Ephesians 1:13
In whom you also trusted, after that you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that you believed, you were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(13) In whom ye also trusted . . . in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed.—The insertion of the word “trusted” (suggested by the word “trusted” in the previous verse) is probably erroneous, nor is it easy to find any good substitute for it. It is far better to refer the whole to the one verb, “ye were sealed.” The irregularity of construction (arising from the addition to “hearing” of its proper accessory of “faith,” Romans 10:17) will surprise no one who studies St. Paul’s Epistles, and especially these Epistles of his Captivity, remembering that they were dictated, and in all probability read over again to the Apostle for addition or correction.

After that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation.—There is a contrast hero between the Jewish believers, looking on in hope and gladly embracing its fulfilment, and the Gentiles, who had no such hope, and who therefore waited “for the word of the truth” (the full truth, not veiled in type or symbol), the glad tidings of a present salvation. The greater emphasis laid on the latter process seems intended to impress on the Gentiles a sense of the simpler and fuller means by which they were led to Christ.

After that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise.—The order is to be noted, and compared with the experience of the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:38). First, the light of the gospel shines before men; next, by faith they open their eyes to see it; then they are sealed by a special gift of the Holy Spirit. Such faith is, of course, the gift of God by the Spirit; but our Lord teaches us (John 16:8-13) to distinguish between the pleading of the Holy Spirit with “the world” “to convince of sin, because they believe not in Christ,” and the special gift of His presence in the Church and the believing soul “to guide unto all the truth.” This fuller presence is the seal of the new covenant.

Ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise.—This word “sealed” is found in exactly the same connection in 2Corinthians 1:22. The original idea of this sealing (which, it should be observed, is not of documents, but of men) is best seen in the “sealing of the servants of God in their foreheads,” in Revelation 7:3-8. In that passage, and in the passage of Ezekiel which it recalls (Ezekiel 9:4), the sealing is simply an outward badge, to be at once a pledge and means of safety amidst the destruction coming on the earth. In like sense, circumcision appears to be called “a seal” of previously existing righteousness of faith, in Romans 4:11; and the conversion of the Corinthians “a seal” of St. Paul’s apostleship, in 1Corinthians 9:2. (Comp. also John 3:33; Romans 15:28; 2Timothy 2:19.) But the word is used in a deeper sense whenever it is connected with the gift of the Holy Spirit. Then it corresponds to the “circumcision not made with hands” (Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11); it has the character of a sacrament, and is not a mere badge, but a true means of grace. In this connection we read first of our Lord, “Him God the Father sealed” (John 6:27), with a clear reference to the outpouring of the Holy Spirit at His baptism (comp. John 1:33; John 5:37; John 10:33); next of His people (as here, in Ephesians 4:30, and in 2Corinthians 1:22) as being, like Himself, baptised with the Holy Ghost. In this passage the very title given to the Spirit is significant. He is called (in the curious order of the original) “the Spirit of the Promise, the Holy One.” “The promise” is clearly the promise in the Old Testament (as in Jeremiah 31:31-34; Joel 2:28-32) of the outpouring of the Spirit on all God’s people in “the latter days.” The emphatic position of the epithet “Holy One” seems to point to the effect of His indwelling in the actual sanctification of the soul thus sealed. From this passage was probably derived the ecclesiastical application of the name “seal” to the sacrament of baptism, which is undoubtedly made the seal of conversion in Acts 2:38.

Ephesians 1:13-14. In whom ye, Gentiles, also trusted — Believed and hoped for eternal life; after ye heard the word of truth — The word which reveals and attests most important truth, the faithful saying, (1 Timothy 1:15,) that Jesus of Nazareth is the true Messiah, the Son of God, who came into the world to save sinners; the gospel of your salvation — Which brings the good tidings of salvation to you as well as others: or, which God has made the means of your salvation; in whom after ye believed — Or rather, as πιστευσαντες signifies, having believed; ye were sealed — Probably immediately after believing; with that Holy Spirit of promise — Holy both in his nature and in his operations, and promised to all true believers, to all the children of God. Of the seal and earnest of this Spirit, see the note on 2 Corinthians 1:22, where the apostles are said to have been sealed by the Spirit, and to have the earnest thereof in their hearts. As applied to them, the expressions undoubtedly signified their having received the extraordinary gifts, as well as the sanctifying graces of the Spirit. But here being applied to all the Gentile believers, but few of whom certainly were endowed with these extraordinary gifts, the words can only mean those ordinary influences of the Spirit, whereby they were assured of their adoption and regeneration, were stamped with the image of God, and thereby constituted heirs of the heavenly inheritance, and prepared for the enjoyment of it. This sealing of the Spirit produces, in every man that possesses it, a new nature, whereby he is marked, or declared to be, the son of God; a mark which, as Macknight observes, is to him a stronger evidence of his title to eternal life, than if he possessed the miraculous gifts. See on Matthew 7:22; 1 Corinthians 13:2. How earnest then ought we to be in our endeavours to obtain this important blessing! See also Ephesians 4:30, where believers are said to be sealed with the Holy Spirit to the day of redemption. When this sealing of the Spirit is enjoyed in the most perfect manner, it seems to imply, 1st, A full impression of the image of God on a man’s soul; 2d, A full assurance of his receiving all the promises, whether relating to time or eternity. Which is the earnest

Both a pledge and a foretaste; of our inheritance, in heaven, until the redemption of the purchased possession — Till the church, which he has purchased with his own blood, shall be fully delivered from all sin and sorrow, and advanced to everlasting glory. As the redemption here spoken of includes the redemption of the bodies of Christ’s purchased people from death, by the resurrection, (Romans 8:23,) the earnest of the Spirit, which is to remain in the church, that is, in the hearts of its true members, till that glorious event is accomplished, must be principally those ordinary influences of the Spirit, which produce in believers that holiness which is necessary to fit them for heaven, and that happiness which is an anticipation thereof.1:9-14 Blessings were made known to believers, by the Lord's showing to them the mystery of his sovereign will, and the method of redemption and salvation. But these must have been for ever hidden from us, if God had not made them known by his written word, preached gospel, and Spirit of truth. Christ united the two differing parties, God and man, in his own person, and satisfied for that wrong which caused the separation. He wrought, by his Spirit, those graces of faith and love, whereby we are made one with God, and among ourselves. He dispenses all his blessings, according to his good pleasure. His Divine teaching led whom he pleased to see the glory of those truths, which others were left to blaspheme. What a gracious promise that is, which secures the gift of the Holy Ghost to those who ask him! The sanctifying and comforting influences of the Holy Spirit seal believers as the children of God, and heirs of heaven. These are the first-fruits of holy happiness. For this we were made, and for this we were redeemed; this is the great design of God in all that he has done for us; let all be ascribed unto the praise of his glory.In whom ye also trusted - This stands in contrast with those who had "first" embraced the gospel.

Heard the word of truth - The gospel; called the "word" or message of truth, the word of God, etc. See Romans 10:17. The phrase "the word of truth" means "the true word or message." It was a message unmixed with Jewish traditions or Gentile philosophy.

The gospel of your salvation - The gospel bringing salvation to you.

In whom also - In the Lord Jesus. A little different translation of this verse will convey more clearly its meaning. "In whom also, ye, having heard the word of truth, (the gospel of your salvation,) in whom having also believed, ye were sealed," etc. The sealing was the result of believing, and that was the result of hearing the gospel; compare Romans 10:14-15.

Ye were sealed - On the meaning of the word "seal," see the notes at John 3:33; John 6:27, note. On the phrase "ye were sealed," see the notes on 2 Corinthians 1:22.

With that Holy Spirit of promise - With the Holy Spirit that was promised; see John 16:7-11, John 16:13; John 15:26; John 14:16-17. It is not improbable, I think, that the apostle here refers particularly to the occurrence of which we have a record in Acts 19:1-6. Paul, it is there said, having passed through the upper provinces of Asia Minor, came to Ephesus. He found certain persons who were the disciples of John, and he asked them if they had received the Holy Spirit since they "believed," Ephesians 1:2. They replied that they had not heard whether there was any Holy Spirit, and that they had been baptized unto John's baptism. Paul taught them the true nature of the baptism of John; explained to them the Christian system; and they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus, and "the Holy Spirit came upon them, and they spake with tongues, and prophesied." They were thus sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise, "after they had believed" Ephesians 1:13; they had the full evidence of the favor of God in the descent of the promised Holy Spirit, and in his miraculous influences. If this be the true interpretation, it constitutes a striking coincidence between the Epistle and the Acts , of such a nature as constitute the arguments in Paley's "Horae Paulinae" (though he has not referred to this), which shows that the Epistle was not forged. The circumstance is such that it would not have been alluded to in this manner by one who should forge the Epistle; and the mention of it in the Epistle is so slight, that no one, from the account there, would think of forging the account in the Acts . The coincidence is just such as would occur on the supposition that the transaction actually occurred, and that both the Acts and the Epistle are genuine. At the same time, there is a sealing of the Holy Spirit which is common to all Christians; see the notes referred to on 2 Corinthians 1:22.

13. In whom ye also—Ye Gentiles. Supply as English Version, "trusted," from Eph 1:12; or "are." The priority of us Jews does not exclude you Gentiles from sharing in Christ (compare Ac 13:46).

the word of truth—the instrument of sanctification, and of the new birth (Joh 17:17; 2Ti 2:15; Jas 1:18). Compare Col 1:5, where also, as here, it is connected with "hope." Also Eph 4:21.

sealed—as God's confirmed children, by the Holy Spirit as the seal (Ac 19:1-6; Ro 8:16, 23; 1Jo 3:24; see on [2360]2Co 1:22). A seal impressed on a document gives undoubted validity to the contract in it (Joh 3:33; 6:27; compare 2Co 3:3). So the sense of "the love of God shed abroad in the heart by the Holy Ghost" (Ro 5:5), and the sense of adoption given through the Spirit at regeneration (Ro 8:15, 16), assure believers of God's good will to them. The Spirit, like a seal, impresses on the soul at regeneration the image of our Father. The "sealing" by the Holy Spirit is spoken of as past once for all. The witnessing to our hearts that we are the children of God, and heirs (Eph 1:11), is the Spirit's present testimony, the "earnest of the (coming) inheritance" (Ro 8:16-18).

that Holy Spirit of promise—rather, as the Greek, "The Spirit of promise, even the Holy Spirit": The Spirit promised both in the Old and New Testaments (Joe 2:28; Zec 12:10; Joh 7:38, 39). "The word" promised the Holy Spirit. Those who "believed the word of truth" were sealed by the Spirit accordingly.

In whom ye also; here is a defect of the verb in the Greek, which may be supplied either from Ephesians 1:11, which seems to be the principal verb in the sentence, and then it must be read: In whom ye also have obtained an inheritance; or from Ephesians 1:12, trusted, which is the nearest verb; so our translation:

In whom ye also trusted; but neither way makes any difference in the scope of the words.

Ye; ye Ephesians and other Gentiles.

The word of truth; the gospel, so called, either:

1. By a usual Hebraism, from the true word; or:

2. By way of eminency, as containing the most excellent and necessary of all truths, the doctrine of righteousness and life by Jesus Christ; or:

3. With respect to the law and its shadows, the truth and substance of which is held forth in the gospel.

The gospel of your salvation: both in respect of the matter contained in it, the doctrine of salvation, and in respect of its efficiency, as being the means whereby God works faith, and brings to salvation, Romans 1:12 Hebrews 2:3.

In whom also after that ye believed; in whom either is to be referred to believers; q.d. After ye believed in Christ: or to sealing; and then it shows by virtue of whom this benefit of sealing is bestowed, viz. by virtue of Christ.

Ye were sealed with that holy Spirit; ye were secured and ascertained of your right to the inheritance; which we may understand to be done either by the Spirit’s impressing upon the soul the image of God in the work of regeneration, or (because that cannot so well be understood to be after believing) rather by his testimony in men’s own consciences afterward; whether immediate, by an overpowering light shining into the soul, and filling it with assurance of its interest in Christ and heaven; or mediate, enabling a man to discern that image of God in his soul, by which the Spirit bears witness to his interest in the inheritance, and assures him of it: see Ephesians 4:30 Romans 8:16 Galatians 4:6.

Of promise; because the Spirit’s coming was before promised, or because he verifies and confirms the promises in and to the hearts of believers. In whom ye also trusted,.... The Gentile believers, the Ephesians, whom the apostle now particularly addresses; and who participated of the same grace and privileges with the believing Jews; the promise belonged to all that God called, whether afar off or nigh; and the same common salvation was sent to one as to another; and the same faith was wrought in one as in the other; and they were interested in the same Christ, and were heirs of the same inheritance; the Alexandrian copy reads "we":

after that ye heard the word of truth; the Gospel; and which is so called, on account of its divine original, coming from the God of truth, who cannot lie; and because of the concern which Christ has in it, who is truth itself, and was the author, subject, and preacher of it, and who confirmed it by his miracles, and his death; and on account of the Spirit of God, the dictator of it, and who leads into all truths, and owns and blesses them for conversion and comfort; and because it contains nothing but truth, and particularly that eminent one, salvation alone by Christ, for the chief of sinners; and in contradistinction from the law, which was typical and shadowy; , "the word of truth", is a phrase used by the Jews (e), for sublime and heavenly doctrine: now, by the hearing of this, faith came; and this the Ephesians heard, not only externally, but internally; so as to understand, approve, and believe it, and to put it in practice: and which is also called

the Gospel of your salvation: because it is a declaration and publication of salvation by Christ; and gives an account of the author of salvation, of his ability and willingness to save, and of the nature of this salvation, and describes the persons who shall be saved; and because it is the means of salvation, when attended with the Spirit and power of God; and the instrument, in God's hand, of showing to souls their special and particular interest in salvation:

in whom also after that ye believed; which may refer either to the Gospel of salvation, in which they believed upon hearing it; or rather to Christ, the Saviour revealed, in whom they believed to the saving of their souls: and this shows, that the sealing work of the Spirit after mentioned, and with which this stands in connection, is a distinct thing from faith, or indeed any other work of the Spirit; as illumination, regeneration, sanctification, &c. it is what follows believing, and is a work that passes upon the soul after it; and so is something over and above, and more than faith, at least than first believing: and from hence it also appears, that there may be true faith, where this is not as yet; and that none but believers in Christ enjoy the following privilege:

ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise. This cannot have respect to the Father's sealing his people in election, with the seal of his foreknowledge, 2 Timothy 2:19 for that is before faith, and is within himself, and not on them, and is distinct from the Spirit's work; and for the same reasons it cannot design the Son's affection to them, setting them as a seal on his arm and heart, Sol 8:6, or his asserting his property in them, and the security and protection of them, Sol 4:12, nor the Spirit's finishing and completing his own work of grace upon the soul, in which sense the word is used, Romans 15:28 for this as yet was not done upon these believing Ephesians; nor the confirming the Gospel, and the saints in it, by the extraordinary effusion of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost, or by his extraordinary works which attended the ministry of the word, to the establishing of it, and the faith of men in it; since these were not common to believers, nor did they continue; whereas the believing Ephesians, in common, were sealed; and the Spirit of God continues still as a sealer of his people, and as an earnest and pledge of their inheritance until the day of redemption; but it is to be understood of the confirming, certifying, and assuring the saints, as to their interest in the favour of God, and in the blessings of grace, of every kind, and their right and title to the heavenly glory; See Gill on 2 Corinthians 1:22, and the seal of these things is not circumcision, nor baptism, nor the Lord's supper, nor even the graces of the Spirit; but the Spirit himself, who witnesses to the spirits of believers the truth of these things, and that as a "spirit of promise": so called, both because he is the Spirit promised, as the Syriac and Ethiopic versions render it, whom the Father and Christ had promised, and who was sent by them; and because he usually seals, or certifies believers of the truth of the above things, by opening and applying a word of promise to them: and which he does also, as the "Holy" Spirit; for this sealing work of his leaves a greater impress of holiness upon the soul, and engages more to acts of holiness; wherefore the doctrine of assurance is no licentious doctrine; no persons are so holy as those who are truly possessed of that grace; and as for such who pretend unto it, and live in sin, it is a certain thing that they in reality know nothing of it.

(e) Zohar in Numb. fol. 76. 3.

{16} In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the {q} word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were {r} sealed with that holy {s} Spirit of promise,

(16) Now he makes the Ephesians (or rather all the Gentiles) equal to the Jews, because even though they came last, being called by the same Gospel, they embraced faith, and were sealed up with the same Spirit, who is the pledge of election, until the inheritance itself is seen. And this is so that in them also the glory of God might shine forth and be manifested.

(q) That word which is truth indeed, because it comes from God.

(r) This is a metaphor taken of a seal, which being put on anything, distinguishes between those things which are authentic, and those things which are not.

(s) With the Spirit, who does not bring the Law, but the promise of free adoption.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Ephesians 1:13, so that ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς leads over to the second constituent element (you Gentile-Christians).

As regards the construction, it is regarded by Wolf, Bengel, Morus, and others (comp. already Jerome), including Rückert, Matthies, Holzhausen, de Wette, Bleek, Bisping, as anacoluthic; the ἐν ᾧ of the second half of the verse is held to resume the first. Incorrectly, since in the resumption καὶ ὑμεῖς would have been essential. As Paul has written the passage (καὶ πιστεύσ.), there is added to what has previously been affirmed of the ὑμεῖς (ἀκούσαντες), a new affirmation; hence ἐν ᾧ κ. πιστ. κ.τ.λ. is the continuation, not the resumption of the discourse. The verb after ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς is therefore to be supplied; not, however, ἠλπίκατε (Erasmus in his version, Beza, Castalio, Calvin, Estius, and others), since in fact the preceding προηλπικότας—which, besides, was only an appositional constituent element of the discourse—would yield προηλπίκατε, which is inapplicable to the Gentile-Christians; nor yet ἐκληρώθητε (Erasmus, Paraphr.; Piscator, Zanchius, Cornelius a Lapide, Boyd, Vorstius, Zachariae, Koppe, and others, including Meier, Harless, Olshausen), since ἐκληρώθημεν, Ephesians 1:11, already embraced the Jewish and Gentile Christians, and with εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς κ.τ.λ. a new portion of the development sets in. The right course is merely to supply mentally the substantive verb, in accordance with the current expression ἐν Χριστῷ εἶναι, to belong to Christ as the element of life, in which one exists. Hence: in whom also ye are. Thus Paul paves the way for his transition to the Gentile-Christians, in order, after first specifying how it was that they had become such (Ephesians 1:13-14), finally to assert of them also the εἰς ἔπαινον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ (Ephesians 1:14).

ἀκούσαντες τὸν λόγ. τῆς ἀληθ.] after ye have heard the word (the preaching) of the truth; for after this hearing there set in with them the ἐν Χριστῷ εἶναι. The truth κατʼ ἐξοχήν is the contents of the λόγος. But a contrast to the types and shadows of the O. T. (Chrysostom), or to heathen error (Cornelius a Lapide, Baumgarten; Grotius thinks of both), is not implied in the context. Comp. Colossians 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:15.

τὸ εὐαγγ. τ. σωτηρ. ὑμ.] descriptive apposition to λόγος τῆς ἀληθ. The genitive here also denotes the contents; that which is made known in the gospel is the Messianic salvation. Harless takes both genitives as genitives appositionis, inasmuch as the gospel is the truth and the σωτηρία. The gospel, however, is not the salvation, but an exertion of the power of God, which leads to salvation (Romans 1:16; 1 Corinthians 1:18); the analogous combinations, too, of τὸ εὐαγγ. with a genit. abstract., as τὸ εὐαγγ. τῆς χάριτος τ. Θεοῦ (Acts 20:24), τῆς εἰρήνης (Ephesians 6:15), τῆς βασιλείας, are opposed to the assumption of a genit. apposit. Comp. on Mark 1:1. Finally, the context also, by ἀκούσαντες and πιστεύσαντες, points not to what the doctrine is, but to what it proclaims. Comp. Romans 10:14.

ἐν ᾧ καὶ πιστεύσαντες κ.τ.λ.] A further stage of the setting forth how they became what they were, in order to reach its goal εἰς ἔπαινον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ, Ephesians 1:14. Precisely with regard to the Gentile-Christians, who had previously been aloof from all theocratic connection (no προηλπικότες ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ), the apostle feels himself impelled not to be content with the simple “in whom also ye are, after ye have heard the gospel,” but specially to bring into relief the sealing of the Holy Spirit.

ἐν ᾧ] is referred not merely by those who regard it as resumptive (see above), but also by many others with Luther (including Harless, Meier, Olshausen, Baumgarten-Crusius, Schenkel), to Christ; but why should we pass over the nearest antecedent? The καί finds its reference, agreeably to the context, in the accession of the faith to the hearing (Romans 10:14; 1 Corinthians 15:1). Hence ἐν ᾧ is to be referred, with Castalio, Calvin, Beza, Erasmus Schmid, and others (comp. Erasmus, Paraphr.), to τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, and to be joined, with Castalio, to πιστεύσαντες, not to ἐσφραγίσθ. (as usually), according to which πιστεύσ. would be superfluous,[105] and the periodic flow of the discourse would be injuriously affected. Hence: in which ye having become believers, were sealed through the Holy Spirit. As to πιστεύειν ἐν (Mark 1:15), see on Galatians 3:26.

πιστεύσαντες] is not to be taken, with Harless, as contemporaneous with ἐσφραγ. (see on Ephesians 1:5; Ephesians 1:9); but it contains that which was prior to the σφραγίζεσθαι. The order of conversion was: hearing, faith, baptism, reception of the Spirit. See Acts 2:37; Acts 8:12; Acts 8:17; Acts 19:5-6; Romans 6:3-4; Titus 3:5 f.; Galatians 3:2; Galatians 4:6. Certainly even the becoming a believer is not the work of human self-determination (see Acts 16:14; Php 1:29; Romans 12:3 relates to the measure of faith of the baptized); yet this divine operation is only preparatory, and the effusion of the Spirit, properly so called, ensued only after baptism:[106] hence water and Spirit (John 3:5).

ἐσφαγίσθητε] were sealed, i.e. confirmed, namely, as κληρονόμοι of the Messianic kingdom. See what follows. Comp. Ephesians 4:30, and see on 2 Corinthians 1:22; John 3:33. This sealing is the indubitable guarantee of the future Messianic salvation received in one’s own consciousness (Romans 8:16) through the Holy Spirit, not the attestation before others (ὥστε εἶναι δῆλον, ὅτι Θεοῦ ἔστε λάχος κ. κλῆρος, Theophylact; comp. Chrysostom, Cornelius a Lapide, Flatt, Holzhausen, and others). An allusion has been arbitrarily found in ἐσφραγ. to circumcision (Romans 4:11), or to the στίγματα of heathen ceremonies (Grotius assumes both: “non extra signati estis in cute, quomodo Judaei circumcisi et Graecorum idolorum punctis notati”), nay, even to the σφραγίς Dianae, with which those initiated into her mysteries were marked (Amelius; comp. note on Galatians 6:17).

τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελ.] Dativus instrumentalis, and τῆς ἐπαγγ. is genitivus qualitatis, denoting the promise as characteristic of the Holy Spirit, for He is, in fact, the Spirit promised in the O. T. (Acts 2:16 ff.; Joel 3:1-5; Zechariah 12:10; Isaiah 32:15; Isaiah 44:3; Ezekiel 36:26Ephesians 1:13. ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς: in whom ye also. The reading ἡμεῖς appears in certain manuscripts of importance ([68] [69] [70] [71]3, e, f, g, etc.); but the weight of documenttary authority is greatly on the side of ὑμεῖς. Taking, therefore, the καὶ ὑμεῖς, as contrasted with the previous ἡμᾶς, to refer to the readers of the Epistle as Gentiles in distinction from the writer and those whom he couples with himself as having formerly been Jews, we have in this verse and the following a paragraph which gives first a description of the evangelical standing and experience of Gentile Christians such as these Ephesians were, and then a statement of the fact that, in their case as in that of the others, God’s ultimate end in His gracious dealing with them was the praise of His glory. The opening clause, however, presents some difficulty. The sentence is left with something unexpressed, or its form is disturbed. How is it to be construed? It is natural to think first of explaining it by supplying some verb for the ὑμεῖς, and as the substantive verb is often left to be understood, some introduce ἐστέ here = “in whom ye also are,” “in whom ye also have a part” (Mey., Alf.). But the great Pauline formula ἐν Χριστῷ εἶναι can scarcely be dealt with thus, the εἶναι in it has too profound a sense to allow of its being dropped and left to be understood as is possible with the ordinary substantive verb. Others, therefore, look to the immediately preceding προηλπικότας for the word that is to be supplied (Erasm. Calv., Beza, Est., etc.; and so AV “in whom ye also trusted”). But to make this applicable to Gentile believers requires us (unless the Second Advent is supposed to be the object of the hope) to supply only ἠλπίκατε not προηλπίκατε, and to give the verb the modified sense of trusting or believing. Much more may be said in favour of supplying the definite verb ἐκληρώθημεν which rules the larger sentence (Erasm. in his Paraphrase, Cornel, a Lap., Harl., Olsh., etc.) = “in whom ye also were made God’s κλῆρος, or possession”. The comparative distance of the ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς from ἐκληρώθητε is no serious objection, especially in view of the fact that it is the definite verb, and not a qualifying participle, that is in view. There remains, however, yet another method of explanation, viz., to regard the sentence as an interrupted construction, in which the expression of the main thought, that of the ἐσφραγίσθητε, is delayed by other preliminary ideas, the second ἐν ᾦ being a resumption and continuation of the first (Theod. Mops., Jer., Beng., De Wette, Rück., Bleek, Bisp., Ell., Humphrey, Abb., Von Sod., Haupt). This solution of the difficulty appears on the whole to be the best, and it has been preferred by the majority of interpreters. It seems to be favoured by the Syr., Copt. and Eth. Versions, and is adopted by the RV—“in whom ye also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation—in whom, having also believed, ye were sealed”. The interruption of the regular construction in the statement of the fact of their having been “sealed” appears to be caused by the introduction of the idea of the primary Christian requirement of faith after the mention of the hearing. It is objected that the distance between the one ἐν ᾧ and the other is much less than is usual in such cases, and that in a resumption we should expect not ἐν ᾧ καί, but ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς. But anacoloutha are quite in Paul’s way, and they are not all of one type or one extension (cf. Win.-Moul., p. 704), and the καί (minus the ὑμεῖς) is appropriate as giving an ascensive force to the πιστεύσαντες. This view of the construction has the advantage also of enabling us to retain substantially the same sense for the ἐν ᾧ in these three occurrences (Ephesians 1:11; Ephesians 1:13), and it makes the defining participles ἀκούσαντες (with its clause) and πιστεύσαντες important preparations for the statement of privilege in the ἐσφραγίσθητε, each contributing something proper in its own place to the order of ideas. Hence both the first ἐν ᾧ and the second are to be connected with the ἐσφραγίσηθητε = “in whom, on hearing and believing, ye were sealed”; it being in Christ, in virtue of our union with Him, that we receive the gift of the Spirit.—ἀκούσαντες: having heard (or, on hearing). This comes in its proper order, the first in the series of things, preparing the way for the sealing of the Spirit. In the narratives of cases of reception into the Christian Church in the Book of Acts we discover this order of grace: hearing, repentance, baptism, the gift of the Holy Ghost (Acts 2:37-38), or hearing, faith, baptism, the gift of the Holy Ghost (Acts 8:6; Acts 8:12; Acts 8:17). Yet this is not an invariable order. Sometimes only hearing, baptism, and the gift of the Holy Ghost (Acts 19:5-6) are mentioned; and in such instances as those of Paul (Acts 9:17) and the men of Cæsarea (Acts 10:44-47), the gift of the Holy Ghost appears to have preceded the administration of baptism. On the importance of hearing, that is, access to the preached word, cf. Romans 10:13-17, where the πιστεύειν is declared to come by the ἀκούειν.—τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας: the word of the truth. The λόγος here is evidently the word of preaching, and it is said to be “of the truth,” not with any particular reference, as Meyer justly observes, to the OT word as one that dealt with types and shadows rather than realities (Chrys.), or to the word of heathenism as the word of error (Corn. a Lap., etc.), but in the sense in which our Lord Himself spoke of the truth and the word (John 17:17; cf. Colossians 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:15; Jam 2:17). The gen. is not that of apposition (Harl.), but the gen. objecti, “the word concerning the truth;” or, as Ell. suggests, the gen. of ethical substance or ethical content, “the word of which the truth is the very essence, or content”.—τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς σωτηρίας ὑμῶν: the gospel of your salvation. Further definition of “the word of the truth”. The preached word which has the truth for its essential content is that which brought you the good tidings of salvation. Here, again, the gen. is not that of appos. or identity (Harl., etc.), but most probably that of content or subject matter (Mey., Ell., etc.). Elsewhere we have the εὐαγγέλιον defined as that of the Kingdom (Matthew 9:35), of God (Romans 1:1), of the Kingdom of God (Mark 1:14), of Christ, Jesus Christ, His Son, etc. (Romans 1:1; Romans 1:9; Romans 1:16; Mark 1:1), of peace (Ephesians 6:15), of the grace of God (Acts 20:24), of the glory of the blessed God (1 Timothy 1:11), of the glory of Christ (2 Corinthians 4:4). Nowhere in the NT is the word εὐαγγέλιον used so frequently and in such a variety of applications as in the Pauline Epistles. It is never used in Luke’s Gospel, in John’s Gospel or Epistles, in Hebrews, or in James; in Matthew’s Gospel it occurs four times, in Mark eight times, in Acts twice, in Peter once, and in the Apocalypse once. The noun σωτηρία, which has so large a place in the rest of the Pauline writings, is of rare occurrence in these Epistles of the Captivity. It is found thrice in the Epistle to the Philippians, but only once in this profound Epistle to the Ephesians (in Ephesians 6:17 we have the other form τὸ σωτήριον), and not even once in the sister Epistle to the Colossians.—ἐν ᾧ:—in whom, I say. With the former ἐν ᾧ the writer turned from the case of those like himself who, having been Jews, had been made God’s κλῆρος in Christ, to that of Gentiles like these Ephesians who also had been made partakers of God’s grace in Christ, though in a different way, not as having had the hope of the Jews in a promised Messiah, but simply as having heard the word of Christian preaching. The particular gift of grace which it was in his mind to state as bestowed on these Gentile Christians was the sealing of the Spirit. With this second ἐν ᾧ, “—in whom, I say,” he takes up the statement which had been interrupted by the mention of the way in which they had come to receive the grace, and brings it (with a further reference to the antecedents to the sealing) to its intended conclusion. This ἐν ᾧ, therefore, is not to be dealt with differently from the former and made to relate to the εὐαγγέλιον, as if = “in which Gospel having also believed, ye were sealed” (Mey.). It simply continues the idea of the previous ἐν ᾧ, expressing the fact that the grace which came to the Gentile who heard the word of preaching, like the grace which came to the Jew who had the Messianic hope, was bestowed “in Christ,” and had its ground in Him.—καὶ πιστεύσαντες: having also believed. The καί belongs not to an implied ὑμεῖς but to the πιστεύσαντες. It is the ascensive καί, adding to the first condition of hearing the second and higher of believing. The object of the πιστεύσαντες is the previous λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας, “having also believed that word of preaching;” not the , “believing also in whom” (Calv., Bez., Mey.). In Biblical Greek the phrase πιστεύειν ἔν τινι is of very rare occurrence, especially in the sense of believing or confiding in a person (Psalm 78:22; Jeremiah 12:6). In Mark 1:1 it has τὸ εὐαγγέλιον as the object. In John 3:15 both the reading and the connection are uncertain; in John 16:30 the idea is “by this”. The πιστεύσαντες here expresses something prior to the fact conveyed by the definite verb, not contemporaneous with it (Harl.). The sealing was in Christ (ἐν ᾧ), and it followed on their πίστις.—ἐσφραγίσθητε: ye were sealed. The verb σφραγίζειν (= חָתַס) in the NT expresses several distinct ideas, e.g., confirming or authenticating (John 3:32; John 6:27; cf. σφραγίς in Romans 4:11; 1 Corinthians 9:2); securing (Matthew 27:66; Revelation 20:3); keeping secret (Revelation 10:4; Revelation 22:10; cf. σφραγίς in Revelation 5:1-2; Revelation 5:5; Revelation 5:9; Revelation 6:1; Revelation 8:1, etc.); marking as one’s possession or as destined for something (Revelation 8:3-8; cf. σφραγίς in 2 Timothy 3:4; Revelation 9:4). Here and in Ephesians 4:30 the idea seems to be either that of authenticating or certifying them to be of God’s heritage, or that of marking them as such. The two ideas are near akin. The latter will be more applicable, if (with Theophyl., Chrys., Cornel. a Lap., Alf., etc.) we take the attestation to be the objective attestation to others, the evidence to our fellows that we are the chosen of God; the former, if (with Mey., Ell., etc.) we take it to be the attestation to our own consciousness. This hope or assurance which is given to ourselves seems rather in view here (cf. Romans 8:16). There is no reason to suppose that there is any allusion here to any peculiar use of the seal whether in Jewish custom or in heathen religious service. Nor is the rite of Baptism specially referred to. In ecclesiastical Greek, indeed, baptism came to be denoted by the term σφραγίς; but there is no instance of that in the NT. The terms σφραγίς, σφραγίζειν, are used in the Pauline Epistles of circumcision (Romans 4:11), of the contribution from Macedonia and Achaia (Romans 15:28), of the Corinthians as the witnesses to Paul’s apostleship (1 Corinthians 9:2), of the inward certification of believers (2 Corinthians 1:22; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:30), and of the destination or ownership of the Church or congregation of believers (2 Timothy 2:19).—τῶ Πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ: with the Holy Spirit of promise. The Spirit is that by which (instrumental dative) the sealing is effected; and that Spirit is called the Spirit of promise, not in the active sense of bringing or confirming the promise (Calv., Bez., etc.), but in the passive sense of having been announced by the promise, or being the object or content of the promise in the OT. The τῷ ἁγίῳ, thrown emphatically to the end of the clause, designates the Spirit solemnly in respect of the essential personal quality of holiness. Taken together with the general tenor of the paragraph and with the fact that in the ὑμεῖς Gentile Christians as a whole are addressed, and not any select number or class, it is clear that what is in view here is not the extraordinary or miraculous gifts of the Spirit, but that bestowal of the Spirit in which all believers shared, which was the subject of the great OT prophecies (Joel 3:1-5; Isaiah 32:15; Isaiah 44:3; Ezekiel 36:26; Ezekiel 39:29; Zechariah 12:10), and of which a new heart, a new spirit, was to be the result.

[68] Codex Alexandrinus (sæc. v.), at the British Museum, published in photographic facsimile by Sir E. M. Thompson (1879).

[69] Codex Mosquensis (sæc. ix.), edited by Matthæi in 1782.

[70] Codex Angelicus (sæc. ix.), at Rome, collated by Tischendorf and others.

[71] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.13. In whom ye also trusted] Here then (see last note) the thought moves from the general case of Christians to the particular case of the Ephesian Christians; “we” includes “you.” The verb “trusted” is supplied by A. V. In R. V. we have:—“In Whom ye also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation—in Whom, having also believed, ye were sealed.” Here the second “in Whom” is treated as the resumption and repetition of the first, and the verb “ye were sealed” is connected with both. But a simpler explanation than either is possible;—“In Whom [are] ye also, having heard, &c.” And this adapts itself well to the repeated “in Whom”; as if to say, “In Whom you enjoy acceptance, attained by your reception of the message of salvation; in Whom further you experienced the special ‘seal’ of the Spirit”—as an additional aspect of the privilege of union with Christ. But the grammatical difficulty does not affect the main import of the verse.

after that ye heard] Better, on hearing; without the strong suggestion of sequence of time given by A. V. On the all-importance of “hearing,” in order to salvation, cp. Romans 10:14. The hearing may of course be literally with the ear, or not; but it must be the reception ab extra of a message, no mere result of thought or aspiration.

of truth] Better, perhaps, of the truth; the Eternal Verity of Christ. So often in N. T. “truth” is truth not in general but in special; spiritual truth, Christian truth (cp. John 16:13, where lit. “He shall guide you into all the truth”); a thing in harmony, of course, with all truth, scientific or other, but capable of being quite separately studied.

salvation] The one place in the Epistle where the Gr. noun occurs; another noun being used Ephesians 6:17; which see. On the threefold aspect of “salvation” in Scripture see on Ephesians 2:5.

In whom also, &c.] Better, In Whom moreover, on believing, ye were sealed, &c. The Gr. does not forbid the rendering, “on believing in Whom;” but this demands an unusual construction.—The Christian is here viewed as “sealed in Christ;” that is, as receiving a Divine attestation of his union with his Lord.

On believing:—better than “after believing,” because the Gr. does not emphasize sequence. It rather combines into one idea the facts of the faith and the seal. In experience, the latter might markedly follow the former; but not necessarily in the Divine ideal.

sealed] So again Ephesians 4:30; and cp. 2 Corinthians 1:22. The idea of the phrase is a double one; attestation of reality (cp. John 3:33; Romans 4:11; 1 Corinthians 9:2), and claim of property (cp. Romans 15:28). “The Spirit” was at once the proof of the presence of Divine faith in the recipient, and the mark of Divine ownership over him. The latter view is the leading one in Ephesians 4:30. In the Fathers, the word “seal” is a frequent equivalent for Baptism; one explanation (given by Gregory of Nazianzus, cent. 4) being that Baptism was the “badge of lordship;” the mark of the Lord’s ownership. In the N. T. however the reference is plainly to something usually subsequent to Baptism, and we turn for illustration to the Acts. There we find many cases in which baptized converts receive supernatural powers, visible (Acts 8:18) in their effects; which gifts in 1 Corinthians 12:14 are treated as things preeminently (in a certain sense) spiritual, the work of the Spirit. We find as a fact that these powers were conferred not in the ordinary ministry of the Church but in special connexion with the Apostles; at least, no clear case is to the contrary. So it is in Samaria (Acts 8:14-18); at Cæsarea (Acts 10:44-46); at Ephesus (Acts 19:5-6). We do not find e.g. Philip the Evangelist (Acts 8) conveying these gifts. Ananias (Acts 9:17) apparently does so to Saul at Damascus; but the circumstances in that case are unique. As a fact, the possession of Spiritual Gifts, in this sense, became early rare; a phenomenon falling in with this limitation of conveyance. And in one remarkable passage (1 Corinthians 13:8) we have inspired intimation that they were meant to cease. On these manifestations it will be here enough to remark that it is impossible in all details to lay down a precise theory, for instance as to the demarcation of the “gifts” from the “ordinary” graces of faith, hope and love, things equally due, in their regenerate exercise, to Divine agency; while on the other hand we soon, in observation, practically reach a point where the “gifts” and the “graces” (to use convenient though inexact terms) diverge. The connexion is always close, for both are effects of the same Power; the difference is real, for the “gifts” are limited by many circumstances, and are rather means to ends than ends, while the “graces” are universal and essential in the regenerate character, and in fact constitute that character, and are thus true ends. Cp. especially 1 Corinthians 12:31; 1 Corinthians 13:1-2; 1 Corinthians 14:22.

that holy Spirit of promise] Lit. the Spirit of the promise, the Holy One; the Personal Paraclete, the great burthen of the promises of the Son (Luke 11:13; John 7:39; John 14:16; John 14:26; John 15:26, &c.), and of the Father (Luke 24:49; Acts 1:4-5).Ephesians 1:13. , in Whom) To be referred to in Christ, Ephesians 1:12, or to in Him, Ephesians 1:10.—ἀκούσαντες, having heard) The sense is suspended,[13] till the participle having believed [“after that ye believed”], which is correlative to having heard, be added.—τῆς ἀληθείας, of the truth) Hence it is called the hearing of faith. The mention of truth occurs again, ch. Ephesians 4:15; Ephesians 4:21; Ephesians 4:24-25; Ephesians 5:9; Ephesians 6:14.—ἐν ᾧ καὶ, in whom also) In whom, after the intervening clause, is here taken up again; comp. in Himself, Ephesians 1:10, note.—ἐσφραγίσθητεὄς ἐστιν ἀῤῥαβὼν, you were sealed—who is the earnest) 2 Corinthians 1:22, note.—τῷ Πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ, with the Holy Spirit of promise) The Holy Spirit was promised by the word; therefore when the Holy Spirit was given, those who believed the word were sealed; and those who have the Holy Spirit, know that every promise will be fulfilled to them.

[13] Ἐν ᾧ, at the beginning of the ver., is not, as Engl. Vers. takes it, governed by ἠλπίκατε, ye trusted, understood from the previous ver., but by πιστεύσαντες below.—ED.Verse 13. - In whom are ye also, having heard the word of the truth, the good news of your salvation. A.V. has "in whom ye also trusted," or hoped, supplying a verb from προηλπικότας ιν ´ερ. 13, but without the prefix. This seems hardly natural, because the prefix πρὸ is characteristic and emphatic in ver. 12. It is a much less strain to supply simply ἐστὲ, the important point being that you are now in him - in Christ. This expression, "in Christ," is one of the hinges of the Epistle; it occurs times almost without number, denoting the intimate vital union through faith between Christ and his people, as of the members to the head, in virtue of which they not only get the benefit of his atonement, but share his vital influences, live by faith on the Son of God. Having heard and received the truth as it is in Jesus, the glad tidings of salvation through a crucified Jesus, they became one with him, just as freely as did the believing Jews, and to the same blessed effects. More than that - in whom also having believed, ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise; thus receiving a new ground for thankfulness, a new proof of the riches of the grace of God. Many explain this seal of baptism, which undoubtedly seals Christ and all his blessings to believers. But though the seal of the Holy Spirit may have been given in and with baptism, it is not identical with baptism. The impression of it is partly within believers and partly without. Within, it is the felt result of the working of the Holy Spirit - the feeling of satisfaction and delight in the work and person of Christ, of love, confidence, and joy flowing out toward God, and the desire and endeavor in all things to be conformed to his will. Without, it is the fruit of the Spirit, the new man, created in righteousness and holiness after the image of Christ. Within, the Spirit bears witness with their spirits; without, the transformed life corroborates the inward witness, and gives it to the world. The first is never complete without the second, nor the second without the first. The spiritual history of believers is thus presented:

(1) hearing the truth;

(2) believing;

(3) being sealed.

The Spirit is called the Spirit of the promise, because he is often promised in the Old Testament (Isaiah 32:15; Ezekiel 36:27; Joel 3:1, etc.). Ye also trusted

Gentile Christians. Trusted, which is not in the Greek, is unnecessary. The pronoun ye is nominative to were sealed.

In whom

Resuming the in whom at the beginning of the verse, and repeated on account of the length of the clause.

Ye were sealed (ἐσφραγίσθητε)

See on John 3:33; see on Revelation 22:10. Sealed with the assurance of the Holy Spirit. Romans 8:16; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Timothy 2:19.

Spirit of promise

Strictly, the promise. Denoting the promise as characteristic of the Holy Spirit: the Spirit which was announced by promise. See Acts 2:16 sqq.; Joel 2:28; Zechariah 12:10; Isaiah 32:15; Isaiah 44:3; John 7:39; Acts 1:4-8; Galatians 3:14.

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