Luke 5
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And it came to pass, that, as the people pressed upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Gennesaret,
Luke 5:1. Ἐγένετο δὲ, moreover it came to pass) This is in close connection with ch. Luke 4:44.[54]—ἐπικεῖσθαι) The people pressed upon Him. Hence is evidenced the patient endurance of the Saviour.

[54] Beng. seems to have subsequently adopted a different opinion, when both in the later Edition of the New Testament he began the fifth chapter with a larger capital letter, to indicate a greater division between it and the last verses of ch. 4; and in the Harm. Ev. he has set down the incidents which are given in ch. Luke 4:42-44, after those which we have in ch. Luke 5:1, etc., as we may see l. c. § 48, compared with § 35, 36. But as to Transpositions—viz. those which are to be especially attributed to Luke—I should like any one, who desires a brief and powerful suggestion of advice, to weigh well what Beng. has said in his Ordo Temp., pp. 242, 243 (Ed. ii. pp. 211, 212).—E. B.

And saw two ships standing by the lake: but the fishermen were gone out of them, and were washing their nets.
Luke 5:2. Ἁλεῖς, the fishermen) So they are called, as if being still regarded as strangers to Jesus.—ἀπέπλυναν, washed) inasmuch as their work was done.

And he entered into one of the ships, which was Simon's, and prayed him that he would thrust out a little from the land. And he sat down, and taught the people out of the ship.
Luke 5:3. Ὃ ἦν, which was) Even then already his privilege of priority was given to Simon. [The other ship was that of Zebedee.—V. g.]—ἠρώτησεν) begged, as being not yet intimate with Him. [It seems that in different cases He used a different way of asking: for instance, Mark 3:9; Luke 19:5; Matthew 21:2-3; Matthew 26:18. Therefore it is not altogether likely that the call which we read of in Matthew 4:18-19, and in Mark 1:16-17, combined with the cure of Peter’s mother-in-law (Mark 1:30; Matthew 8:14 : comp. Luke 4:38), was prior to this call of Simon, related here by Luke.[55]—Harm., p. 211.] The Lord does not immediately promise to them the draught of fishes: He first puts to the proof the obedience of Simon.—ἐπαναγαγεῖν) to thrust back again. So Luke 5:4, and Matthew 21:18. The prepositions have the same force in ἐπάνειμι, ἐπανέρχομαι, ἐπανήκω, ἐπανακάμπτω, κ.τ.λ. (viz. again, or back again).

[55] Consult, however, Birks’ Horæ Evangelicæ, in which the probability is shown, that the call of Simon, recorded Matthew 4:18, Mark 1:16, preceded this call, Luke 5:1, when the Lord, after the first preparatory call, now, at the close of the intervening circuit of Galilee, ch. Luke 4:44, Matthew 4:23, by the striking miracle, Luke 5:8-9, draws Simon into closer and more permanent union with Him. The call here comes after, that in Mark and Matt. before, Simon’s mother-in-law is cured. As to the word ἠρώτησεν here, there is nothing in it inconsistent with His having given Simon the preparatory call previously: He asks a favour from Simon, as one already a disciple.—ED. and TRANSL.

Now when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught.
Luke 5:4. Εἰς τὸ βάθος, into the deep) This is more than the ὀλίγον, a little, Luke 5:3.—εἰς ἄγραν, for a draught) The promise. We may compare this fishing with that recorded in John 21:3; John 21:6, etc.

And Simon answering said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net.
Luke 5:5. Ῥήματί σου, at Thy word) Peter had become sensible of the power of Jesus’ words. The same faith is displayed on his part in Matthew 14:28, “Lord—bid me come to Thee on the water.”

And when they had this done, they inclosed a great multitude of fishes: and their net brake.
And they beckoned unto their partners, which were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. And they came, and filled both the ships, so that they began to sink.
Luke 5:7. Κατένευσαν, beckoned) as being at a distance, and for the sake of modesty [so as not to shout in the presence of the Lord]. They wished help, since a fish, when taken, has such eagerness to escape; however, that eagerness is not increased by a cry [therefore it was not to avoid frightening the fishes that the fishermen did not cry]. The net, no doubt, was broken in the upper end of it, where it was made fast. The fishes saw the net, the ship, the men, and felt themselves pressed on every side: therefore a cry on the part of the fishermen would have had no new (particular) advantage above a gesture, beckoning, to their partners.—μετόχοις, partners) For they were κοινωνοὶ, associates in fishing, Luke 5:10. Often, among the members of one society or family, there may be many pious men.—βυθίζεσθαι, to sink) They were being sunk low in the waters by the weight of the fishes.

When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord.
Luke 5:8. Ἔξελθε, depart) Comp. Matthew 8:8.—ὄτι, because) Comp. 1 Kings 17:18; Isaiah 6:5.—ἀνὴρ ἁμαρτωλὸς, a sinful man) a greater sinner than an infant sinner [who has only original and not actual sin, as I have]. [That recognition of sins is deepest, which arises from the recognition and acknowledgment of the Divine glory.—V. g.] Jerome says, “Ignatius, the Apostolic father and martyr, writes boldly, ‘The Lord chose out as apostles men who were sinners above all men.’ ” Comp. 1 Timothy 1:14-15.

For he was astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken:
Luke 5:9. Θάμβος, amazement) We ought to learn the fear of the Lord even from His benefits to us: ch. Luke 5:26, Luke 7:16; Jeremiah 5:24. [Such is the experience of all whom GOD determines to use as His instruments. In the present passage this is especially recorded of the triad, composed of those three who afterwards became the foremost among the apostles.—V. g.]—[ἐπὶ τῇ ἄγρᾳ, at the draught) Jesus, in this instance, taught Simon by the very fact. Every work of God teaches us. To observe these lessons is the part of true prudence.—V. g.]

And so was also James, and John, the sons of Zebedee, which were partners with Simon. And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not; from henceforth thou shalt catch men.
Luke 5:10. Πρὸς τὸν Σίμωνα, unto Simon) He spake to Simon especially, though not to him alone, inasmuch as Simon was the one who had spoken in Luke 5:8. Comp. Matthew 4:18-19. Luke also, as well as Matthew, has this saving of Jesus, in order that he may definitely describe those to whom the Saviour spake [just as he more definitely specifies the persons addressed in the following instances, with which comp. the parallel Gospels]: ch. Luke 6:20; Luke 6:27, Luke 9:23, Luke 11:45, Luke 16:1, Luke 12:22; Luke 12:41; Luke 12:54.—μὴ φοβοῦ, Fear not) Peter ceased to fear when he became accustomed to the miracles.—ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν, from henceforth) This was accomplished, ch. Luke 9:2.

And when they had brought their ships to land, they forsook all, and followed him.
Luke 5:11. Ἅπαντα, all things) even the fishes which he had caught. They had even previously followed Jesus,—a fact which Luke recognises in Acts 1:21-22 : comp. John 1:43, etc.,—but not yet in such a way as to leave all that they had.

And it came to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold a man full of leprosy: who seeing Jesus fell on his face, and besought him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.
Luke 5:12. [Ἐν μιᾷ τῶν πόλεων, in one of the cities) See Gnom. on ch. Luke 1:1, Obs. 2, Not. marg. E. B. To wit, the particle ἐν, in, is not in this passage to be too closely pressed, as if it would not admit of the meeting with the leper having occurred in the neighbourhood of the city; comp. Matthew 8:1-2. This seems to be the very reason of the Transposition, that Mark, whom Luke follows, chose to tell first the miracles wrought within the city, ch. Luke 1:21, etc.—Harm., p. 253.—πλήρης λέπρας, full of leprosy) Among those who hold that the leper mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew is a different one, there are not wanting some who unduly wrest this phrase, which is used by Luke alone, and not by Mark also, as if it implied that the leper mentioned by Mark and Luke was clean according to the law (where the leprosy covered all the flesh), Leviticus 13:13; Leviticus 13:17, and therefore had the power of entering the city. But still he is sent away to the priest: therefore he had not before this shown himself to the priest; wherefore he must have been separate, as one accounted impure, even though the leprosy was very full upon him.—Harm., p. 253.—ἐπὶ πρόσωπον, on his face) No common humiliation.—V. g.

And he put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will: be thou clean. And immediately the leprosy departed from him.
Luke 5:13. Καὶ, and) [καὶ forming the Apodosis, and as the consequence, etc.] [A most real and immediate fruit of his prayers.—V. g.]

And he charged him to tell no man: but go, and shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing, according as Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.
But so much the more went there a fame abroad of him: and great multitudes came together to hear, and to be healed by him of their infirmities.
Luke 5:15. Θεραπεύεσθαι, to be healed) The verb is middle [and therefore means more strictly, to have themselves healed].

And he withdrew himself into the wilderness, and prayed.
Luke 5:16. Αὐτὸς, Himself) He for His part [as contrasted with the multitudes Luke 5:15].—ἦν ὑποχωρῶι) was in the habit of withdrawing. Thereby He both had a space of time for rest and prayer, and sharpened the desires of men for Him.

And it came to pass on a certain day, as he was teaching, that there were Pharisees and doctors of the law sitting by, which were come out of every town of Galilee, and Judaea, and Jerusalem: and the power of the Lord was present to heal them.
Luke 5:17. Καθημένοι, sitting) as hearers that were treated with more especial honour than the rest.—νομοδιδάσκαλοι, doctors of the law) Scribes, Luke 5:21.—κώμης, village) The extremes, Jerusalem on the one hand, and the villages on the opposite, are specified: the towns which constitute the immediate mean between the capital city and the petty villages, are meant to be included.—ἦν) was present so as to heal. A similar expression occurs in the LXX., ἐσόμεθα τοῦ σῶσαί σε, we shall be present, or ready, for the purpose of saving thee, 2 Samuel 10:11; ἔσονται ὥστε ἐργάζεσθαι, they shall be present to perform, Numbers 8:11; γενέσθω ἡ χείρ σου τοῦ σῶσαί με, let Thy hand be present for the purpose of saving me, Psalm 119:173.—αὐτοὺς, them) namely, those of whom Luke 5:15 speaks.

And, behold, men brought in a bed a man which was taken with a palsy: and they sought means to bring him in, and to lay him before him.
And when they could not find by what way they might bring him in because of the multitude, they went upon the housetop, and let him down through the tiling with his couch into the midst before Jesus.
Luke 5:19. Ποίας, by what kind of way [sc. διὰ π. ὁδοῦ]) An Ellipsis the same as in ch. Luke 19:4, ἐκείνης; and in Acts 9:2, τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντας. Comp. Lamb. Bos on the Ellipsis of the Preposition, διά. Others [as the Rec. Text] read διὰ ποίας;[56] others, διὰ ποίας ὁδοῦ; others otherwise.

[56] There are none of the oldest authorities for the reading διὰ ποίας. ABCD read ποίας: bc Vulg. “quâ parte.”—ED. and TRANSL.

And when he saw their faith, he said unto him, Man, thy sins are forgiven thee.
And the scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, Who is this which speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone?
But when Jesus perceived their thoughts, he answering said unto them, What reason ye in your hearts?
Whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Rise up and walk?
But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power upon earth to forgive sins, (he said unto the sick of the palsy,) I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy couch, and go into thine house.
And immediately he rose up before them, and took up that whereon he lay, and departed to his own house, glorifying God.
Luke 5:25. Ἄρας ἐφʼ ᾧ κατέκειτο, having taken up that whereon he lay) A happy expression. The couch had borne the man: now the man was bearing the couch.

And they were all amazed, and they glorified God, and were filled with fear, saying, We have seen strange things to day.
Luke 5:26. Παράδοξα, things unexpected [strange, unlooked-for]) viz. miracles performed, sins remitted.—σήμερον) on this remarkable day.

And after these things he went forth, and saw a publican, named Levi, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he said unto him, Follow me.
Luke 5:27. Ἐθεάσατο, He beheld) with compassion.

And he left all, rose up, and followed him.
Luke 5:28. Ἅπαντα, his all) Though by this very act his house did not cease to be his; Luke 5:29.

And Levi made him a great feast in his own house: and there was a great company of publicans and of others that sat down with them.
Luke 5:29. Μεγάλην, a great) on account of the multitude of guests.

But their scribes and Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, Why do ye eat and drink with publicans and sinners?
Luke 5:30. Ἐσθίετε, do ye eat) The Plural is used by them; but they were aiming at Jesus especially, as Luke 5:31 shows.

And Jesus answering said unto them, They that are whole need not a physician; but they that are sick.
I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
Luke 5:32. Μετανοίαν) Μετανοία is the transition of the mind from sin to righteousness, from sickness to health. This change is something of a delightful, not of a formidable nature: comp. the instance of Levi in proof of this, Luke 5:27-29.

And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?
Luke 5:33. Δεήσεις) Solemn supplications.

And he said unto them, Can ye make the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them?
Luke 5:34. Μὴ, Surely ye cannot, can ye? make, etc.) As the Lat. num, this interrogation expects a negative answer.

But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.
And he spake also a parable unto them; No man putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old; if otherwise, then both the new maketh a rent, and the piece that was taken out of the new agreeth not with the old.
Luke 5:36. Παραβολὴν, a parable) From a garment, and from wine: a kind of parable especially appropriate at a banquet [Luke 5:29]: comp. ch. Luke 14:7.—τὸ καινὸν) new.[57]

[57] In the sense, not worn out by use, different from the old worn-out garments: but νέον applied to the wine, new, in the sense of fresh, recent, opposed to wine mellowed by age; νέος is lately originated, as opposed to that originated some time back; καινὸς, not yet used, new, and different, as opposed to that which was formerly: hence Jesus does not say νέους ἀσκούς, nor ἱμάτιον νέον, nor οἶνον καινόν, but καινοὺς ἀσκούς, ἵματιον καινόν, and οἶνον νέον. See Tittm. Syn.—ED. and TRANSL.

And no man putteth new wine into old bottles; else the new wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall perish.
But new wine must be put into new bottles; and both are preserved.
No man also having drunk old wine straightway desireth new: for he saith, The old is better.
Luke 5:39. Εὐθέως, straightway) It is by degrees that the dispositions of minds are changed.—ὁ παλαιὸς, the old) Their own old doctrine was more palatable to the Pharisees than the generous (excellent) doctrine of Christ, which they fancied to be new, whereas it was far more ancient than their own: Galatians 3:17 [the covenant—the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul]; 1 John 2:7-8 [no new commandment—but an old commandment—from the beginning]: as to the excellence of the new wine, see Zechariah 9:17 [New wine—shall make cheerful—the maids]: though new, it is at the same time mild and pleasant. Matthew 11:30.

Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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