when they who rejected Christ shall receive Antichrist; fulfilling Jesus words, "I am come in My Father's name, and ye receive Me not; if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive" (compare Ge 15:16; Mt 23:32; 1Th 2:16).

of fierce countenance—(De 28:50); one who will spare neither old nor young.

understanding dark sentences—rather, "artifices" [Gesenius]. Antiochus made himself master of Egypt and Jerusalem successively by craft (1 Maccabees 1:30, &c.; 2 Maccabees 5:24, &c.).

Daniel 8:23 Additional Commentaries
Context
Gabriel Interprets Daniel's Vision
22"The broken horn and the four horns that arose in its place represent four kingdoms which will arise from his nation, although not with his power. 23"In the latter period of their rule, When the transgressors have run their course, A king will arise, Insolent and skilled in intrigue. 24"His power will be mighty, but not by his own power, And he will destroy to an extraordinary degree And prosper and perform his will; He will destroy mighty men and the holy people.…
Cross References
1 Thessalonians 2:16
in their effort to keep us from speaking to the Gentiles so that they may be saved. In this way they always heap up their sins to the limit. The wrath of God has come upon them at last.

Proverbs 1:6
for understanding proverbs and parables, the sayings and riddles of the wise.

Daniel 8:9
Out of one of them came another horn, which started small but grew in power to the south and to the east and toward the Beautiful Land.

Daniel 8:22
The four horns that replaced the one that was broken off represent four kingdoms that will emerge from his nation but will not have the same power.

Daniel 8:24
He will become very strong, but not by his own power. He will cause astounding devastation and will succeed in whatever he does. He will destroy those who are mighty, the holy people.
Treasury of Scripture

And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

in the.

Daniel 10:14 Now I am come to make you understand what shall befall your people …

Numbers 24:24 And ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and shall afflict …

Ezekiel 38:8,16 After many days you shall be visited: in the latter years you shall …

1 Timothy 4:1 Now the Spirit speaks expressly, that in the latter times some shall …

when.

Genesis 15:16 But in the fourth generation they shall come here again: for the …

Matthew 23:32 Fill you up then the measure of your fathers.

1 Thessalonians 2:16 Forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved, …

come. Heb. accomplished. a king. The Roman empire, which reduced Judea to a province, burnt the city and temple, and scattered the Jews to the four winds of heaven.

Daniel 8:9-12 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding …

Daniel 7:8,11,20,25 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another …

Deuteronomy 28:50 A nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person …

and understanding.

Daniel 8:25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his …

Daniel 11:21,24 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall …

2 Thessalonians 2:9-11 Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power …

Revelation 13:11-14 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had …

Revelation 19:20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that worked …

shall stand.

Daniel 8:6 And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing …

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