For fornicators, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for enslavers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)For menstealers.—After enumerating the transgressors of the Sixth and Seventh Commandments against murder and adultery, St. Paul speaks of a class well known in the Roman world of his day—perhaps the worst class of offenders against the Eighth Commandment—the “slave-dealers.”
For liars, for perjured persons.—In these inclusive terms St. Paul apparently reckons all who break the solemn Ninth charge given on Sinai, which forbade false witness against a neighbour. Among the sins which especially excite the hot wrath of the first inspired teachers of Christianity, “want of truth” appears singularly prominent. One after the other of the Apostles, in different language, express their deep abhorrence of this too common sin, which, in St. John’s fervid words, will suffice to exclude from the city of the blessed (Revelation 22:15).
And if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine.—In this broad and general summary, with which St. Paul concludes his dreadful catalogue, the prohibition of the Tenth Commandment against “covetousness” is doubtless included. In the words “sound doctrine”—an expression peculiar to this group of Epistles—a sharp contrast is suggested to the “sickly and unhealthy” teaching of the false teachers, with their foolish legends and allegories—a teaching which suggested controversy and useless disputes, and had no practical influence at all upon life.Leviticus 19:29; Leviticus 20:5.
For them that defile themselves with mankind - Sodomites. See the evidence that this crime abounded in ancient times, in the notes on Romans 1:27. It was forbidden by the law of Moses, and was punishable with death; Leviticus 20:13.
For menstealers - The word here used - ἀνδρᾶποδιστής andrapodistēs - occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. It properly means one who steals another for the purpose of making him a slave - a kidnapper. This is the common way in which people are made slaves. Some, indeed, are taken in war and sold as slaves, but the mass of those who have been reduced to servitude have become slaves by being kidnapped. Children are stolen from their parents, or wives from their husbands, or husbands from their wives, or parents from their children, or whole families are stolen together. None become slaves voluntarily, and consequently the whole process of making slaves partakes of the nature of theft of the worst kind. What theft is like that of stealing a man's children, or his wife, or his father or mother? The guilt of manstealing is incurred essentially by those who purchase those who are thus stolen - as the purchaser of a stolen horse, knowing it to be so, participates in the crime. A measure of that criminality also adheres to all who own slaves, and who thus maintain the system - for it is a system known to have been originated by theft. This crime was expressly forbidden by the law of God, and was made punishable with death; Exodus 21:16; Deuteronomy 24:7.
And if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine - To sound or correct teaching - for so the word doctrine means. The meaning is, if there is anything else that is opposed to the instruction which the law of God gives.
men-stealers—that is, slave dealers. The most heinous offense against the eighth commandment. No stealing of a man's goods can equal in atrocity the stealing of a man's liberty. Slavery is not directly assailed in the New Testament; to have done so would have been to revolutionize violently the existing order of things. But Christianity teaches principles sure to undermine, and at last overthrow it, wherever Christianity has had its natural development (Mt 7:12).
liars … perjured—offenders against the ninth commandment.
if there be any other thing—answering to the tenth commandment in its widest aspect. He does not particularly specify it because his object is to bring out the grosser forms of transgression; whereas the tenth is deeply spiritual, so much so indeed, that it was by it that the sense of sin, in its subtlest form of "lust," Paul tells us (Ro 7:7), was brought home to his own conscience. Thus, Paul argues, these would-be teachers of the law, while boasting of a higher perfection through it, really bring themselves down from the Gospel elevation to the level of the grossly "lawless," for whom, not for Gospel believers, the law was designed. And in actual practice the greatest sticklers for the law as the means of moral perfection, as in this case, are those ultimately liable to fall utterly from the morality of the law. Gospel grace is the only true means of sanctification as well as of justification.
sound—healthy, spiritually wholesome (1Ti 6:3; 2Ti 1:13; Tit 1:13; 2:2), as opposed to sickly, morbid (as the Greek of "doting" means, 1Ti 6:4), and "canker" (2Ti 2:17). "The doctrine," or "teaching, which is according to godliness" (1Ti 6:3).
Men-stealers; the word signifieth such as carry men into captivity, or make slaves of them in the first place; it signifies also any stealing of men. It is probable the first of these is the man-stealing principally intended, being the most common sin by pirates at sea, and soldiers at land; yet not excluding any other stealing of men from their relations, which he instanceth in, as one of the highest violations of the eighth commandment. By
liars he meaneth such as knowingly speak what is false, especially to the prejudice of others. By
perjured persons he means such as swear falsely. And cause it would be too long to reckon up all kinds of sinners, he comprehends them all in a general phrase, and if there
be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine, that is, the holy and pure truth of God, that is not corrupted, but judges aright of good and evil: for these he saith the law is made, that is, to deter from such crimes, or to condenm for them; but not to terrify such who either never were guilty of such flagitious crimes, or if they have been guilty, yet are now washed, and sanctified, and justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of God, as the apostle speaks, 1 Corinthians 6:11. The law (as the apostle here saith) was never made to terrify, or to condemn and affright, these, for, Romans 8:1: There is no condemnation to those that are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. Exodus 20:14 these God will judge, and such shall have their portion in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone:
for them that defile themselves with mankind; who are guilty of sodomy; such, according to the law, were to die, Leviticus 18:22 the wrath of God was revealed from heaven in a very visible and remarkable manner against this abomination, by raining fire and brimstone upon Sodom and Gomorrah, and upon the cities of the plain, who defiled themselves in this way:
for men stealers; who decoyed servants or free men, and stole them away, and sold them for slaves; see the laws against this practice, and the punishment such were liable to, in Exodus 21:16. This practice was condemned by the Flavian law among the Romans (i), and was not allowed of among the Grecians (k); the death with which such were punished was strangling, according to the Jews (l):
for liars; who speak what is false, against their own knowledge and conscience, and with a design to deceive; who lie against their neighbours, and act falsely and deceitfully in trade and merchandise, as well as speak that which is not true; see Leviticus 6:2.
for perjured persons; who take a false oath on any account, and bear false witness against their neighbour. Now upon, and against all, and each of these, the law lies, as an accusing, threatening, and cursing law:
and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine; the law lies against it, takes notice of it, charges with it, condemns and punishes for it: by "sound doctrine" is meant the doctrine of the Gospel, which is in itself pure and incorrupt, and is the cause of soundness and health to others; it is health to the navel, and marrow to the bones; its doctrines are the wholesome words of Christ, and by them souls are nourished up unto eternal life; when the errors and heresies of men are in themselves rotten and corrupt, and also eat as do a canker. Here it may be observed, that there is an entire harmony and agreement between the Gospel and the law, rightly understood and used; what is contrary to the one, is also to the other; the Gospel no more countenances sin than the law does; and whatever is repugnant to the Gospel is liable to be punished by the law,For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine;
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)1 Timothy 1:10. ἀνδραποδισταῖς, plagiariis (Vulg.), includes all who exploit other men and women for their own selfish ends; as πόρνοις and ἀρσενοκοίταις include all improper use of sexual relations.
διδασκαλία means the body of doctrine, the apostolic Summa Theologiæ. The noun is used absolutely, 1 Timothy 6:1, or with varying epithets: ὑγιαίνουσα, sana (here, 2 Timothy 4:3; Titus 1:9; Titus 2:1); καλή, bona (1 Timothy 4:6); κατʼ εὐσέβειαν, secundum pietatem (1 Timothy 6:3); μου (2 Timothy 3:10); τοῦ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν θεοῦ (Titus 2:10).
It means the act of teaching in Romans 12:7; Romans 15:4, 1 Timothy 4:13; 1 Timothy 4:16; 1 Timothy 5:17, 2 Timothy 3:16, Titus 2:7. The term occurs fifteen times in the Pastoral Epistles in a technical Christian sense. This is in the writer’s mind even in 1 Timothy 4:1, διδασκαλίαις δαιμονίων. It is found four times in the other Pauline Epistles. Of these Romans 12:7 is the nearest approach to the special connotation here.
With ὑγιαίνουσα (see reff.) compare ὑγιαίνοντες λόγοι (1 Timothy 6:3; 2 Timothy 1:13), λόγος ὑγιής (Titus 2:8), and ὑγιαίνειν (ἐν) τῇ πίστει (Titus 1:13; Titus 2:2).
The image is peculiar to the Pastoral Epistles; but it is not therefore un-Pauline, unless on the assumption that a writer never enlarges his vocabulary or ideas. Healthy, wholesome admirably describes Christian teaching, as St. Paul conceived it, in its complete freedom from casuistry or quibbles in its theory, and from arbitrary or unnatural restrictions in its practice. The terms νοσῶν as applied to false teaching (1 Timothy 6:4), and possibly γάγγραινα (2 Timothy 2:17) were suggested by contrast. See Dean Bernard’s note on this verse.10. whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind] breakers of the seventh commandment.
menstealers] breakers of the eighth commandment, the grossest theft; punishable with death, Exodus 21:16, by the Mosaic code, as also among the Greeks.
perjured persons] breakers of the ninth commandment. Cf. Leviticus 19:12.
and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine] breakers of the tenth commandment as an inclusive summary embracing all sides and all aspects of each part of the duty to one’s neighbour, ‘not to covet nor desire other men’s goods, but to learn and labour truly to get mine own living and to do my duty.’ The mode of expression and the use of the particle are quite St Paul’s; cf. Romans 13:9, ‘and if there be any other commandment,’ Php 4:8, ‘if there be any virtue and any praise.’
sound doctrine] With R.V. render the sound doctrine. The word for ‘doctrine’ occurs 15 times in these epistles, against seven times in the rest of the N. T.; a mark that the original simple concrete word ‘teaching’ is gradually becoming the settled abstract term ‘doctrine.’ But it is still too soon for the idea of this general abstraction which is conveyed to our mind by the phrase ‘sound doctrine.’ The insertion of the article (according to the Greek) gives us just an English equivalent of the middle stage which the phrase has reached.
The nearest to the use of the Past. Epp. is Ephesians 4:14, where we ought to read ‘every wind of the doctrine,’ the article referring to all the work of apostles, prophets, evangelists and teachers just spoken of.
sound] ‘healthful,’ an epithet occurring with ‘doctrine’ or ‘words’ six times in these epistles and nowhere else; in contrast to a different form of error from any previously described, ‘the sickly (ch. 1 Timothy 6:4) and morbid (2 Timothy 2:17) teaching of Jewish gnosis,’ Ellicott.1 Timothy 1:10. Ἀνδραποδισταῖς) who make free men ἀνδράποδα, slaves, by violence. They do not differ far from these, who do not levy (legally enlist) soldiers, but take them away by allurements, fraud, violence.—ἓτερον, any other thing) inconsistent with the ninth and tenth commandment.—τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ, to sound doctrine) So 2 Timothy 4:3; Titus 1:9; Titus 2:1; and wholesome words, ch. 1 Timothy 6:3; 2 Timothy 1:13; and to be sound in regard to believers, Titus 1:13; Titus 2:2. The contrary is, νοσῶν, morbid [“doting”], ch. 1 Timothy 6:4; a canker, 2 Timothy 2:17.
 i.e. Our tenth divided into two, ninth and tenth. The ἐπιόρκοις and ψεύσταις answer to our ninth, Bengel’s eighth.—ED.Verse 10. - Fornicators for whoremongers, A.V.; abusers of themselves with men for them that defile themselves with mankind, A.V.; false swearers for perjured persons. A.V.; contrary for that is contrary, A.V.; the sound for sound, A.V. Πόρνοις ἀρσενοκοίταις. The latter word is only found in the New Testament here and 1 Corinthians 6:9. and nowhere else; but the reference is to Leviticus 18:22, where the two words ἄρσενος and κοίτη occur, though not in actual composition. Ἀνδραποδισταῖς, men-stealers; only here in the New Testament, but very common, with its many kindred forms, ἀνδραποδίζειν ἀνδραποδισμός, ἀνδράποδον, etc., in classical Greek. The last word is found once in the LXX., viz. in 3Macc. 7:5. The crime of man-stealing is denounced Exodus 21:16; Deuteronomy 24:7. Ψεύσταις ἐπιόρκοις, liars, false swearers. The latter word only occurs here in the New Testament - the verb ἐπιορκέω in Matthew 5:33 - and twice in the LXX., where ἐπιορκία is also found (Wisd. 14:25); all are common in classical Greek. The reference is to Leviticus 19:11, 12. The order of the offences, as above noted, is that of the Decalogue. The sound doctrine. The article is better omitted, as in the A V. This is one of the many phrases peculiar to the pastoral Epistles. Though the verb ὑγιανίνειν occurs three times in St. Luke's Gospel and once in 3 John 1:2 in its literal sense of bodily health, it is only in the pastoral Epistles that it is applied to doctrine (see 1 Timothy 6:3; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 4:3; Titus 1:9, 13; Titus 2:1, 2; and note on 2 Timothy 4:3).
Only here and 1 Corinthians 6:9. olxx, oClass.
N.T.o. Once in lxx. Ellicott remarks that this is a repulsive and exaggerated violation of the eighth commandment, as ἀρσενοκοιτεῖν is of the seventh. The penalty of death is attached to it, Exodus 21:16.
Perjured persons (ἐπιόρκοις)
Is contrary to (ἀντίκειται)
The sound doctrine (τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ)
A phrase peculiar to the Pastorals. Ὑγιαίνειν to be in good health, Luke 5:31; Luke 7:10; 3 John 1:2. oP. Quite frequent in lxx, and invariably in the literal sense. Often in salutations or dismissals. See 2 Macc 1:10; 9:19; 2 Samuel 14:8; Exodus 4:18. In the Pastorals, the verb, which occurs eight times, is six times associated with διδασκαλία teaching, or λόγοι words, and twice with ἐν τῇ πίστει or τῇ πίστει in the faith. The sound teaching (comp. διδαχή teaching, 2 Timothy 4:2; Titus 1:9) which is thus commended is Paul's, who teaches in Christ's name and by his authority (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:2, 2 Timothy 2:8). In all the three letters it is called ἀλη.θεια or ἡ ἀλήθεια the truth, the knowledge (ἐπίγνωσις) of which is bound up with salvation. See 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Timothy 2:25; 2 Timothy 3:7; Titus 1:1. As truth it is sound or healthful. It is the object of faith. To be sound in the faith is, practically, to follow (παρακολουθεῖν) sound teaching or the truth. The subjective characteristic of Christians is εὐσέβεια or θεοσέβεια godliness or piety (1 Timothy 2:2, 1 Timothy 2:10; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7, 1 Timothy 4:8; 1 Timothy 6:6, 1 Timothy 6:11); and the teaching and knowledge of the truth are represented as κατ' εὐσέβειαν according to godliness (1 Timothy 6:3; Titus 1:1). Comp. εὐσεβεῖν to show piety, 1 Timothy 5:4. εὐσεβῶς ζῇν to live godly, 2 Timothy 3:12; Titus 2:12; and βίον διάγειν ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ to lead a life in all godliness, 1 Timothy 2:2. The contents of this sound teaching which is according to godliness are not theoretical or dogmatic truth, but Christian ethics, with faith and love. See 1 Timothy 1:14; 1 Timothy 2:15; 1 Timothy 4:12; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 3:10; Titus 2:2. Ἁλήθεια truth is used of moral things, rather than in the high religious sense of Paul. Comp., for instance, Romans 3:7; Romans 9:1; 1 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 2 Corinthians 11:10; Galatians 2:5; Ephesians 4:21, Ephesians 4:24; and 2 Timothy 2:25,2 Timothy 2:26; 2 Timothy 3:7 (comp. 2 Timothy 3:1-9); 2 Timothy 4:3, 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:12 (comp. Titus 1:11, Titus 1:15); Titus 2:4 (comp. Titus 2:1, Titus 2:3); Titus 3:1. Whoever grasps the truth has faith (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:3 f.). That the ethical character of faith is emphasized, appears from the numerous expressions regarding the false teachers, as 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 5:8, 1 Timothy 5:12; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21. There is a tendency to objectify faith, regarding it as something believed rather than as the act of believing. See 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21; Titus 1:4. In comparing the ideal of righteousness (1 Timothy 1:9) with that of Paul, note that it is not denied that Christ is the source of true righteousness; but according to Paul, the man who is not under the law is the man who lives by faith in Christ. Paul emphasizes this. It is faith in Christ which sets one free from the law. Here, the man for whom the law is not made (1 Timothy 1:9) is the man who is ethically conformed to the norm of sound teaching. The two conceptions do not exclude each other: the sound teaching is according to the gospel (1 Timothy 1:11), but the point of emphasis is shifted.
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