Vincent's Word Studies
The Pastoral Epistles
The two Epistles to Timothy and the Epistle to Titus are called the Pastoral Epistles because they consist chiefly of instructions and admonitions to pastors. Their authenticity is disputed. The current of modern criticism is against their Pauline authorship, but it is supported by high authorities.
I. The three letters are closely allied, and stand or fall together. While each has its peculiarities, they contain considerable common matter; and their general situation and aim are substantially the same. They oppose heresies, seek to establish a definite church polity, and urge adherence to traditional doctrine. Their style is similar. Certain expressions which occur nowhere else in the N.T. are found in all three. Whole sentences are in almost verbal agreement.
II. They exhibit certain resemblances to the Pauline Epistles, notably to Romans. If the writer is not Paul, he is manifestly familiar with Paul's teachings.
III. As to the external evidence for these letters, there seems good reason to believe in the existence, at an early date, either of the letters in their present form, or of documents on which the letters were constructed later. Not much reliance can be placed on the traces which occur in Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians: perhaps a little more on those in the Ignatian Epistles, although many of these are merely analogies of expression which may have been accidental, or echoes of current religious phraseology. An unmistakable reminiscence appears in Polycarp's Epistle to the Philippians (Philip. iv.; 1 Timothy 6:7, 1 Timothy 6:10). There are no echoes in Hermas or in the Didache, and none of importance in Barnabas. Justin Martyr has a few characteristic expressions of the Pastorals, which may be only accidental coincidences. The Muratorian Canon enrolls the three as canonical, and expressly justifies their reception because, being private letters, their canonicity might be called in question. They are found in the Peshitto and Old Latin Versions, and are accepted and cited as Pauline by Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, and Tertullian. At the end of the second century they have a recognized place among the Pauline Epistles. It is, however, significant, that they were excluded from Marcion's Canon. It cannot be positively affirmed that Marcion knew them, although his acquaintance with them would seem to be implied by Tertullian (Adv. Marc. v., 21), who says that it was strange how Marcion could have accepted a letter written to one man (Philemon), and have rejected the two to Timothy and the one to Titus.
On the assumption that they were known to Marcion, it is said that he cut and carved the New Testament Scriptures to suit his own views, and that there was therefore nothing strange in his rejecting the Pastorals. But besides rejecting the whole of the New Testament with the exception of ten Epistles of Paul and the Gospel of Luke which he mutilated, Marcion applied the knife to the Pauline Epistles. In view of his reverence for Paul as the only true apostle and representative of Jesus Christ, and for Paul's Epistles as containing the only true gospel, - it is strange that, knowing the Pastorals as Pauline, he should have rejected them en masse, instead of merely altering or abridging them to suit himself. Tatian also rejected the two letters to Timothy, but accepted Titus, because it contained nothing adverse to ascetic practices.
IV. Chronological Considerations. - Was Paul released from his first imprisonment and imprisoned a second time? Can a place be found for the three letters in his recorded history?
It is claimed that Paul was released from prison after his first confinement at Rome (Acts 28:16-31) and that he then continued his missionary labors in Ephesus, Epirus, Macedonia, and Crete: that he was again arrested and imprisoned, and that the second imprisonment was terminated by his execution.
Of this there is no sound historical evidence whatever. The narrative of Acts leaves him in his first confinement. The ordinary course of argument forms a circle. The hypothesis of a second imprisonment can be sustained only by the Pastoral Epistles if they are authentic. Their authenticity can be shown only on that hypothesis. The only evidence adduced for the second imprisonment outside of these letters is, 1. A passage in Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians (v.), as follows: (Paul) "having preached the gospel both in the East; and in the West, received the glorious renown due to his faith, having taught righteousness to the whole world, and having come to the boundary of the West, and having born his testimony before the rulers. Thus he departed out of the world." The main point is having come to the boundary of the West (ἐπὶ τὸ τέρμα τῆς δύσεως ἐλθών). It is claimed that this expression refers to Spain, and that Clement thus records the fulfillment of the apostle's intention stated in Romans 15:24, Romans 15:28. Others, however, hold that it refers to Rome. Apart from this difference, which it is impossible to settle, the whole statement is general, vague, and rhetorical, and has no historical value.
2. The Muratorian Canon (about 170 a.d.) contains a passage apparently to the effect that Luke relates to Theophilus the things which fell under his own notice, and evidently declares as apart from his purpose the martyrdom of Peter; but the departure of Paul setting out from the city to Spain - here the text is mutilated. How the writer intended to complete it can only be guessed. The passage is worthless as evidence. 3. After these two we have nothing until the fourth century, when Eusebius says that there was a tradition that the apostle again set forth to the ministry of his preaching, and having a second time entered the same city of Rome, was perfected by his martyrdom before Nero. That in this imprisonment he wrote the second Epistle to Timothy (H. E. ii. 22, 25). This is all. Jerome merely echoes Eusebius. Eusebius does not mention Spain. History does not show any apostolic foundation in Spain. Neither Irenaeus, Caius, Tertullian, nor Origen allude to such a mission; and although Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Origen mention the death of Paul at Rome, they say nothing of any journeys subsequent to his first arrival there. Dr. McGiffert remarks (note on Euseb. ii. 22, 2): "The strongest argument against the visit to Spain is the absence of any trace of it in Spain itself. If any church there could have claimed the great apostle to the Gentiles as its founder, it seems that it must have asserted its claim, and the tradition have been preserved at least in that church."
It is also said that 2 Timothy 4:16, 2 Timothy 4:17 implies that Paul had had a hearing and been discharged and permitted to preach. The assumption is entirely gratuitous. The words may have referred to a hearing during his first captivity, when he was delivered from imminent danger, but not set at liberty.
In short, historical evidence for a release from the first Roman imprisonment, a subsequent missionary activity, and a second imprisonment, is utterly wanting. It seems hardly conceivable that no traces of a renewed ministry should be left in history except these instructions to friends and pupils. If Paul was liberated from his first imprisonment, it is singular that Luke should not have recorded the fact as a triumph of the gospel.
Such being the case, it remains only to find a place for these letters in the recorded ministry of Paul. This cannot be done. There is no period of that ministry, from Damascus to Rome, into which they will fit.
V. Style and Diction. - The most formidable objection to the Pauline authorship of these Epistles is furnished by their style and diction, which present a marked contrast with those of the Pauline letters. That the three Pastorals contain 148 words which appear nowhere else in the N.T., and 304 which are not found in Paul's writings, are facts which, by themselves, must not be allowed too much weight. Hapaxlegomena are numerous in the several Pauline Epistles. Second Corinthians has about 90: Romans and 1st Corinthians each over a hundred: Ephesians about 40. That words like πολυτελής and οἰκουργός appear in the Pastorals and not in Paul, counts for no more than that ὁλοτελής occurs only in 1st Thessalonians, and ἀβαρής only in 2ndCorinthians.
But we are not dealing with individual letters, but with a group of letters, nearly, if not absolutely, contemporaneous. It is a striking fact that this entire group, closely allied in all its three parts in vocabulary and style, presents, as a whole, such marked variations in these particulars from the accepted Pauline letters. In their lexical peculiarities the Pastorals form a class by themselves.
One who is thoroughly steeped in Paul's style and diction, and who reads these letters out of hand, is at once impressed with the difference from Paul. He feels that he is in a strange rhetorical atmosphere. The sentences have not the familiar ring. The thought does not move with the accustomed rush. The verve of Corinthians and Galatians, the dialectic vigor of Romans, the majesty of Ephesians, are alike wanting. The association of ideas is loose, the construction is not compact, the movement is slow and clumsy. We miss the heavily freighted utterance of Paul. The thought is scanty in proportion to the volume of words; as Holtzmann says: "We miss those characteristic dam-breakings which the construction suffers from the swelling fullness of thought." We miss the frequent anacolutha, the unclosed parentheses, the sudden digressions, the obscurities arising from the headlong impetus of thought and feeling. The construction of sentences is simple, the thoughts are expressed without adornment, everything is according to rule and easy, but without momentum or color. Strange compounds, great, swelling words, start up in our path: a Pauline thought appears in a strange dress: the voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau.
Some of these unusual compounds, for which the writer has a great liking, occur neither in the N.T. nor in profane Greek, High-sounding words are chosen where simpler terms would have suited the thought better. It seems, occasionally, as if the diction were being employed to pad the meagerness of the thought. A class of words which occur principally in the Pauline letters is wanting, as ἄδικος, ἀκαθαρσία, ἀκροβυστία, γνωρίζειν, διαθήκη, περιπατεῖν, χρηστός and σῶμα which, in the four principal Epistles alone, Paul uses 71 times. We miss entire families of Pauline words, as ἐλεύθερος, φρονεῖν, πράσσειν, τέλειος, ἐνεργεῖν, περισσός, and the numerous derivatives and compounds growing out of these.
Again, we look in vain for certain expressions most characteristic of the Pauline vocabulary, as ὑπακούειν, ἀποκαλύπτειν, καυχᾶσθαι, and their kindred words. Still more significant is the fact that the article, which is freely used by Paul before entire sentences, adverbs, interjections, numerals, and especially before the infinitive, is never so employed in the Pastorals. Τοῦ with the infinitive disappears. The prepositions, the conjunctions, and especially the particles are quite differently handled. The lively γὰρ appears oftener in the Epistle to the Galatians than in all the three Pastorals. The movement of the Pauline thought indicated by ἄρα and ἄρα οὖν is lacking. Ἁντὶ, ἄχρι, διὸ, διότι, ἔμπροσθεν, ἕνεκεν, ἔπειτα, ἔτι, ἴδε, ἰδού, μήπως, ὅπως, οὐκέτι, οὔπω, οὔτε, πάλιν, παρὰ with the accusative, ἐν παντί, πότε, ποῦ, σύν, ὥσπερ - none of these appear. There is no trace of Paul's habit of applying different prepositions to the same object in one sentence, for the purpose of sharper definition. See Galatians 1:1; Romans 1:17.
Similar ideas are differently expressed by Paul and in the Pastorals. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:3 and 2 Corinthians 11:4; Galatians 1:6 : 1 Timothy 1:9 and Galatians 5:18, Galatians 5:23; Romans 6:14 : 1 Timothy 1:12 and 1 Corinthians 12:28. For Paul's ἐπιθυμεῖν or ἐπιποθεῖν the Pastorals give ὀρέγεσθαι. For Paul's ἄμωμος, ἄμεμπτος, ἀνέγκλητος, the Pastorals give ἀνεπίλημπτος (not elsewhere in N.T.). For ἐπιπλήσσω (not elsewhere in N.T.) Paul has ἐλέγχω though ἐλέγχω occurs several times in the Pastorals. For ἀμοιβή (not elsewhere in N.T.) Paul has ἀντιμισθία or ἀνταπόδοσις. Paul uses ὄντως only adverbially (see 1 Corinthians 14:25; Galatians 3:21): in the Pastorals it is prefixed to a substantive, and converted into an adjective by means of an article, and is used only in this way, a construction unknown to Paul (see 1 Timothy 5:3, 1 Timothy 5:5,1 Timothy 5:16; 1 Timothy 6:19).
To these should be added expressions in all the three Epistles which indicate a peculiar mode of thought and of literary expression on the part of the writer. Such are εὐσεβῶς to live godly; διώκειν δικαιοσύνην to pursue righteousness; φυλάσσειν τὴν παραθήκην to guard the deposit; παρακολουθεῖν to follow the teaching; τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα ἀγωνίζεσθαι to fight the good fight. Also designations like ἄνθρωποι κατεφθαρμένοι corrupt men; ἄνθρωπος θεοῦ man of God; constructions like διαβεβαιοῦσθαι περὶ τινος to affirm concerning something; and the introduction of examples by ὧν ἐστίν of whom are.
Many more might be added to these, but these are amply sufficient to show the wide gulf which separates the vocabulary and style of these letters from those of Paul.
By way of explaining away these facts we are reminded that these are private letters; but even in his private letters a man does not so entirely abjure his literary peculiarities, and the letter to Philemon exhibits no lack of distinctive Pauline characteristics. It is further urged that Paul's style had developed, and that, in his advanced age, he had lost the vivacity once peculiar to him. One is tempted to smile at the suggestion of a development of style in the easy commonplaces of these Epistles over the nervous vigor of Romans, the racy incisiveness of Galatians and 2nd Corinthians, and the majestic richness of Ephesians. As to a decline on account of age, Paul, on this showing, must have aged very rapidly. He styles himself "the aged" in Plm 1:9. Colossians was written at the same time with Philemon, and Philippians and Ephesians shortly before or after. The Pastorals (assuming Paul's authorship) cannot have been written more than three or four years later than these; but the Epistles of the Captivity certainly betray no lack of vigor, and exhibit no signs of senility; and the differences between these and the Pastorals are far greater than between the former and Paul's earliest letters, written ten years before. The production of an old man may indeed exhibit a lack of energy or a carelessness of style, but an old writer does not abandon his favorite words or his characteristic turns of expression. After following Paul for a dozen years through ten Epistles, all marked by the essential features of his style, one finds it hard to believe that he should suddenly become a writer of an entirely different type, ignoring his own characteristic and favorite modes of expression. Surely the themes treated in the Pastorals would have furnished abundant occasion for υἱὸς, θεοῦ, ἀπολύτρωσις, υἱοθεσία, δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ, and δικαιόω, which occurs only twice, and in one of these instances is applied to Christ.
VI. As to the character of the teaching, it is possible that the divergence of the teaching and of the Christian ideal of the Pastorals from those of the Pauline Epistles may have been somewhat exaggerated. On a fair construction, the Pastorals may be said to contain the essentials of the Pauline teaching, expressed or implied. More exaggerated, however, is the claim of Godet and Findlay, that the Pastorals represent an advanced and rounded expression of Pauline teaching, "bringing the doctrines of grace to a rounded fullness and chastened ripeness of expression that warrants us in seeing in them the authentic conclusion of the Pauline gospel of salvation in the mind which first conceived it" (Findlay).
No special pleading can get round the clear difference between the types of Christianity and of Christian teaching as set forth in the Pastorals and in the Pauline Epistles; between the modes of presenting the doctrine of salvation and the relative emphasis on its great factors.
The death and resurrection of Christ are matters of allusion rather than central truths. As regards resurrection, the Pastorals resemble the Epistle to the Hebrews. The vital union of the believer with Christ, which is the essence of Paul's Christian ideal, may possibly be implied, but is not emphasized, and certainly does not underlie the Pastoral teaching. The conception of Justification is not sharply defined. Δικαιοῦν occurs but twice, and in one of the cases is predicated of Christ (1 Timothy 3:16). The teaching is predominantly ethical. Its two key-notes are practical piety and sound doctrine. Ἑυσέβεια piety or godliness plays the part which is born by πίστις faith in the Paulines. Πίστις does not occupy the commanding and central position which it does in Paul's teaching. Only in 1 Timothy 1:16; 2 Timothy 3:15, does faith clearly appear as the means of the subjective appropriation of salvation. In Titus 3:5, just where we should expect it, we do not find faith set sharply over against righteousness by works. Faith is emphasized as confiding acknowledgment of the truth, and sometimes as the virtue of fidelity. See 1 Timothy 5:12; Titus 2:10. It appears either as one of the cardinal virtues following in the train of εὐσέβεια, or as the acknowledgment of the teaching in which εὐσέβεια finds expression.
These Epistles deal much with the character and attributes of God, and exhibit them in terms which are mostly foreign to Paul, such as God our Savior. This, however, may have been partly due to the false representations of contemporary heresies. I cannot but feel that there is too much truth in the remark of Schenkel, that "the image of Christ presented in the Pastorals is indeed composed of Pauline formulas, but is lacking in the Pauline spirit and feeling, in the mystic inwardness, the religious depth and moral force, that live in the Christ of Paul." Still, the Pauline conception appears in the emphasis upon the manhood of Christ (1 Timothy 2:5; 2 Timothy 2:8), and the clear implication of his preexistence (1 Timothy 1:15; 1 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 1:10). In 1 Timothy 3:16 the representation is nearer to that of John.
VII. The Writer's Allusions to Himself and His Companions. - Grave suspicions as to the Pauline authorship are awakened by the writer's mode of speaking of himself, and to intimate and trusted companions and disciples like Timothy and Titus. We know how near these two were to him, and how he confided in them (see Philippians 2:19-22). It is strange that in writing to them he should find it necessary to announce himself formally as an apostle of Jesus Christ (Comp. Philemon, δέσμιος prisoner), just as to the Galatians, who had impugned his apostolic authority, or to the Romans, to whom he was personally a stranger. Such an announcement is singularly out of place in a private letter, even though official. Equally strange is his assuring such friends that he is appointed of God to be a herald of the gospel; that he speaks the truth and does not lie; that he has served God from his fathers with a pure conscience. One might doubt his entire confidence in these trusted ministerial helpers and personal friends, when he feels it incumbent upon him to commend to them the most elementary and self-evident duties, as abstinence from youthful lusts. It is singular that he should exhort Timothy to let no man despise his youth, when Timothy had attended him for at least thirteen years, and must have been a mature man. And if Paul, before writing 1st Timothy and Titus, had recently been with them both (1 Timothy 1:3; Titus 1:5), and had given them their commissions by word of mouth, why does he do the same thing so soon after, especially when he is looking forward to a speedy reunion (1 Timothy 3:14; Titus 3:12)? Why does he picture the Cretans in such detail to Titus, who was in the midst of them, and who must have known their characteristics quite as well as himself?
VIII. The Heresies. - Before it can be decisively asserted that the heresies treated in these Epistles are later than Paul's time, it must be settled what these heresies were, and this, with our present knowledge, is impossible. There are almost as many different views as there are critics. In the Epistles themselves the statements regarding heresies are general and sweeping, and, taken together, do not point to any particular system. It would seem that the writer was assailing, not a particular form of heresy, but a tendency, of which he does not discuss the details. Indeed, the allusions to heresies appear intended principally to point the exhortations to hold fast sound teaching and the instructions concerning church polity, as safeguards against false teaching and immoral practice. The moral developments of the heresies, rather than their doctrinal errors, are treated. Their representatives are wicked men and impostors: they are deceiving and deceived: they are of corrupt mind, destitute of truth, with their consciences seared: they lead captive silly women, laden with sins, led away by divers lusts: they are greedy of gain. At the root of the moral errors there seem to be indicated Gnostic tendencies and Jewish corruptions, and traits akin to those which appear in the Colossian heresy. All of the writer's theology is anti-Gnostic. Individual features of Gnosticism can be recognized, but a consistent reference throughout to Gnosticism cannot be shown. In any case, it is noticeable how the treatment of heresies and false teachers differs from that of Paul. The treatment in the Pastorals is general, sweeping, vague, and mainly denunciatory. No vital differences between the forms of error and between their teachers are defined, but all are indiscriminately denounced as concerned with foolish and ignorant questioning, disputes about words, strifes about the law, fables, endless genealogies, and profane babblings. This is quite unlike the controversial method of Paul, who defines what he assails, demonstrates its unsoundness, and shows the bearing of the gospel upon it.
IX. Church Polity. - The church polity of the Pastorals is of a later date than Paul. Within the circle of the Pauline Epistles there is no trace of formally constituted church officers. The greeting to Bishops and Deacons in Philippians is unique, but it does not imply a polity differing substantially from that exhibited in 1st Corinthians and 1st Thessalonians. The greeting is to the church first, and the special mention of Bishops and Deacons by way of appendage is explained by the fact that the letter was cancel out by the pecuniary contribution of the Philippian church to Paul, of the collection and sending of which these functionaries would naturally have charge. The names Bishop and Deacon designate functions and not official titles. In the formal list, in Ephesians 4:11, of those whom God has set in the church, neither Bishops, Elders, nor Deacons occur; and yet that Epistle was written within a short time of the writing of the Philippian letter. The offices in the Pauline church were charismatic. The warrant of leadership was a divine, spiritual endowment. Paul recognizes certain functions as of divine institution; and those functions are assumed in virtue of a special, divine gift in prophecy, speaking with tongues, teaching, healing, or helping, as the case may be (see 1 Corinthians 12). There is no recognition of official distinctions, or of formal appointment to definite offices, in the Pauline Epistles. Apostles, prophets, teachers, powers, helps, healings, kinds of tongues, do not represent offices resting on the appointment of the church. The Pastorals recognize Bishops, Deacons, and Presbyters. The recognition of three distinct orders is not as sharp and clear as in the Ignatian Epistles (100-118 a.d.), but the polity is in advance of that of the Pauline churches as set forth in the Epistles of Paul. The Pastorals seem to mark a transition point between the earlier republican simplicity and the later monarchical tendency. If these letters are the work of Paul before his first imprisonment, their notes of church polity do not consist with those of his other letters written during that period. If they were composed by Paul a few years after his first imprisonment, the period is too early for the change in polity which they indicate.
In view of all these facts, it seems unlikely that these Epistles are the work of Paul. The writer was probably a Pauline Christian in the early part of the second century, who, in view of the doctrinal errors and moral looseness of his age, desired to emphasize the orthodox doctrine of the church, to advocate a definite ecclesiastical polity as a permanent safeguard against error, and to enforce practical rules of conduct. These counsels and warnings he issued in the name of Paul, whose letters he evidently knew, whose character he revered, and whose language he tried to imitate. To this he was, perhaps, moved by the fact that contemporary heretics, in some cases, laid claim to the authority of Paul, and in other cases openly repudiated it. It is probable that he based these letters upon genuine Pauline material - despatches, or fragments of letters to Timothy and Titus, which had fallen into his hands. It may be conceded that the letters have a Pauline nucleus. The writer probably assumed that the addresses of his letters to Timothy and Titus would attract attention and carry weight, since these teachers were representatives of churches.
To stigmatize such a proceeding as forgery is to treat the conditions of that early time from the point of view of our own age. No literary fraud was contemplated by the writer or ascribed to him. The practice of issuing a work in the name of some distinguished person was common, and was recognized as legitimate. A whole class of writings, chiefly apocalyptical and known as pseudepigraphic or pseudonymous, appeared in the times immediately preceding and succeeding the beginning of the Christian era. Such were the Book of Enoch, the Sibylline Oracles, and the Psalter of Solomon. Precedent was furnished by the Old Testament writings. The Psalmists adopted the names of David, Asaph, and the Sons of Korah. Neither Samuel nor Ruth nor Esther were supposed to be the authors of the books which bore their names. Koheleth, in the Book of Ecclesiastes, impersonates Solomon, and the Proverbs and the Canticles both bear his name.
The church of the second century thankfully accepted these three Epistles, and, inferior though they were in spiritual power and richness of idea to the genuine Pauline letters or the Epistle to the Hebrews, incorporated them with these among the New Testament writings. They are valuable in exhibiting to us certain features of post-Pauline Christianity. They testify to the energy and purity of the church's moral impulses as nourished by the religious principles of Christendom. They show us the causes out of which grew the increased emphasis upon authority and external regimen. By their strong attestation of the value of the inheritance from the apostolic age, by their high ethical character, based on religion and exhibiting the moral consequences of the Christian faith, by their emphasis upon the practical rather than the doctrinal edification of the church, upon the significance of the church, and upon the representation of Christianity by Christian personality - they justify their canonization.
Lists of Words Found Only in the Pastoral Epistles, and in the Pastoral Epistles and Not in Paul's Writings.
διάβολος, as adj.
ἔλαττον, as adv.
ἐπαγγέλλομαι in sense of professing
κοσμίως (alt. for κοσμίῳ)
τυφόομαι ὑγιαίνω, (metaphorical use of the participle as attributive)
Pastorals and Not in Paul
λαός (in Paul always in citn.)
A List of Phrases Which Occur Only in the Pastoral Epistles
Χριστὸς Ιησοῦς ἡ ἐλπὶς ἡμῶν, 1 Timothy 1:1
πέκνον ἐν πίστει, 1 Timothy 1:2
νόμος κεῖται, 1 Timothy 1:9
ἡ ὐγιαίνουσα διδασκαλία, 1 Timothy 1:10
τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς δόξης τοῦ μακαρίου θεοῦ 1 Timothy 1:11
ὁ μακάριος θεὸς 1 Timothy 1:11
πιστὸς ὁ λόγος, 1 Timothy 1:15
πάσης ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος, 1 Timothy 1:15
πίστις καὶ ἀγαθή συνείδησις, 1 Timothy 1:19
πρῶτον πάντων 1 Timothy 2:1
οἱ ἐν ὑπεροχῇ, 1 Timothy 2:1
εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας ἐλθεῖν, 1 Timothy 2:4
καιροῖς ἰδίοις, 1 Timothy 2:6
διδάσκαλος ἐθνῶν (of Paul), 1 Timothy 2:7
ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀληθείᾳ 1 Timothy 2:7
ἐπαίροντες ὁσίους χεῖρας, 1 Timothy 2:8
χωρὶς ὀργῆς καὶ διαλογισμῶν, 1 Timothy 2:8
ἔχων ἐν ὑποταγῇ, 1 Timothy 3:4
ἐμπιπτεῖν εἰς κρίμα, 1 Timothy 3:6
τὸ μυστήριον τῆς πίστεως, 1 Timothy 3:9
οἶκος θεοῦ (of the church), 1 Timothy 3:15
στύλος καὶ ἐδραίωμα τῆς ἀληθείας, 1 Timothy 3:15
ἐδικαιώθη ἐν πνεύματι (of Christ), 1 Timothy 3:16
ἐν ὑοτέροις καιροῖς, 1 Timothy 4:1
ἀφίστασθαι τῆς πίστεως, 1 Timothy 4:1
ἐπαγγελίαν ἔχειν, 1 Timothy 4:8
νῦν (with an article and adjectively, as ὁ νῦν αἰών; ζωῆς τῆς νῦν), 1 Timothy 5:3
ὄντως (with an article and adjectively, as τὰς ὄντως χήρας), 1 Timothy 5:3
ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδιδόναι, 1 Timothy 5:4
ἔχειν κρίμα, 1 Timothy 5:12
ἐκλεκτοὶ ἄγγελοι, 1 Timothy 5:21
χωρὶς προκρίματος, 1 Timothy 5:21
προέρχεσθαι ὑγιαίνουσι λόγοις, 1 Timothy 6:3
ἡ κατ' εὐσέβειαν διδασκαλία, 1 Timothy 6:3
ἄνθρωπος θεοῦ, 1 Timothy 6:11
ἀγωνίζεσθαι τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα, 1 Timothy 6:12
ὁμολγεῖν τὴν καλὴν ὁμολογίαν, 1 Timothy 6:12
μαρτυρεῖν τὴν καλὴν ὁμολογίαν, 1 Timothy 6:13
δυνάστης (of God), 1 Timothy 6:15
οἱ κυριεύοντες for κύριοι, 1 Timothy 6:15
ἔχειν ἀθανασίαν, 1 Timothy 6:16
ἐπαγγελία ζωῆς, 2 Timothy 1:1
ἀπὸ προγόνων, 2 Timothy 1:3
πίστις ἐνῴκησεν, 2 Timothy 1:5
κλῆσις ἁγία, 2 Timothy 1:9
σωτηρία ἡ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἱησοῦ, 2 Timothy 2:10
νομὴν ἔχειν, 2 Timothy 2:17
θεμέλιος τοῦ θεοῦ, 2 Timothy 2:19
ἡ τοῦ διαβόλου παγίς, 2 Timothy 2:26
τοῦτο γίνωσκε, 2 Timothy 3:1
διώκειν (in sense of persecute), 2 Timothy 3:13
ἱερὰ γράμματα, 2 Timothy 3:15
ἑααυτοῖς ἐπισωρεύειν διδασκάλους, 2 Timothy 4:3
κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοήν, 2 Timothy 4:3
ὁ τῆς δικαιοσυ.νης στέφανος, 2 Timothy 4:8
τοῖς ἠγαπηκόσι τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ, 2 Timothy 4:8
παραγίνομαι (in the sense of standing by as a friend), 2 Timothy 4:16
κατὰ κοινὴνπίστιν, Titus 1:4
σεαυτὸν παρέχεσθαι, Titus 2:7
ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας, Titus 2:8
πᾶσαν πίστιν ἐνδείκνυσθαι ἀγαθήν, Titus 2:10
τὴν διδασκαλίαν κοσμεῖν, Titus 2:10
ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ σωτήριος, Titus 2:11
κοσμικαὶ ἐπιθυμίαι, Titus 2:12
ἡ μακαρία ἐλπίς, Titus 2:13
ὁ μέγας θεὸς, Titus 2:13
μάχαι νομικαί, Titus 3:9
οἱ φιλοῦντες ἡμᾶς ἐνπίστει, Titus 3:15
Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Saviour, and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope;
An apostle of Jesus Christ
This title appears in the salutations of Romans, 1st and 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians. In Philippians, Paul and Timothy the servants of Jesus Christ. Philemon a prisoner. This formal announcement of apostleship is strange in a private letter.
By the commandment of God (κατ' ἐπιταγὴν θεοῦ)
The phrase in Romans 16:26. Κατ' ἐπιταγὴν absolutely, by commandment, 1 Corinthians 7:6, 2 Corinthians 8:8. Paul uses διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ by the will of God. See 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Ephesians 1:1; Colossians 1:1. Comp. 2 Timothy 1:1.
Our Savior (σωτῆρος ἡμῶν)
Comp. Luke 1:47; Jde 1:25. oP. Six times in the Pastorals. Used of both God and Christ (see Titus 1:3, Titus 1:4; Titus 2:10, Titus 2:13; Titus 3:4, Titus 3:6). The saving of men appears as God's direct will and act, 1 Timothy 2:4; Titus 3:5; 2 Timothy 1:9 as Christ's work, 1 Timothy 1:15, comp. 2 Timothy 2:10. In lxx σωτὴρ occurs twenty times, and in all but two instances, of God.
Jesus Christ which is our hope
The phrase is unique in N.T. Comp. Colossians 1:27, where, however, the construction is doubtful. Ἑλπὶς hope is predicated of Christ by Ignatius, Ephesians 21. Philad. v. The salutation as a whole has no parallel in Paul.
Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord.
My own son in the faith (γνησίῳ τέκνῳ ἐν πίστει)
More correctly, "my true child in faith." Comp. Titus 1:4. With these two exceptions, τέκνον or υἱός ἐν πίστει does not occur in N.T. Ἑν πίστει or τῇ πίστει is not come on Paul; see 1 Corinthians 16:13; 2 Corinthians 8:7; 2 Corinthians 13:5; Galatians 2:20; 2 Thessalonians 2:13. In the Pastorals, nine times. In Paul joined with ζῇν to live, εἶναι to be, στήκειν to stand, βεβαιοῦσθαι to be established. For γνήσιος true, see 2 Corinthians 8:8; Philippians 2:20; Philippians 4:3. It means natural by birth-relation, therefore true or genuine.
This addition to the usual form of salutation is peculiar to the Pastorals.
As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine,
Even as (καθὼς)
An awkward construction, there being nothing to answer to καθὼς.
To abide (προσμεῖναι)
When I went (πορευόμενος)
Better, was going, or was on my way. The participle cannot refer to Timothy.
Might'st charge (παραγγείλῃς)
See on Acts 1:4. Very common in Luke and Acts, but not in Paul. In 1st Timothy alone five times.
Note the indefinite designation of the errorists, and comp. 1 Timothy 1:6; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 5:15, 1 Timothy 5:24; 1 Timothy 6:21. The expression is contemptuous. It is assumed that Timothy knows who they are. This is after the Pauline manner. See Galatians 1:7; Galatians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 4:18; 1 Corinthians 15:12; 2 Corinthians 3:1; Colossians 2:4, Colossians 2:8.
That they teach no other doctrine (μὴ ἑτεροδιδασκαλεῖν)
Better, not to teach a different doctrine. For ἕτερος different, see on Galatians 1:6. The verb Pasto. olxx. oClass. The charge is not to teach anything contrary to the sound teaching (1 Timothy 1:10) or irreconcilable with it. Comp. Galatians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Romans 16:17.
Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith: so do.
Give heed (προσέχειν)
oP. Frequent in lxx and Class. Lit. To hold to. Often with τὸν νοῦν the mind, which must be supplied here. It means here not merely to give attention to, but to give assent to. So Acts 8:6; Acts 16:14; Hebrews 2:1; 2 Peter 1:19.
Μῦθος, in its widest sense, means word, speech, conversation or its subject. Hence the talk of men, rumour, report, a saying, a story, true or false; later, a fiction as distinguished from λόγος a historic tale. In Attic prose, commonly a legend of prehistoric Greek times. Thus Plato, Repub. 330 D, οἱ λεγόμενοι μῦθοι περὶ τῶν ἐν Ἅΐδου what are called myths concerning those in Hades. Only once in lxx, Sir. 20:19, in the sense of a saying or story. In N.T. Only in Pastorals, and 2 Peter 1:16. As to its exact reference here, it is impossible to speak with certainty. Expositors are hopelessly disagreed, some referring it to Jewish, others to Gnostic fancies. It is explained as meaning traditional supplements to the law, allegorical interpretations, Jewish stories of miracles, Rabbinical fabrications, whether in history or doctrine, false doctrines generally, etc. It is to be observed that μῦθοι are called Jewish in Titus 1:14. In 1 Timothy 4:7, they are described as profane and characteristic of old wives. In 2 Timothy 4:4, the word is used absolutely, as here.
Endless genealogies (γενεαλογίαις ἀπεράντοις)
Both words Pasto. For γενεαλογία (olxx) comp. Titus 3:9. Γενεαλογεῖσθαι to trace ancestry, only Hebrews 7:6; comp. 1 Chronicles 5:1, the only instance in lxx. Ἁπέραντος endless, N.T.o. Twice in lxx. By some the genealogies are referred to the Gnostic aeons or series of emanations from the divine unity; by others to the O.T. Genealogies as interpreted allegorically by Philo, and made the basis of a psychological system, or O.T. Genealogies adorned with fables: by others again to genealogical registers proper, used to foster the religious and national pride of the Jews against Gentiles, or to ascertain the descent of the Messiah. Ἁπέραντος from ἀ not, and πέρας limit or terminus. Πέρας may be taken in the sense of object or aim, so that the adjective here may mean without object, useless. (So Chrysostom, Holtzmann, and von Soden.) Others take it in a popular sense, as describing the tedious length of the genealogies (Alford); and others that these matters furnish an inexhaustible subject of study (Weiss). "Fables and endless genealogies" form a single conception, the καὶ and being explanatory, that is to say, and the "endless genealogies" indicating in what the peculiarity of the fables consists.
Rather the which: inasmuch as they.
Afford, furnish, give occasion for. Only twice in Paul. Elsewhere mainly in Luke and Acts.
Better, questionings. N.T.o. olxx. oClass. The simple ζητήσεις in Pastorals, John and Acts. The preposition ἐκ gives the sense of subtle, laborious investigation: inquiring out.
According to the reading οἰκοδομίαν edification. So Vulg. aedificationem. But the correct reading is οἰκονομίαν ordering or dispensation: the scheme or order of salvation devised and administered by God: God's household economy. Ὁικονομία is a Pauline word. With the exception of this instance, only in Paul and Luke. See Ephesians 1:10; Ephesians 3:2, Ephesians 3:9; Colossians 1:25.
Which is in faith (τὴν ἐν πίστει)
See on 1 Timothy 1:2. Faith is the sphere or clement of its operation.
Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned:
The end of the commandment (τέλος τῆς παραγγελίας)
The article with "Commandment" points back to might'st charge, 1 Timothy 1:3. Rend. therefore, of the charge. Τέλος end, aim, that which the charge contemplates.
Out of a pure heart (ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας)
Comp. Luke 10:27, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God out of they whole heart (ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου), and in or with (ἐν) thy whole soul," etc. For a pure heart, comp. 2 Timothy 2:22. Καθαρός pure in Paul only Romans 14:20. The phrase a pure heart occurs, outside of the Pastorals only in 1 Peter 1:22. For καρδία heart see on Romans 1:21.
A good conscience(συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς)
Faith unfeigned (πίστεως ἀνυποκρίτου)
Ἁνυπόκριτος unfeigned twice in Paul, Romans 12:9; 2 Corinthians 6:6, both times as an attribute of love. In James 3:17, it is an attribute of wisdom, and in 1 Peter 1:22, of brotherly love. Notice the triad, love, conscience, faith. There is nothing un-Pauline in the association of conscience and faith, although, as a fact, Paul does not formally associate them. In 1 Corinthians 8:7, 1 Corinthians 8:10, 1 Corinthians 8:12, conscience is associated with knowledge.
From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling;
Having swerved (ἀστοχήσαντες)
Pasto. In lxx, Sir. 7:19; 8:9. It means to miss the mark.
Have turned aside (ἐξετράπησαν)
Vain jangling (ματαιολογίαν)
N.T.o. olxx. oClass. The word illustrates the writer's fondness for unusual compounds. Jangling is an early English word from the old French jangler, comp. jongleur a teller of tales. Hence jangling is empty chatter. So Chaucer,
"Them that jangle of love."
Troil. and Cress ii.800.
And Piers Ploughman,
"And al day to drynken
At diverse tavernes
And there to jangle and jape."
Vision, Pass. ii.1069.
"This their jangling I esteem a sport."
Mids. Night's D. iii.2.
Wiclif, Exodus 17:7 (earlier version), uses jangling for wrangling. "And he clepide the name of the place Temptynge for the jangling of the sons of Israel."
Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm.
The participle is explanatory and confirmatory of the preceding statement: since they desire.
Teachers of the law (νομοδιδάσκαλοι)
Better, though they understand.
What they say - whereof they affirm (ἃ λέγουσιν - περὶ τίνων διαβεβαιοῦνται)
The latter expression is an advance on the former, as appears not only from the verbs themselves, but from the different pronominal expressions. They know not what they say, nor what kind of things they are of which they speak so confidently. The compound διαβεβαιοῦσωαι to affirm, Pasto. Comp. Titus 3:8. The false teachers announce their errors with assurance.
But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully;
Pasto. olxx. The nature of the proper use of the law - is indicated by the next clause.
Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers,
The participle is connected with τὶς one, a man, in the preceding clause.
Is not made (οὐ κεῖται)
Lit. Is not laid down, set, appointed. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 3:3. This is the only instance of its use with νόμος law. That usage is frequent in Class. See, for instance, Thucyd. ii.37.
Recognizing no law; a sense which accords better with the following context than not having a law, as 1 Corinthians 9:21.
Only in Pastorals and Hebrews. Better unruly. Disobedient is too specific. It means those who will not come into subjection. It is closely allied with lawless. In the one case no legal obligation is recognized; in the other, subjection to law is refused.
Ungodly - sinners (ἀσεβέσι - ἁμαρτωλοῖς)
Unholy - profane (ἀνοσίοις - βεβήλοις)
Ἁνοσιος unholy, Pasto. See on holiness, Luke 1:75. Βέβηλος profane, comp. 1 Timothy 4:7; 1 Timothy 6:20; 2 Timothy 2:16; Hebrews 12:16. The verb βεβηλοῦν to profane, Matthew 12:5; Acts 24:6, and often in lxx. Derived from βηλός threshold (comp. βαίνειν to go). Hence the primary sense is that may be trodden. Comp. Lat. Profanus before the temple, on the ground outside. What is permitted to be trodden by people at large is unhallowed, profane. Esau is called βέβηλος in Hebrews 12:16, as one who did not regard his birthright as sacred, but as something to be sold in order to supply a common need.
Murderers of fathers - murders of mothers (πατρολῴαις - μητρολῴαις)
Both words Pasto and olxx. Both in Class. More literally, smiters of fathers and mothers, though used in Class. Of parricides and matricides. Derived from ἀλοᾶν to smite or thresh. The simple verb, 1 Corinthians 9:9, 1 Corinthians 9:10.
N.T.o. Once in lxx, 2 Macc. 9:28.
For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine;
Them that defile themselves with mankind (ἀρσενοκοίταις)
Only here and 1 Corinthians 6:9. olxx, oClass.
N.T.o. Once in lxx. Ellicott remarks that this is a repulsive and exaggerated violation of the eighth commandment, as ἀρσενοκοιτεῖν is of the seventh. The penalty of death is attached to it, Exodus 21:16.
Perjured persons (ἐπιόρκοις)
Is contrary to (ἀντίκειται)
The sound doctrine (τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ)
A phrase peculiar to the Pastorals. Ὑγιαίνειν to be in good health, Luke 5:31; Luke 7:10; 3 John 1:2. oP. Quite frequent in lxx, and invariably in the literal sense. Often in salutations or dismissals. See 2 Macc 1:10; 9:19; 2 Samuel 14:8; Exodus 4:18. In the Pastorals, the verb, which occurs eight times, is six times associated with διδασκαλία teaching, or λόγοι words, and twice with ἐν τῇ πίστει or τῇ πίστει in the faith. The sound teaching (comp. διδαχή teaching, 2 Timothy 4:2; Titus 1:9) which is thus commended is Paul's, who teaches in Christ's name and by his authority (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:2, 2 Timothy 2:8). In all the three letters it is called ἀλη.θεια or ἡ ἀλήθεια the truth, the knowledge (ἐπίγνωσις) of which is bound up with salvation. See 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Timothy 2:25; 2 Timothy 3:7; Titus 1:1. As truth it is sound or healthful. It is the object of faith. To be sound in the faith is, practically, to follow (παρακολουθεῖν) sound teaching or the truth. The subjective characteristic of Christians is εὐσέβεια or θεοσέβεια godliness or piety (1 Timothy 2:2, 1 Timothy 2:10; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7, 1 Timothy 4:8; 1 Timothy 6:6, 1 Timothy 6:11); and the teaching and knowledge of the truth are represented as κατ' εὐσέβειαν according to godliness (1 Timothy 6:3; Titus 1:1). Comp. εὐσεβεῖν to show piety, 1 Timothy 5:4. εὐσεβῶς ζῇν to live godly, 2 Timothy 3:12; Titus 2:12; and βίον διάγειν ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ to lead a life in all godliness, 1 Timothy 2:2. The contents of this sound teaching which is according to godliness are not theoretical or dogmatic truth, but Christian ethics, with faith and love. See 1 Timothy 1:14; 1 Timothy 2:15; 1 Timothy 4:12; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 3:10; Titus 2:2. Ἁλήθεια truth is used of moral things, rather than in the high religious sense of Paul. Comp., for instance, Romans 3:7; Romans 9:1; 1 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 2 Corinthians 11:10; Galatians 2:5; Ephesians 4:21, Ephesians 4:24; and 2 Timothy 2:25,2 Timothy 2:26; 2 Timothy 3:7 (comp. 2 Timothy 3:1-9); 2 Timothy 4:3, 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:12 (comp. Titus 1:11, Titus 1:15); Titus 2:4 (comp. Titus 2:1, Titus 2:3); Titus 3:1. Whoever grasps the truth has faith (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:3 f.). That the ethical character of faith is emphasized, appears from the numerous expressions regarding the false teachers, as 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 5:8, 1 Timothy 5:12; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21. There is a tendency to objectify faith, regarding it as something believed rather than as the act of believing. See 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21; Titus 1:4. In comparing the ideal of righteousness (1 Timothy 1:9) with that of Paul, note that it is not denied that Christ is the source of true righteousness; but according to Paul, the man who is not under the law is the man who lives by faith in Christ. Paul emphasizes this. It is faith in Christ which sets one free from the law. Here, the man for whom the law is not made (1 Timothy 1:9) is the man who is ethically conformed to the norm of sound teaching. The two conceptions do not exclude each other: the sound teaching is according to the gospel (1 Timothy 1:11), but the point of emphasis is shifted.
According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.
The connection is with the whole foregoing statement about the law and its application, 1 Timothy 1:9 ff. The writer substantiates what he has just said about the law, by a reference to the gospel. Comp. Romans 2:16.
The glorious gospel of the blessed God (τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς δόξης τοῦ μακαρίου θεοῦ)
More correctly, the gospel of the glory, etc. The phrase as a whole has no parallel in N.T. The nearest approach to it is 2 Corinthians 4:4. Gospel of God is a Pauline phrase; but μακάριος blessed is not used of God by Paul, is not used of God by Paul, nor elsewhere outside of the pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and 1 Timothy 6:15. For blessed is not used of God by Paul, nor elsewhere outside of the Pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and 1 Timothy 6:15. For blessed see on Matthew 5:3. The appearing of the glory of God in Jesus Christ is the contents of the gospel. Comp. Titus 2:13.
Which was committed to my trust (ὃ ἐπιστεύθην ἐγώ)
Or, with which I was intrusted. Comp Titus 1:3; Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:4. The ἐγώ I emphatically asserts the authority of Paul against the "teachers of the law" (1 Timothy 1:7).
And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry;
Hath enabled (ἐνδυναμώσαντι)
A common Pauline word.
Better appointing. The participle defines counted me faithful. He counted me faithful in that he appointed, etc.
Into the ministry (εἰς διακονίαν)
Better, appointing me to his service. The conventional phrase "the ministry" gives a wrong impression. The term is general, covering every mode of service, either to God or to men. Διάκονοι ministers is used of the secular ruler, Romans 13:4. See also 1 Corinthians 12:5; 1 Corinthians 16:15; 2 Corinthians 3:7, 2 Corinthians 3:8; Ephesians 4:12, and on minister, Matthew 20:26.
Who was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief.
Blasphemer - persecutor - injurious (βλάσφημον - διώκτην - ὑβριστήν)
Neither βλάσφημος nor διώκτης is used by Paul. Βλάσφημος in Acts 7:11; 2 Peter 2:11; διώκτης N.T.o.; ὑβριστής in Romans 1:30 only; often in lxx. See on blasphemy Mark 7:22, and comp. 1 Corinthians 10:30. Ὑβριστής is one whose insolence and contempt of others break forth in wanton and outrageous acts. Paul was ὑβριστής when he persecuted the church. He was ὑβρισθείς shamefully entreated at Philippi (1 Thessalonians 2:2). Christ prophesies that the Son of man shall be shamefully entreated (ὑβρισθήσεται, Luke 18:32). Similar regretful references of Paul to his former career appear in Acts 22:4; Galatians 1:13, Galatians 1:23. Such a passage may have occurred in some Pauline letters to which this writer had access, or it may be an imitation.
I obtained mercy (ἠλεήθην)
Comp. 1 Timothy 1:16. In speaking of his conversion, Paul uses χάρις grace. See 1 Timothy 1:14, and the apostleship he speaks of himself as one who has obtained mercy (ἠλεημένος) of the Lord to be faithful. 1 Corinthians 7:25; comp. 2 Corinthians 4:1.
And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.
Was exceeding abundant (ὑπερεπλεόνασεν)
Or abounded exceedingly. N.T.o. olxx. oClass. Paul is fond of compounds with ὑπὲρ, which, with a few exceptions, are found only in his writings. In the pastorals there are only three. See 1 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 3:2.
For faith as treated in the Pastorals, see Introduction, and sound doctrine, 1 Timothy 1:10.
This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief.
This is a faithful saying (πιστὸς ὁ λόγος)
Worthy of all acceptation (πάσης ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος)
The phrase only here and 1 Timothy 4:9. Ἁποδοχή Pasto olxx. Comp. Acts 2:41, ἀποδεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον received his word. Πάσης all or every describes the reception of which the saying is worthy as complete and excluding all doubt.
Came into the world (ἦλθεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον)
To save sinners (ἁναρτωλοὺς σῶσαι)
Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might shew forth all longsuffering, for a pattern to them which should hereafter believe on him to life everlasting.
Not the chief sinner, but the representative instance of God's longsuffering applied to a high-handed transgressor. It is explained by pattern.
All longsuffering (τὴν ἅπασαν μακροθυμίαν)
More correctly, "all his longsuffering." The A.V. misses the possessive force of the article. For longsuffering see on be patient, James 5:7. The form ἅπας occurs as an undisputed reading only once in Paul, Ephesians 6:13, and not there as an adjective. Often in Acts and Luke. This use of the article with the adjective πᾶς or ἅπας is without parallel in Paul.
Or, ensample. Only here and 2 Timothy 1:13. olxx. oClass. An example of the writer's fondness for high-sounding compounds. Paul uses τύπος.
The A.V. conveys the sense more clearly than Rev. "of them," which is ambiguous. The genitive has a possessive sense. He would be their ensample, or an ensample for their benefit.
This verb, so frequent in Paul, occurs six times in the pastorals. In two instances, 1 Timothy 1:11; Titus 1:3, it is passive, in the sense of to be intrusted with. Here in the Pauline sense of believing on Christ. In 1 Timothy 3:16, passive, of Christ believed on in the world. In 2 Timothy 1:12, of God the Father, in whom the writer confides to keep the trust committed to him. In Titus 3:8, of belief in God. With ἐπὶ upon and the dative, Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11; 1 Peter 2:6 (all citations), and Romans 4:18; Luke 24:25.
Unto life everlasting (εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον)
Better, eternal life. See additional not on 2 Thessalonians 1:9. The conception of life eternal is not limited to the future life (as von Soden). Godliness has promise of the life which now is, as well as of that which is to come (1 Timothy 4:8). The promise of eternal life (2 Timothy 1:1) and the words who brought life and immortality to light through the gospel (2 Timothy 1:10) may fairly be taken to cover the present life.
Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.
King eternal (βασιλεῖ τῶν αἰώνων)
Lit. the king of the ages. Only here and Revelation 15:3. Comp. Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 11:3. In lxx, Tob. 6:10. For kindred expressions in lxx, see Exodus 15:18; 1 Samuel 13:13; Psalm 9:7; Psalm 28:10; Psalm 73:12; Psalm 144:13; Psalm 145:10. See also additional note on 2 Thessalonians 1:9.
Lit. Incorruptible. In Paul, applied to God only, Romans 1:23.
The only wise God (μόνῳ θεῷ)
Honor and glory (τιμὴ καὶ δόξα)
This combination in doxology only here and Revelation 5:12, Revelation 5:13. Comp. Revelation 4:9. In doxologies Paul uses only δόξα glory, with the article, the glory, and with to whom or to him (be).
Forever and ever (εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων)
This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare;
This charge (ταύτην τὴν παραγγελίαν)
See on 1 Timothy 1:5. It refers to what follows, that thou might'st war, etc.
I commit (παρατίθεμαι)
According to the prophecies which went before on thee (κατὰ τὰς προαγούσας ἐπὶ σὲ προφητείας)
Const, according to with I:commit: which went before is to be taken absolutely, and not with on thee: const. prophecies with on these. On thee means concerning thee. The sense of the whole passage is: "I commit this charge unto thee in accordance with prophetic intimations which I formerly received concerning thee." Prophecy is ranked among the foremost of the special spiritual endowments enumerated by Paul. See Romans 12:6; 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 13:2, 1 Corinthians 13:8; 1 Corinthians 14:6, 1 Corinthians 14:22. In 1 Corinthians 12:28; Ephesians 4:11, prophets come next after apostles in the list of those whom God has appointed in the church. In Ephesians 2:20, believers, Jew and Gentile, are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets. According to 1 Timothy 4:14, prophecy has previously designated Timothy as the recipient of a special spiritual gift; and the prophecies in our passage are the single expressions or detailed contents of the prophecy mentioned there. Προαγεῖν to go before is not used by Paul. In the Pastorals and Hebrews it appears only as an intransitive verb, and so in the only instance in Luke, Luke 18:39. In Acts always transitive, to bring forth. See Acts 12:6; Acts 16:30; Acts 17:5; Acts 25:26.
That by them (ἵνα ἐν αὐταῖς)
Ἵνα that denoting the purport of the charge. By them (ἐν), lit. in them; in their sphere, or, possibly, in the power of these.
Thou mightiest war a good warfare (στρατεύῃ - τὴν καλὴν στρατείαν)
More correctly, the good warfare. Στρατεία war-fare once by Paul, 2 Corinthians 10:4. Not flight (μάχην), but covering all the particulars of a soldier's service.
Holding faith, and a good conscience; which some having put away concerning faith have made shipwreck:
Not merely having, but holding fast, as in 2 Timothy 1:13.
Faith and a good conscience (πίστιν καὶ ἀγαθὴν συνείδησιν)
The phrase good conscience is not in Paul, although συνείδησις is a Pauline word. The phrase appears once in Acts (Acts 23:1), and twice in 1 Peter 1 Peter 2:16, 1 Peter 2:21). In Hebrews evil (πονηρᾶς) conscience and fair (καλὴν) conscience; Hebrews 10:22; Hebrews 13:18. The combination faith and good conscience is peculiar to the Pastorals. Comp. 1 Timothy 3:9.
Referring to God conscience.
Having put away (ἀπωσάμενοι)
Concerning faith have made shipwreck (περὶ τὴν πίστιν ἐναυάγησαν)
Better, "concerning the faith made shipwreck." For a similar use of περὶ concerning, see Acts 19:25; Luke 10:40; 1 Timothy 6:21; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8. It is noteworthy that περὶ with the accusative occurs only once in Paul (Philippians 2:23). Ναυαγεῖν to make shipwreck only here and 2 Corinthians 11:25. Nautical metaphors are rare in Paul's writings.
Of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.