Romans 1:3
Parallel Verses
New International Version
regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David,

New Living Translation
The Good News is about his Son. In his earthly life he was born into King David's family line,

English Standard Version
concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh

New American Standard Bible
concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh,

King James Bible
Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;

Holman Christian Standard Bible
concerning His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, who was a descendant of David according to the flesh

International Standard Version
regarding his Son. He was a descendant of David with respect to his humanity

NET Bible
concerning his Son who was a descendant of David with reference to the flesh,

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
About his Son, who is begotten in the flesh from the seed of the house of David,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
This Good News is about his Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. In his human nature he was a descendant of David.

Jubilee Bible 2000
of his Son (who was born unto him of the seed of David according to the flesh,

King James 2000 Bible
Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was made of the descendants of David according to the flesh;

American King James Version
Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;

American Standard Version
concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,

Douay-Rheims Bible
Concerning his Son, who was made to him of the seed of David, according to the flesh,

Darby Bible Translation
concerning his Son (come of David's seed according to flesh,

English Revised Version
concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,

Webster's Bible Translation
Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh.

Weymouth New Testament
who, as regards His human descent, belonged to the posterity of David,

World English Bible
concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,

Young's Literal Translation
concerning His Son, (who is come of the seed of David according to the flesh,
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

1:1-7 The doctrine of which the apostle Paul wrote, set forth the fulfilment of the promises by the prophets. It spoke of the Son of God, even Jesus the Saviour, the promised Messiah, who came from David as to his human nature, but was also declared to be the Son of God, by the Divine power which raised him from the dead. The Christian profession does not consist in a notional knowledge or a bare assent, much less in perverse disputings, but in obedience. And all those, and those only, are brought to obedience of the faith, who are effectually called of Jesus Christ. Here is, 1. The privilege of Christians; they are beloved of God, and are members of that body which is beloved. 2. The duty of Christians; to be holy, hereunto are they called, called to be saints. These the apostle saluted, by wishing them grace to sanctify their souls, and peace to comfort their hearts, as springing from the free mercy of God, the reconciled Father of all believers, and coming to them through the Lord Jesus Christ.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 3. Which was made; or, was born. But the word in itself, γενομένου, need only mean that he became a Man of the seed of David; implying, it would seem, a pre-existence of him who so became. This, however, is more evident from other passages, in which ω}ν, or ὑπάρχων, is opposed to γενόμενος (cf. John 1:1, 14; Philippians 2:6, 7; cf. also Galatians 4:4, Ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ Θεὸς τοῦ υἱὸν αὐτοῦ γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικὸς). Of the seed of David according to the flesh. Κατὰ σάρκα is here, as elsewhere, contrasted with κατὰ πνεῦμα. Here κατὰ σάρκα denotes the merely human descent of Jesus in distinction from his Divine Being (cf. Acts 2:40; Romans 9:3, 5; 2 Corinthians 5:16). His having come humanly "of the seed of David" is suitably noted here, where "the Son" is being set forth as fulfilling the Old Testament promises; for they uniformly represent the Messiah as thus descended, and it was essential to the Jewish conception of him that he should be so (cf. Matthew 22:42; John 7:42; and for the stress laid by the writers of the New Testament on the fact that Jesus was so - of which fact no doubt was entertained - cf. Hebrews 7:14, πρόδηλον γὰρ, etc. See, among many other passages, Matthew 1:1; Luke 2:4, 5; Acts 2:30; Acts 13:23; 2 Timothy 2:8). Meyer, commenting on the verse before us, goes somewhat out of his way to set forth that only Joseph's, not Mary's, descent from David was in St. Paul's mind, saying that "the Davidic descent of the mother of Jesus can by no means be established from the New Testament," and also that "Paul nowhere indicates the view of a supernatural generation of the bodily nature of Jesus." As to the first of these assertions, it may be observed that, in the opening chapters of our Gospel of St. Luke (representing certainly the early belief of the Church) our Lord seems to be regarded as actually descended from David - not legally so accounted only - though, at the same time, his supernatural generation is distinctly asserted (comp. Luke 1:32 with Luke 1:35). Hence we are led to infer Mary's, as well as Joseph's, descent from David, whether or not either of the genealogies given in St. Matthew's and St. Luke's Gospels represents hers. Further, with respect to those two genealogies (evidently independent ones, and both probably got from genealogical records preserved at Jerusalem), a probable way of accounting for the two distinct lines of descent through which Joseph seems to be traced to David, is to suppose one of them to be really Mary's, the legal representative of whose family Joseph had become by marriage, so as to be entered in legal documents as the son of her father (see art. on "Genealogy of Jesus Christ," in 'Dictionary of the Bible,' W. Smith, LL.D.). As to Meyer's second assertion above alluded to, it is true that St. Paul nowhere refers to our Lord's supernatural conception spoken of in the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke. But it does not follow that it was not already included in the Church's creed, or that St. Paul himself was unaware of it or disbelieved it. This is not the place for enlarging on the evidence, at the present day increasing in force, of the early origin of our existing Gospels, and of their being a true embodiment of the Church's original belief. St. Paul's silence as to the manner how the Son of God became incarnate may be accounted for by his not having had occasion, in his extant Epistles, to speak of it. He is occupied, in accordance with his peculiar mission, in setting forth the meaning and purpose of the Incarnation rather than its mode, and in preaching rather than catechetical instruction; and on the essential idea involved he is sufficiently explicit, viz. the peculiar Divine paternity of Christ, notwithstanding the human birth.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord,.... These words are in connection with "the Gospel of God", Romans 1:1, and express the subject matter of it, the Son of God, Jesus Christ our Lord; for Christ, as the Son of God, the Saviour of sinners, the only Mediator between God and men, who is Lord both of the dead and living, is the sum and substance of the Gospel: he is here described by his relation to God, his Son, of the same nature with him, equal to him, and distinct from him; by his usual names, "Jesus Christ", the one signifying a "Saviour", the other "anointed", and both, that he was anointed of God to be the Saviour of his people; and by his dominion over the saints our Lord, not merely by creation, but by redemption and grace, and happy is the person that can claim interest in him, as is here done; and by the distinction of natures in him:

which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; this respects Christ in his human nature, who was made flesh, and of a woman; and shows his existence before his incarnation, and the immediate power and hand of God in it; and which was done, not by transmutation of him into flesh, but by an assumption of human nature into union with his divine person: he is said to be made "of the seed of David"; this points out the family from whence he sprung; designs the posterity of David, particularly Mary; has regard to the promise made to David, which God fulfilled; and shows the royal descent of Christ: it is added, "according to the flesh"; that is, according to his human nature; which phrase does not denote the corruption, but the truth of that nature; and supposes that he had another nature, otherwise there would have been no need of this limiting and restrictive clause.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

3, 4. Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord—the grand burden of this "Gospel of God."

made of the seed of David—as, according to "the holy scriptures," He behooved to be. (See on [2171]Mt 1:1).

according to the flesh—that is, in His human nature (compare Ro 9:5; Joh 1:14); implying, of course, that He had another nature, of which the apostle immediately proceeds to speak.

Romans 1:3 Additional Commentaries
Context
Greetings to the Saints in Rome
2which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy Scriptures, 3concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh, 4who was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord,…
Cross References
Matthew 1:1
This is the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah the son of David, the son of Abraham:

John 1:14
The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.

Romans 4:1
What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, discovered in this matter?

Romans 9:3
For I could wish that I myself were cursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my people, those of my own race,

Romans 9:5
Theirs are the patriarchs, and from them is traced the human ancestry of the Messiah, who is God over all, forever praised! Amen.

1 Corinthians 10:18
Consider the people of Israel: Do not those who eat the sacrifices participate in the altar?

Galatians 4:4
But when the set time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law,

1 Timothy 2:5
For there is one God and one mediator between God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus,
Treasury of Scripture

Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;

his Son.

Romans 1:9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son…

Romans 8:2,3,29-32 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free …

Psalm 2:7 I will declare the decree: the LORD has said to me, You are my Son; …

Matthew 3:17 And see a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom …

Matthew 26:63 But Jesus held his peace, And the high priest answered and said to …

Matthew 27:43 He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: …

Luke 1:35 And the angel answered and said to her, The Holy Ghost shall come …

John 1:34,49 And I saw, and bore record that this is the Son of God…

John 3:16-18,35,36 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that …

John 5:25 Truly, truly, I say to you, The hour is coming, and now is, when …

John 10:30,36 I and my Father are one…

John 20:28,31 And Thomas answered and said to him, My LORD and my God…

Acts 3:13 The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, …

Acts 8:37 And Philip said, If you believe with all your heart, you may. And …

Acts 9:20 And straightway he preached Christ in the synagogues, that he is the Son of God.

1 Corinthians 1:9 God is faithful, by whom you were called to the fellowship of his …

Galatians 4:4 But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, …

Colossians 1:13-15 Who has delivered us from the power of darkness, and has translated …

1 Thessalonians 1:10 And to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, …

1 John 1:3 That which we have seen and heard declare we to you, that you also …

1 John 3:8,23 He that commits sin is of the devil; for the devil sins from the …

1 John 4:9,10,15 In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God …

1 John 5:1,5,10-13,20 Whoever believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God: and every …

Revelation 2:18 And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things said …

which.

2 Samuel 7:12-16 And when your days be fulfilled, and you shall sleep with your fathers, …

Psalm 89:36,37 His seed shall endure for ever, and his throne as the sun before me…

Isaiah 9:6,7 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given: and the government …

Jeremiah 23:5,6 Behold, the days come, said the LORD, that I will raise to David …

Jeremiah 33:15-17,26 In those days, and at that time, will I cause the Branch of righteousness …

Amos 9:11 In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, …

Matthew 1:1,6,16,20-23 The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the …

Matthew 9:27 And when Jesus departed there, two blind men followed him, crying, …

Matthew 12:23 And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the son of David?

Matthew 15:22 And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried …

Matthew 22:42-45 Saying, What think you of Christ? whose son is he? They say to him, …

Luke 1:31-33,69 And, behold, you shall conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, …

Luke 2:4-6 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, …

John 7:42 Has not the scripture said, That Christ comes of the seed of David, …

Acts 2:30 Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an …

Acts 13:22,23 And when he had removed him, he raised up to them David to be their …

2 Timothy 2:8 Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from the …

according.

Romans 8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, …

Romans 9:5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ …

Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your …

John 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelled among us, (and we beheld his glory…

Galatians 4:4 But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, …

1 Timothy 3:16 And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was …

1 John 4:2,3 Hereby know you the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses that …

2 John 1:7 For many deceivers are entered into the world, who confess not that …

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