Matthew Poole's Commentary
To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil, A Song of loves. My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue is the pen of a ready writer.THE ARGUMENT
The subject matter of this Psalm is by the consent both of Jewish and Christian, ancient and modern, interpreters agreed to be the Messias, and his marriage with the church of God; of which it treats either,
1. Remotely, under the type of Solomon and his marriage with Pharaoh’s daughter, of which it is to be primarily and literally understood, and then immediately and ultimately of Christ. Or rather,
2. Immediately and directly; although the words be so ordered, that they carry a manifest allusion either to that or some other royal marriage; which seems more than probable from the following arguments:
1. From the great congruity of the matter and style of this Psalm with that of the book of Canticles; whereof this seems to be a kind of abridgement.
2. From the magnificent preface, Psalm 45:1, which seems too sublime and spiritual for such carnal and earthly matters.
3. And especially from the matter of the Psalm. For there are many things which do not agree to Solomon; such as the warlike posture and exploits, Psalm 45:3-5, and the title of God, Psalm 45:6, which is appropriated to Christ, and affirmed to be incommunicable to any mere creature, Hebrews 1:8. compared with Psalm 45:6, and that numerous posterity, and the amplitude of their dominion, Psalm 45:16, and divers other passages, as we shall see in the progress.
To the chief musician upon Shoshannim; which title is also prefixed to Psalm 119, and with some small addition, Psalm 130, and with a little variation, Psalm 60. It seems to be the name of a song or tune, or instrument of music. It properly signifies lilies or roses; which some apply to the subject of the Psalm, because those flowers were used ill garlands, or otherwise in nuptial solemnities, and because Christ calls himself the lily and the rose, Song of Solomon 2:1.
A Song of loves, to wit, of Christ and his church. Or, of the beloved ones, to wit, the virgins, who waited upon the bride, as some men did upon the bridegroom, who thence were called his friends, John 3:29; in whose name and person this Psalm may seem to be uttered.
The psalmist singeth of the beauty of Christ above that of the children of men, Psalm 45:1,2; of his terribleness and conquest over his enemies, Psalm 45:3-5; of his everlasting throne, and unction above his fellows, Psalm 45:6-9. The church is invited to forsake her father’s house, that Christ might delight in her, Psalm 45:10-12. Her glory and excellency by his graces, which shall be remembered and praised for ever, Psalm 45:13-17.
My heart; I am about to utter not vain, or rash, or foolish, or false words, but such as proceed from my very heart, and most serious thoughts, and cordial affections.
Is inditing, Heb. boileth, or bubbleth up, like water in a pot over the fire. This phrase notes that the workings of his heart in this matter were frequent and abundant, fervent and vehement, free and cheerful, and withal kindled by God’s grace, and by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.
A good matter; either,
1. Pleasant or delightful, and fit for the nuptial solemnity here expressed; as a feast day is sometimes called a good day. Or,
2. Excellent, as this word is oft used, as Numbers 24:5 Deu 8:12; or, holy and spiritual, as it is most commonly used. This is no vain, or carnal, or wanton love song, but sublime and heavenly, and full of majesty, as is manifest from the body of this Psalm.
Which I have made; which I by Divine inspiration have composed.
Touching the king; or rather, to the king; for to him he addresseth his speech in the following verses; and this Hebrew prefix lamed generally signifies to, though sometimes it be rendered of, or concerning. The pen; or, as the pen; whereby he intimates that he was only the pen or instrument in uttering this song, and that it had another and a higher original, to wit, the Spirit of God, by whose hand this pen was guided and managed.
Of a ready writer; whereby he understands either,
1. God’s Spirit, who writ or spoke this by the pen or mouth of the psalmist; or,
2. Himself; whom he so calls, not out of vain ostentation, or self-commendation, but to teach us that this song was not the effect of his own deep and serious study, but did freely flow into him by Divine inspiration, and did as freely and readily flow from him.
Thou art fairer than the children of men: grace is poured into thy lips: therefore God hath blessed thee for ever.Fairer, or, more beautiful, i.e. lovely and amiable. He speaks not here so much of this outward beauty, which, though it be an ornament both to a bridegroom and to a king, yet is not very considerable in either, nor is much admired or applauded by wise men, as of the inward and glorious endowments of his mind or soul, such as wisdom, and righteousness, and meekness, &c., as the particulars of this beauty are declared, Psalm 45:4,7. Than the children of men; than all other men: which is most true of Christ, but not of Solomon; whom many have excelled, if not in wisdom, yet in holiness and righteousness, which is the chief part of this beauty, and most celebrated in this Psalm.
Grace is poured into thy lips; God hath plentifully poured into thy mind and tongue the gift of speaking with admirable grace, i.e. most wisely and eloquently, and therefore most acceptably, so as to find grace with and work grace in thy hearers. This was in the same sort true of Solomon, but far more eminently and effectually in Christ; of which see Isaiah 50:4 Luke 4:22 John 7:46. The former clause noted his inward perfections, and this signifies his ability and readiness to communicate them to others.
Therefore; which notes not the meritorious cause, for that beauty and grace now mentioned are declared to be the free gifts of God, and were the effects, and not the causes, of God’s blessing him; but rather the final cause, or the end for which God endowed him with those excellent qualifications; and so the sense of the place is, Because God hath so eminently adorned and qualified thee for rule, therefore he hath trusted and blessed thee with an everlasting kingdom. Or, because, as this particle is used, Genesis 38:26 Psalm 42:6, and elsewhere. And so God’s blessing him with such solid and everlasting blessings, is noted as the cause of this singular beauty and grace here expressed.
Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty.Gird thy sword upon thy thigh; either,
1. As an ensign of royal majesty. But that is usually and much better expressed in Scripture by putting a crown upon his head. Or rather,
2. As an instrument for war and battle, to smite his enemies, as it is declared, Psalm 45:4,5. And the sword is here put synecdochically for all his arms, as it is in many other places, as appears from Psalm 45:5, where we read also of his arrows. And this sword of the Messias is nothing else but the word of God coming out of his mouth; which is fitly compared to a sword, as may appear from Isaiah 49:2 Ephesians 6:17 Hebrews 4:12 Revelation 1:16, which is elsewhere called the rod of his mouth, Isaiah 11:4, and the rod of his power, Psalm 110:2.
With thy glory and thy majesty; or, which is thy glory and thy majesty; or, magnificence or beauty; for these words are joined with the sword, by way of apposition; which sword or word is the great instrument of maintaining and propagating thy honour, and glory, and kingdom.
And in thy majesty ride prosperously because of truth and meekness and righteousness; and thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things.In thy majesty; being thus gloriously or magnificently girt and armed. Ride prosperously; march on speedily (which is signified by riding) and successfully against thine enemies, i.e. thou shalt do so, as it is in the last clause,
shall teach thee. So imperatives are oft put for futures, and predictions are expressed in the form of commands or exhortations.
Because of truth, and meekness, and righteousness; or, because of thy truth, &c., i.e. because thou art worthy of this dominion and success; for thou neither didst obtain nor wilt manage thy kingdom by deceit or violence and unrighteousness, as the princes of the earth frequently do, but with truth and faithfulness, with meekness and gentleness towards thy people, and to all that shall submit to thee; with impartial justice and equity, whereby thy throne will be established, Proverbs 16:12 20:28. Or, as it is in the Hebrew, word for word, upon the word of truth, &c.; which may seem best to suit with the foregoing words, which according to the Hebrew are, prosper thou, ride thou, and then immediately follows, upon the Word of truth, &c., to wit, the gospel; which is oft called truth, as John 8:32 Colossians 1:5, &c., and the word of truth, Ephesians 1:13; and may no less truly be called the word of meekness, because it is not delivered with terror, as the law was at Sinai, but meekly and sweetly by Christ, and by his ministers, Matthew 21:5 2 Timothy 2:25; and the word of righteousness, because it brings in everlasting righteousness, Daniel 9:24, and strongly obligeth and exciteth all men to the practice of righteousness and holiness. And so the gospel is compared to a horse or chariot, upon which Christ is said to ride, when the gospel is preached, and carried about from place to place, Revelation 19:11. And this may be here added, to show the great difference between the kingdoms of the world, that are managed with outward pomp and glory, and the kingdom of Christ, which is a spiritual kingdom, and, like a spouse, Psalm 45:13, all glorious wi&in, as consisting in spiritual virtues and graces, truth, meekness, and righteousness. Thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things, i.e. thou shalt do great and glorious exploits, which shall be grievous and terrible to thine enemies, as the next verse explains it, and this not by great forces, and the assistance of others, but by thine own single power; compare Isaiah 63:3; which doth by no means agree to Solomon, who was a man of peace, and not engaged in any martial actions against his enemies; and if he had done any thing considerable in that kind, he could not do it by his own right hand, but by the help of his soldiers. But this doth excellently agree to the Messias, and to him only.
Object. The things which were done by the Messias at his first coming were rather comfortable than terrible.
Answ. They were indeed comfortable to all good men, but withal they were terrible to the ungodly, and particularly to the body of the Jewish nation, to whom Christ was a stone of stumbling, and rock of offence, and an occasion of their utter destruction. And upon that and other accounts, not only Christ’s second, but even his first coming, is represented as dreadful, as Joel 2:30 Malachi 3:2, and elsewhere. For the phrase, thy right hand shall teach thee, it is not to be taken properly, for so he taught his hand, and not his hand him; but the meaning is, that his hand should show him, i.e. discover and work before him; for verbal words are oft understood really; as calling is put for being, as Isaiah 1:26 9:6; so teaching or showing is put for doing, as Psalm 16:11 60:3.
Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king's enemies; whereby the people fall under thee.Thine arrows; the same thing for substance with the sword, Psalm 45:3, both noting the instruments by which he conquers his enemies; which is no other than his word, which is sharp and powerful, and pierceth the hearts of men, Hebrews 4:12; which also first wounds sinners, and then heals them; and which is for the fall as well as for the rising of many, Luke 2:34, and for judgment as well as for mercy, John 9:39; to some a savour of death, and to others a savour of life, 2 Corinthians 2:16; and therefore is fitly compared to arrows; which title is sometimes given to words, as Psalm 64:3, and frequently to God’s plagues or judgments, Deu 32:23 Psalm 18:14 64:7, such as the word becomes to ungodly men by their own fault. And these metaphorical weapons are oft ascribed to Christ, who hath a bow, Revelation 6:2, and weapons of warfare, 2 Corinthians 10:4, and whose mouth God is said to make a sword and an arrow, Isaiah 49:2.
Of the king’s enemies, i.e. of thine enemies; the third person being put for the second, as is usual in prophetical writings; which here may seem to have some emphasis, as describing the persons against whom he shot his arrows, and the reason why he did so, because they were the enemies of his kingdom, and would not have him to reign over them, Luke 19:27.
The people fall under thee; either as slain by thine arrows; or as prostrate at thy feet, after the manner of conquered persons, Psalm 18:38 20:8. According to this and many other translations the words are transplaced, which in the Hebrew lie thus, Thine arrows are sharp, whereby the people do fall under thee, in the heart (i. e. in the midst, which is oft called the heart, as Exodus 15:8 Deu 4:11. And so it may be here; for the army, as such, hath no heart, properly so called. And so this is fitly alleged, as a proof of the sharpness and force of his arrows, that they not only wound those who march in the front, but even those who are in the midst of the army, where they may seem secure, and out of-their reach) of the king’s enemies. But the middle words may be, and are by many, included within a parenthesis, and so they may agree with our translation thus, Thine arrows are sharp (for the people fall under thee, which is an evidence of their sharpness) in the heart (or, against the heart; or, piercing into the heart; which is an easy and usual ellipsis) of the king’s enemies.
Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre.O God: it is most evident that the speech is still continued to the same person, whom he calls King, Psalm 45:1,11, and here
God; which change of the title was very expedient, and in some sort necessary, to give us a true understanding of this Psalm, and to assure us that he doth not speak of Solomon, (to whom neither these, nor the foregoing, nor the following words agree, because his reign was peaceable and short, and stained with many and great iniquities,) but a far greater King, even of the Messias, who is not only a man, but also the mighty God, as he is called, Isaiah 9:6, and as the apostle solidly proves from this place, Hebrews 1:8. For though the name of Elohim, or God, be sometimes given in Scripture to some creatures, yet in those cases it is always clogged with some diminishing expression, signifying that they are only made or called gods, and that only for a certain time and purpose, as is manifest from Exodus 4:16 7:1 Psalm 82:6; and it is no where put simply and absolutely for any person, but him, who is God blessed for ever, Romans 9:5. Is for ever and ever, to wit, properly and in thine own person, in which as he lives for ever, so he must necessarily reign for ever; whereas David, whose throne is said to be established for ever, 2 Samuel 7:16, was a mortal man, and therefore that promise was not intended of, nor could be fulfilled in, his person, without including his posterity. And as he here gives to the Messias the name of God, which was never given to David nor Solomon, so he ascribes an everlasting kingdom to him in such a sense as it was never given to them. So Daniel 2:44 7:14.
The sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre; it is not strange that thy throne is not liable to the same uncertainties and casualties with the thrones of earthly princes, because their sceptres are commonly managed with great injustice and manifold iniquities, which lay the foundation of their overthrow; whereas thou rulest with exact righteousness and equity, whereby thy throne is established, Proverbs 16:12.
Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.Thou dost not only do that which is good, and avoid that which is evil; which even bad princes and men may do, and sometimes actually do, for politic or prudential reasons; but thou dost this sincerely, and from an inward principle, even from a true love to God, and goodness, and from an implacable hatred against all wickedness. Therefore; so this particle is commonly used. And so it denoteth, either,
1. The reward of Christ’s righteous administration of his kingdom. So the sense is, Because thou hast given so many and great proofs of thy love to righteousness, and of thy hatred of sin, and that not only by the constant course of thy life, but also by thy death and passion, therefore God hath raised and exalted thee far above all men and angels, to a state of joy and endless glory at his right hand; which is fitly expressed by the
oil of gladness. For anointing doth not always signify the conferring of inward gifts or endowments, but sometimes only notes the designation or inauguration of a person to some high dignity or employment, as Ezekiel 28:14, and elsewhere. Or,
2. The final cause or end of Christ’s unction. So the sense is, To that end, i.e. that thou mightest love righteousness, and hate wickedness, and govern thyself and thy kingdom accordingly, God hath anointed thee, &c., i.e. hath endowed thee with all the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, Acts 10:38, in an eminent and peculiar manner, to the comfort and refreshment of thine own and all thy people’s hearts; and hath solemnly called thee to be the Priest and Prophet and King of all his people. But the former sense seems to be the truest, and is for substance the same thing which is said in other words, Philippians 2:8-10.
God, thy God, according to thy human nature, John 20:17, though in respect of thy Divine nature thou art his fellow, Zechariah 13:7, and his equal, Phil. it. 6, and one with him, John 10:30. The oil of gladness; so called here, as also Isaiah 61:3; partly because it not only makes the countenance fresh and pleasant, Psalm 104:15, but also rejoiceth the heart, Proverbs 27:9; and partly because it was a token of gladness, and used in feasts and other solemn occasions of rejoicing; of which see Psalm 23:5 Daniel 10:3 Amos 6:6.
Above thy fellows, i.e. above all them who partake with thee in this unction; either,
1. Above all that ever were anointed for priests, or prophets, or kings. Or,
2. Above all believers, who also have received this same unction, 1Jo 2:20,27, and are made priests and kings unto God, Revelation 1:6.
All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made thee glad.With myrrh, and aloes, and cassia they used to perfume their garments: see Genesis 27:27. This may denote those glorious and sweet-smelling virtues, which as they were treasured up inwardly in Christ’s heart, so did they manifest themselves outwardly and visibly, and give forth a grateful smell in the whole course of his life and actions; his doctrine also was a sweet savour unto God and men, 2 Corinthians 2:14,15.
Out of the ivory palaces; which may be referred, either,
1. To the garments, which were usually kept in, and now upon this extraordinary solemnity were brought out of, palaces, or houses, or wardrobes of ivory; so called here, as also Amos 3:15, not because they were wholly made of ivory, but because they were adorned or covered here and there with it. Or rather,
2. To the king himself, who is here supposed to reside in his ivory palaces; and his garments are so fragrant, that they do not only perfume the whole palaces in which he is, but the sweet savour thereof is perceived by those that pass by them, or are at some distance from them; all which is poetically said, and with a manifest allusion to Solomon’s glorious garments and palaces. By these ivory palaces he may mean either,
1. His human nature, in which Christ dwelt, as in a tabernacle, as the Greek word signifies, John 1:14; in which all these fragrant virtues were, and from whence they were diffused every where. Indeed the body is called a temple, John 2:19, and a house or tabernacle, 2 Corinthians 5:1,2, and so it might be called a palace. But why it should be called palaces, and that of ivory, seems not so plain. Or rather,
2. Those glorious and heavenly mansions, John 14:2, which may not unfitly be called ivory palaces, as elsewhere in the same figurative manner they are said to be made of or adorned with gold and precious stones, Revelation 21:1 8,19; from which mansions Christ came into the world, John 3:13, and into which Christ went, and where he settled his abode, after he went out of the world, John 13:1 Acts 1:11, and from whence Christ poured forth all the fragrant gifts and graces of his Spirit into the world and church, Acts 2:33. Although there is no necessity to strain every particular circumstance in such poetical descriptions, nor to find out some particular thing in Christ to which it agrees; for some expressions may be used only as ornaments in such cases, as they are in parables; and it may suffice to know and say, that the glories and excellencies of the King Christ are described by such things in which earthly potentates do place their glory.
Whereby; or, from which; either,
1. From which place or palaces. Or rather,
2. From which thing, i.e. from the sweet smell of thy garments out of those ivory palaces, or from the effusion of the gifts and graces of thy Spirit from thy Father’s right hand in heaven; which as it is a great blessing and comfort to those who receive them, so doth it rejoice the heart of Christ, both as it is a demonstration of his own power and glory, and as it is the happy instrument of doing much good in the world, and of bringing souls to God, which is Christ’s great work and delight.
They have made thee glad, i.e. thou art made glad; such phrases being oft used indefinitely and impersonally, as Luke 15:32, and in many other places.
Kings' daughters were among thy honourable women: upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir.Among thy honourable women, i.e. amongst them that attend upon thy spouse, as the manner was in nuptial solemnities; as men attended upon the bridegroom, whence they were called friends, John 3:29. In reference to Christ, as the spouse or queen is the church in general, so these honourable women are particular believers, who are daily added to the church, Acts 2:47, and submit themselves to it. And although the church is made up of particular believers, yet she is distinguished from them, for the decency of the parable, as the whole is oft distinguished by our minds from the parts of which it consists, and as the daughters of Jerusalem are distinguished from the spouse in the book of the Canticles, though the spouse be wholly made up of them. And these believers may be said to be kings’ daughters, either because amongst others many persons of royal or princely races did embrace the faith, as was prophesied of them, Isaiah 49:7 60:10,11, &c., or because they are in a spiritual sense kings unto God, Revelation 1:6.
Upon thy right hand; the most honourable place next to the king’s. See 1 Kings 2:9 Matthew 26:64. Did stand; which is the posture of a servant; to show that as she is a queen, she is also his subject to serve and obey him. Or, is placed, or seated; which seems more agreeable to the person of a queen, 1 Kings 2:19, and of a spouse at the nuptial solemnity.
In gold of Ophir; clothed in the richest garments made of the choicest gold; by which he designs the graces wherewith the church is accomplished.
Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear; forget also thine own people, and thy father's house;Hearken: these words are spoken, either,
1. In the person of the attendants upon the bride or bridegroom. Or,
2. Of the bridegroom. Or rather,
3. By the prophet himself; who having hitherto spoken to the bridegroom, or king, now addresseth his speech to the bride, or queen.
O daughter: so he calls her, partly in token of his respect and affection to her, and partly because she is supposed to be young and beautiful; and therefore the prophet speaks like an eider and graver person, and as her spiritual father and counsellor.
Consider, and incline thine ear: he useth several words, signifying the same thing, to show his serious and vehement desire of her good, and the great importance and difficulty of practicing the following counsel.
Forget also thine own people, and thy father’s house; not simply, but comparatively, so far as they oppose or hinder the discharge of thy duty to thy husband; or so far as they are corrupted in doctrine, or worship, or practice. He alludes to the law of matrimony, Genesis 2:24, and to what Solomon did say, or should have said, to Pharaoh’s daughter, to wean her from the idolatry and other vices of her father’s house. But this, as well as the rest of the Psalm, respects Christ, arid is a seasonable and necessary advice and command to all persons that desire to come to Christ, whether Jews or Gentiles, that they would cast off all their inveterate errors and prejudices, all those superstitious, or idolatrous, or wicked opinions or practices, which they had received by long and ancient, and therefore venerable, tradition from their fathers, and entirely give up themselves to Christ to be instructed by him, and to receive his doctrine, though it would seem new to them. And by these words he seems to intimate, and tacitly to foretell, that not only the superstitious inventions and traditions of men, but even the legal worship appointed by Moses, and delivered to them from their parents successively for many generations, should be relinquished by the believing Jews, and abolished by Christ’s coming.
So shall the king greatly desire thy beauty: for he is thy Lord; and worship thou him.So doing thou shalt be amiable and acceptable to thy Husband; which will abundantly recompense thee for the loss of thy father’s house.
He is thy Lord; as he is thy Husband, and also as he is thy King and God, as he was called, Psalm 45:6. And this is added as a reason, not of the last words, why the King would desire her beauty, but of the advice given to her, Psalm 45:10.
Worship thou him; by which he implies that her Husband was no mere man, but God also, and therefore might be adored without any violation of that known and immutable precept of worshipping God only.
And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift; even the rich among the people shall intreat thy favour.The daughter of Tyre, i.e. the people or citizens of Tyre; as the daughter of Zion, or Jerusalem, or Babel, &c., are put for their inhabitants, 2 Kings 19:21 Psalm 137:8 Zechariah 9:9. He mentioneth the Tyrians, partly because they did give presents to Solomon, 1 Kings 5:1, &c., to whom here is a continued allusion through the whole Psalm; and partly because they among others, and before many others, were to be converted to Christ, as they were. See Matthew 11:21,22 Mr 3:8 7:24 Acts 21:3-5. But they are here put synecdochically for all the Gentiles, whom that city fitly represents, as being the mart of the nations, as she is called, Isaiah 23:3. And being a very rich and proud, and therefore a self-conceited and a stiffnecked people, their merchants being princes, Isaiah 23:8 they may in a particular manner represent all those great and proud princes and stubborn people of the Gentile world, which should be subdued to Christ by the preaching of the gospel.
With a gift; partly to testify their homage, which was done by gifts or presents, as appears from 1 Samuel 10:27 2 Samuel 8:2, &c.; and partly to procure thine, and consequently thy husband’s, favour, as it here follows.
The rich among the people of other nations.
The king's daughter is all glorious within: her clothing is of wrought gold.The king’s daughter, i.e. the spouse; so called, either because she was the daughter of one king, and the wife of another; or because the spouse or wife is sometimes called the husband’s daughter; partly because she is supposed to be younger than he; and partly because of that respect and subjection which she oweth to him, and that fatherly care and affection which he oweth to her. See 2 Samuel 12:3 Jeremiah 3:4. So the bridegroom calls his spouse his sister, Song of Solomon 4:9. Thus Livia, the wife of Augustus, is called his sister in ancient coins.
1. Even in her retiring chambers in the king’s palace, and not only when she showeth herself abroad. Or rather,
2. In her mind and soul, or in spiritual endowments, the excellent virtues and graces wherewith she is accomplished. For,
1. This is opposed to her outward clothing.
2. This being so great and so necessary a qualification of a worthy spouse, it is not likely it should be omitted in her description and commendation, especially when the bridegroom is commended for his inward accomplishments as well as for his outward glory, Psalm 45:4,73. The church is this bride, as hath been said and proved before, whose true and chief beauty is inward and spiritual, and not consisting in outward pomp and glory.
Her clothing is of wrought gold; her inward perfections do not rest within her, but break forth into virtuous and honourable actions, wherewith she is adorned in the view of the world. This suits well with the style of the Holy Scriptures, wherein the saints are oft said to be clothed with virtues and virtuous actions. See Psalm 132:9 1 Peter 5:5.
She shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needlework: the virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto thee.He alludes to the custom of conducting the bride to the bridegroom’s house.
Her companions, i.e. her bridemaidens attending upon her, called her honourable women, Psalm 45:9, See Poole "Psalm 45:9", and here
virgins, because of their spiritual purity and chastity, 2 Corinthians 11:2.
With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought: they shall enter into the king's palace.Full of joy for the glory and felicity of the bride and bridegroom, and for the comfort and benefit which redoundeth to themselves from it.
Instead of thy fathers shall be thy children, whom thou mayest make princes in all the earth.Having directed his speech to the bride, he now returns to the bridegroom, as may be gathered both from the Hebrew words, which are of the masculine gender; and from the next verse, which unquestionably belongs unto him; yet so that he supposeth the bride to be concerned and partaker with him in the privilege here mentioned, and the children to be common to them both. And therefore this verse and Psalm cannot be understood of Solomon, and his marriage with Pharaoh’s daughter, because he had no children by her, and but very few by all his wives and concubines; and his children were so far from exceeding their parents in the largeness of their dominions, or being made princes in al the earth, as is here said, that they enjoyed but a small part of their father’s dominions, and that with many tribulations, and but for a short time. But this was most truly and fully accomplished in Christ; who instead of his fathers of the Jewish nation; from whom he descended, and by whom he was forsaken and rejected, (which here seems to be implied, and elsewhere is expressly affirmed,) had a numerous posterity of Gentile Christians of all the nations of the earth, which here and elsewhere are called princes and kings, because of their great power with God and with men, because they subdued a very great part of the world to the obedience of Christ, and ruled them in his name and stead.
I will make thy name to be remembered in all generations: therefore shall the people praise thee for ever and ever.As he began the Psalm with the celebration of the king’s praises, so now he endeth with it, and adds this important circumstance, that this nuptial song should not only serve for the present solemnity, as others of that kind do, but that it should be remembered and sung in all successive generations; which plainly showeth that it was not composed upon such a slight and transitory occasion as that of Solomon’s marriage with Pharaoh’s daughter, which was soon forgotten, and the Israelites had little cause to remember it with any satisfaction; but upon that great and glorious and everlasting marriage between Christ and his church, of which this is most properly and literally verified.