Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.Luke 6:1. Ἐν Σαββάτῳ δευτεροπρώτῳ, on the second Sabbath after the first) See the Ordo Temporum, p. 255, etc. [Ed. ii., p. 222, etc.] The Sabbath called πρῶτον was that one which combined the Sabbath and New Moon on one and the same day: the δευτερόπρωτον Sabbath was the day before the New Moon, and that too, in the present instance, the Sabbath on the last day of the month Ve-adar, in the 29th year of the common era. On every ΔΕΥΤΕΡΌΠΡΩΤΟΝ Sabbath there was read, as the Haphtara or public lesson, 1 Samuel 20:18-42, concerning David. Appositely therefore, in Luke 6:3, our Lord quotes the case of what David did, from 1 Samuel 21:6.—Not. Crit. That year was with the Jews an intercalary one, and therefore the beginning of the month Nisan was late. Therefore already at that time they were having the ears ripe, namely, those of the barley crop.—V. g.
 Most scholars now explain δευτερόπρωτον “the first of the seven numbered Sabbaths after the morrow of the Sabbath in the Passover feast.” By the way, the reckoning from the morrow of the Sabbath in the Passover feast is a remarkable anticipation of the Resurection Lord’s-day Sabbath, under the law. This δευτερόπρωτον Σάββατον here marks the second main division of the Gospel History, and the opening of the second year in our Lord’s ministry.—ED. and TRANSL.
And certain of the Pharisees said unto them, Why do ye that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days?
And Jesus answering them said, Have ye not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was an hungred, and they which were with him;Luke 6:3. Οὐδε τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε, Have ye not even read this) How often truly some passage of Scripture exactly suited to the existing state of things (the particular contingency), is presented before the eyes of men when they are thinking of nothing of the kind!—V. g.—ὃ ἐποίησε Δανὶδ, what David did) The text of this very Sabbath exhibited the straits to which David was reduced, and the eating of the shewbread follows immediately after this text. Thence it is that He has used the formula, which exactly squares with this, οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε. On the same Sabbath the Saviour appealed to the Priests, who in the temple “profane the Sabbath” (by slaying sacrifices), and yet are ‘blameless,’ Matthew 12:5 : viz. at that very time of year Leviticus used to be read in the regular course, and in it there is frequent mention of offering sacrifices, even on the Sabbath: ch. Luke 6:12, Luke 8:33, Luke 16:29, Luke 23:38.—Harm., p. 307, 308.
How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him; which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone?
And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
And it came to pass also on another sabbath, that he entered into the synagogue and taught: and there was a man whose right hand was withered.Luke 6:6. Ἡ δεξία, the right hand) The benefit conferred in healing it was the greater (as it was the right, rather than the left hand).—V. g.]
And the scribes and Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day; that they might find an accusation against him.
But he knew their thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose and stood forth.Luke 6:8. Εἶπε, said) Doing all things openly.
Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it?
And looking round about upon them all, he said unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he did so: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
And they were filled with madness; and communed one with another what they might do to Jesus.Luke 6:11. Ἀνοίας, with madness) And yet at that very time they had good reason to have come to their senses spiritually [they were filled with ἀνοία, whereas they needed μετανοία].
And it came to pass in those days, that he went out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night in prayer to God.Luke 6:12. Προσευχῇ, prayer) It is even because of these His prayers that the Twelve disciples are said to have been given to Jesus Christ: John 17:6 [comp. Luke 6:13 here in Luke 6]. A great business was transacted on this night between God and the Mediator! [Even elsewhere also Luke frequently mentions the prayers of Jesus: for instance, after His baptism, ch. Luke 3:21; before the questioning of His disciples to test them, recorded ch. Luke 9:18; before the transfiguration, ch. Luke 9:29; and when He taught His disciples to pray, ch. Luke 11:1. Comp. Mark 1:35; Luke 5:16; Matthew 14:23. No evangelist however but John, excepting in the instance of the history of His passion, has detailed the very words of Jesus when praying.—Harm., p. 239.]—τοῦ Θεου, of God) Comp. Mark 11:22, note.
And when it was day, he called unto him his disciples: and of them he chose twelve, whom also he named apostles;Luke 6:13. Ὅτε, when) at early morning.—μαθητὰς, the disciples) who as yet formed a mixed multitude.—ἐκλεξάμενος, having chosen out) The construction remains pendent up to Luke 6:17 [where the verb ἔστη completes the Syntax].—καὶ, also) Two appellations for them arose from this, and were subsequently used in other passages of Scripture, viz. The Twelve, and The Apostles.
Simon, (whom he also named Peter,) and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew,
Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon called Zelotes,Luke 6:15. Ζηλωτὴν, the devotee) The name of His native country [Cana or Canaan] hereby is turned, from its derivation, into a designation of merit.
 In Matthew 10:4, Simon, the Canaanite, Th. קָנָא, to be zealous. However Καναναῖος is probably not, as Beng. thinks, the name of his country, but קַנְּאָן = ζηλωτὴς. So the LXX. Exodus 20:5. Matthew, as writing to Jews, uses the Hebrew name; Luke, as writing to Gentiles, the Greek. Before conversion he probably had belonged to the sect of Zealots, who, like Phinehas, Numbers 25:7, took the execution of the law into their own hands. Subsequently, he was probably zealous in the better sense, and in that sense the name was still applied to him as an apostle. The Greek subsequently supplanted the Hebrew name, as Πέτρος did Cephas.—ED. and TRANSL.
And Judas the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, which also was the traitor.Luke 6:16. Ἰούδαν Ἰακώβου, Judas the son [but Engl. Vers. the brother] of James) This James begat Judas and James. Comp. Judges 1:1.
And he came down with them, and stood in the plain, and the company of his disciples, and a great multitude of people out of all Judaea and Jerusalem, and from the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases;Luke 6:17. Αὐτῶν, them) [The Twelve] The First Class of His hearers.—τόπου πεδινοῦ, on a level spot) This spot was not in the bottom of the valley, but half-way down the mountain: a more suitable locality for addressing a large audience than a completely level plain. Such a locality is called in LXX. Isaiah 13:2, ὌΡΟς ΠΕΔΙΝῸΝ, a mountain table-land [but Engl. Vers. from Hebr., “Lift ye up a banner upon the high mountain”].—ὌΧΛΟς ΜΑΘΗΤῶΝ, a crowd of His disciples) The Second Class, which was divided further [by the selection of the Seventy], ch. Luke 10:1. Supply ἔστη, stood.—πλῆθος πολὺ τοῦ λαοῦ, a great multitude of the people) The Third Class.—παραλίου) viz. ΧΏΡΑς, ΤΎΡΟΥ, the seacoast.
 Comp. Gnomon on ch. Luke 1:1. Obs. 2, Note, Marg.—E. B.
And they that were vexed with unclean spirits: and they were healed.Luke 6:18. Καὶ οἱ) and they that were, etc. This is a species: the words πλῆθος πολύ, a great multitude, is the genus.
And the whole multitude sought to touch him: for there went virtue out of him, and healed them all.
And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, and said, Blessed be ye poor: for yours is the kingdom of God.Luke 6:20. Αὐτὸς, Himself) In antithesis to the people, whose attention was directed to His miracles rather than to His word (or to Himself, the Word).—εἰς, on) among.—οἱ πτωχοὶ, the poor) These briefly-enunciated sentiments constitute משלים parables: the meaning of which is presented to us more fully in [Matthew 5:3, etc. Internal and external things often go together: for which reason the one is denominated of the other; for instance, poverty or riches [i.e. “the poor in spirit” are simply called here the poor, by a denomination taken from external poverty. So of “the rich”]: Luke 6:24.—ὑμετέρα, yours peculiarly) Herein is His application of consolation individually. The expression ἐπάρας (τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς), having lifted up (His eyes), corresponds: for the glances of His eyes point out individuals [have a demonstrative power.
Blessed are ye that hunger now: for ye shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now: for ye shall laugh.Luke 6:21. Νῦν, now) This particle is added to those particulars which apply to both worlds, according to the different characters of the men referred to.
 i.e. Those who do not hunger or weep now in this world, shall hunger and weep in the world to come, and vice versa.—ED.
Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man's sake.Luke 6:22. Ἐκβάλωσι, cast out) defaming you in the way of contumelies in public and private. This is more than ὀνειδίζειν. The same phrase occurs, Deuteronomy 22:19.—[τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν, your name) viz. the designation whereby they were called, the DISCIPLES OF JESUS CHRIST.—V. g.]—ἕνεκα, for the sake) viz. for this reason, because ye believe in the Christ, whom ye see.
Rejoice ye in that day, and leap for joy: for, behold, your reward is great in heaven: for in the like manner did their fathers unto the prophets.Luke 6:23. Ἐν, in) See Romans 2:16, note.—σκιρτήσατε, leap for joy) The reward must surely be a great one: since He who thus commands us, is One whose words contain no hyperbole.—κατὰ ταῦτα, according to these things) Characteristics and means of distinguishing character may be derived from examples: so Luke 6:26. Hebr. כָּאֵלֶּה, LXX. κατὰ ταῦτα, Numbers 28:24; but κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ is the formula, Ezekiel 45:25. And this is the reading of Epiphanius and the Cambridge MS. here.
 BDQ read κατὰ τὰ αὐτά; ‘eadem’ in c; ‘similiter’ in a; ‘sic’ in d. But b and Vulg. have “secundum hæc;” and AP Orig. 3,466a with Rec. Text, κατὰ ταῦτα.—ED.
But woe unto you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation.Luke 6:24. [Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, woe is [not be] unto you) This is a denunciation, not an imprecation.—V. g.]—παράκλησιν, consolation) Psalm 49:7; Psalm 49:19; Psalm 17:14.
Woe unto you that are full! for ye shall hunger. Woe unto you that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep.Luke 6:25. Οἱ ἑμπεπλησμένοι, who are full) Their fulness does not deserve the name of “full satisfaction.” Comp. [χορτασθήσεσθε, ye shall be filled to satisfaction, ye shall be fully satisfied] Luke 6:21.
Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for so did their fathers to the false prophets.[26. Καλῶς, well) whereas they do not wish well to Christ Himself.—V. g.]—27. τοῖς ἀκούουσιν, who hear) All My hearers, not merely the disciples: Luke 6:20 [where He limits His address to the disciples]. Hereby their attention is sharpened.
But I say unto you which hear, Love your enemies, do good to them which hate you,
Bless them that curse you, and pray for them which despitefully use you.
And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloke forbid not to take thy coat also.
Give to every man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again.Luke 6:30. [Παντὶ δὲ, but to every one) There is in this respect too much accumulation of exceptions by human ingenuity.—V. g.]—αἴροντος, that taketh away) without asking.
And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.
For if ye love them which love you, what thank have ye? for sinners also love those that love them.Luke 6:32. Χάρις, thanks) So thrice the idea is expressed; see Luke 6:33-34. What thanks are due to you, as though you had done some service of extraordinary merit, worthy of a special reward?
And if ye do good to them which do good to you, what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same.
And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again.
But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest: for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the evil.Luke 6:35. Πλὴν, but however [though others do differently]) These three words, love, do good, lend, refer to the 32d, 33d, and 34th verses, from which reference the appropriateness of the verb δανείζετε is apparent.—ἀγαθοποιεῖτε, do good) Understand, to them who hold you in hatred.—δανείζετε, lend) To give a loan with the hope of receiving it back, is an office of kindness becoming a man; to do so without such hope, is one becoming a Christian: The latter is enjoined, the former is not forbidden, Luke 6:34, even as it [is not forbidden, but] is perfectly lawful to love friends. [Moreover many anxieties besides are brought upon the mind when one gives a loan, with the hope of receiving it back, to many men, who either cannot or will not repay. Thence there springs up a crop of thorns.—V. g.]—μηδὲν) This means nothing, not μηδένʼ, i.e. no person, for ἀπελπίζω nowhere has an Accusative of the person.—ἈΠΕΛΠΊΖΟΝΤΕς) ἈΠΟΛΑΒΕῖΝ ἘΛΠΊΖΟΝΤΕς, expecting to receive as much again: Luke 6:34. We might render it in Latin, resperantes. It is the same form of verb as ἀπογεύσασθαι, ἀπεσθίειν, i.e. ἀπό τινος γεύσασθαι, ἀπό τινος ἐσθίειν, as Casaubon observes, from Athenæus.—ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀχαρίστους καὶ πονηροὺς, to the unthankful and the evil) the vilest of mortals: the evil, πονηροὺς, even though they have not as yet made themselves out to be unthankful.
 Whilst we are enjoined to love enemies, this not being natural to us, whereas the former is.—ED.
 xiv. c. 17; and ἀπαιτεῖν, i.e. αἰτεῖν ἀπό τινος, Theophrast. Charact. ix. (xii.). But Wahl, Clavis, takes it, by no means despairing, viz. of being rewarded by God. So Diod. Sic. ii. 25; Pol. iii. 63, 13.—ED.
Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful.Luke 6:36. Γίνεσθε· ἐστί) These two verbs differ: 1 Peter 1:16.—ΟἸΚΤΊΡΜΟΝΕς, merciful) The root of all offices of kindness. [Works of mercy, sparing and giving mercy, are immediately subjoined.—V. g.]
 γινεσθε implies that man is to become that which he is not naturally: ἐστί, that God essentially is merciful.—ED.
 Where Rec. Text reads γένεσθε. But ABC Vulg. read ἔσεσθε, Ye shall be, or be ye, holy. Probably ἔσεσθε, not γίνεσθε, is used there, because no εἰμὶ follows ἅγιος, expressing that God is essentially holy: therefore the verb εἶναι is there used of men, not as strictly referring to them, but with a tacit reference properly to God, who alone is essentially holy, and whose nature we are to try to be partakers of. Transcribers, unable to explain the difficulty of ἔσεσθε, instead of the usual γίνεσθε or γένεσθε, being associated with men, altered accordingly. Bengel’s principle of testing genuine readings applies, “Præstat ardua lectio procliviori.”—ED.
Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven:Luke 6:37. Μὴ κρίνετε, μὴ καταδικάζετε, judge not, condemn not) By judging, we decide as to the goodness or badness of an action: by condemning, we determine as to the person, what (punishment) the guilty has deserved: comp. Matthew 12:7.—ἀπολύετε, let go free [Engl. Vers. forgive]) ἀπολύεται, let go free (loosed), is applied to a person who was held fast (kept confined); but ἀφίεται is applied to a debt being remitted, or forgiven, which was owed. Both verbs occur, Matthew 18:27. As to the thing itself, compare Isaiah 58:6.
 So 2Ma 12:45, ἁμαρτίας following. Wahl, Clavis, translates it condono, I absolve. However the distinction between ἀπολύειν and ἀφίεναι supports Bengel’s view.—ED.
Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again.Luke 6:38. Καλὸν, good) in the quality, or even in the quantity, of those things, which are estimated by weight, number, or other means of measuring.—πεπιεσμένον, pressed down) in the case of dry goods.—σεσαλευμένον, shaken together) in the case of soft goods.—ὑπερεκχυνόμενον, flowing over) in the case of liquids.
And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?Luke 6:39. Αὐτοῖς, to them) viz. to the disciples, Luke 6:20. For that which we have in Luke 6:27 [“to you which hear”], where see the note, is not given in Matthew: nor is it the language of the Evangelist’s narrative, but that of Jesus. Therefore it is with good reason thought that the discourse is constructed in the manner of a division into two parts, so as that the first part is addressed partly to the disciples, in the hearing of the rest, Luke 6:20, partly to the crowd of hearers, Luke 6:27; whereas the latter part is addressed, from Luke 6:39, to the disciples. The material or subject-matter which the discourse rests upon, is itself in accordance with this view.—τυφλὸς, blind) Suffering under the pressure of “his own beam,” Luke 6:42; viz. destitute of compassion and love, 1 John 2:9, etc.; 2 Peter 1:9; Philemon 1:9.—τυφλὸν ὁδηγεῖν, to lead the blind) An act which is a benefit if it be done by one possessing sight and experience. The benefits which are mentioned, Luke 6:39; Luke 6:41, are more specious ones than those which are mentioned, Luke 6:37 : and so blind hypocrisy more readily hides itself under the former; but in real fact the latter in a greater degree depress self-love.
The disciple is not above his master: but every one that is perfect shall be as his master.Luke 6:40. Κατηρτισμένος, perfect, perfected) Every disciple who has reached the highest goal of a particular discipline, whether that discipline be a perfect one or imperfect, will be as his Master: moreover, in so far as he is a disciple, he will not exceed his Master. For which reason a disciple who has gotten a blind master, will with him fall into the pit. [He who evinces the desire to instruct others with admonitions concerning salvation, must by all means see clearly the way of life, be free from the “beam in the eye,” be a good tree? and lay up and keep good treasure in his heart.—V. g.]
And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but perceivest not the beam that is in thine own eye?Luke 6:41. Δὲ, but) But why dost thou, whereas a master ought to excel his disciple, wish to be master of him, to whom thou art even inferior? There ought to be not only vision in the eye, but also unimpeded vision.
Either how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me pull out the mote that is in thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to pull out the mote that is in thy brother's eye.Luke 6:42. Ἀδελφὲ, brother) Hereby is expressed the feigned assumption of a brother’s office. To this Vocative is opposed the other, thou hypocrite.—ὑποκριτά, thou hypocrite) See note on γὰρ, for, next verse.—κάρφος, a mote) the extraction of which, when properly done, is truly a work of mercy.
For a good tree bringeth not forth corrupt fruit; neither doth a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.Luke 6:43. Γἀρ, for) The force of the for is, He who, whilst suffering under his own beam, yet aims at extracting rather another’s mote, is like a bad tree affecting (aspiring) to bring forth good fruit.—ποιοῦν, producing, bringing forth) A part of the subject.
 The Predicate is οὐ—ἐστιν, the Subject is δένδρον καλὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν σαπρόν.—ED. and TRANSL.
For every tree is known by his own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes.
A good man out of the good treasure of his heart bringeth forth that which is good; and an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart bringeth forth that which is evil: for of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaketh.Luke 6:45. Θησαυροῦ, treasure, treasury) So it is here called: presently after it is called περίσσευμα, the abundance. [The interior of the human heart is spacious, capable of containing in no moderate degree good or else evil. Both break forth from it in words and deeds,—V. g.]
And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?[46. Ἃ λέγω, the things which I say) as your Lord, to whom obedience is due.—V. g.]
Whosoever cometh to me, and heareth my sayings, and doeth them, I will shew you to whom he is like:
He is like a man which built an house, and digged deep, and laid the foundation on a rock: and when the flood arose, the stream beat vehemently upon that house, and could not shake it: for it was founded upon a rock.Luke 6:48. Θεμέλιον, foundation) viz. an artificial one: a rock, a natural one. To the former is opposed the absence of a foundation (Luke 6:49, χωρὶς θεμελίου): to the latter, the mere earth (τὴν γῆν).—οὐκ ἴσχυσε σαλεῦσαι, was not able to shake it) much less to destroy it.
But he that heareth, and doeth not, is like a man that without a foundation built an house upon the earth; against which the stream did beat vehemently, and immediately it fell; and the ruin of that house was great.