Hosea 4:18
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
Even when their drinks are gone, they continue their prostitution; their rulers dearly love shameful ways.

New Living Translation
When the rulers of Israel finish their drinking, off they go to find some prostitutes. They love shame more than honor.

English Standard Version
When their drink is gone, they give themselves to whoring; their rulers dearly love shame.

New American Standard Bible
Their liquor gone, They play the harlot continually; Their rulers dearly love shame.

King James Bible
Their drink is sour: they have committed whoredom continually: her rulers with shame do love, Give ye.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
When their drinking is over, they turn to promiscuity. Israel's leaders fervently love disgrace.

International Standard Version
While drinking to excess, they prostitute themselves. They're in love with dishonor.

NET Bible
They consume their alcohol, then engage in cult prostitution; they dearly love their shameful behavior.

New Heart English Bible
Their drink has become sour. They play the prostitute continually. Her rulers dearly love their shameful way.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
When they're done drinking their wine, they continue to have sex with the prostitutes. Their rulers dearly love to act shamefully.

JPS Tanakh 1917
When their carouse is over, They take to harlotry; Her rulers deeply love dishonour.

New American Standard 1977
Their liquor gone,
            They play the harlot continually;
            Their rulers dearly love shame.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Their drink has become corrupted; they have committed whoredom continually; her princes love gifts, shamefully.

King James 2000 Bible
Their drink is sour: they have committed harlotry continually: her rulers love shame more than glory.

American King James Version
Their drink is sour: they have committed prostitution continually: her rulers with shame do love, Give you.

American Standard Version
Their drink is become sour; they play the harlot continually; her rulers dearly love shame.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Their banquet is separated, they have gone astray by fornication: they that should have protected them have loved to bring shame upon them.

Darby Bible Translation
Their drink is sour; they give themselves up to whoredom; her great men passionately love [their] shame.

English Revised Version
Their drink is become sour: they commit whoredom continually; her rulers dearly love shame.

Webster's Bible Translation
Their drink is sour: they have been guilty of lewd deeds continually: her rulers with shame do love, Give ye.

World English Bible
Their drink has become sour. They play the prostitute continually. Her rulers dearly love their shameful way.

Young's Literal Translation
Sour is their drink, They have gone diligently a-whoring, Her protectors have loved shame thoroughly.
Study Bible
God's Charges against Israel
17Ephraim is joined to idols; Let him alone. 18Their liquor gone, They play the harlot continually; Their rulers dearly love shame. 19The wind wraps them in its wings, And they will be ashamed because of their sacrifices.…
Cross References
Genesis 38:24
Now it was about three months later that Judah was informed, "Your daughter-in-law Tamar has played the harlot, and behold, she is also with child by harlotry." Then Judah said, "Bring her out and let her be burned!"

Hosea 9:10
I found Israel like grapes in the wilderness; I saw your forefathers as the earliest fruit on the fig tree in its first season. But they came to Baal-peor and devoted themselves to shame, And they became as detestable as that which they loved.

Micah 3:11
Her leaders pronounce judgment for a bribe, Her priests instruct for a price And her prophets divine for money. Yet they lean on the LORD saying, "Is not the LORD in our midst? Calamity will not come upon us."
Treasury of Scripture

Their drink is sour: they have committed prostitution continually: her rulers with shame do love, Give you.

drink.

Deuteronomy 32:32,33 For their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah: …

Isaiah 1:21,22 How is the faithful city become an harlot! it was full of judgment; …

Jeremiah 2:21 Yet I had planted you a noble vine, wholly a right seed: how then …

sour. Heb. gone. committed.

Hosea 4:2,10 By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing …

2 Kings 17:7-17 For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the …

her.

Exodus 23:8 And you shall take no gift: for the gift blinds the wise, and perverts …

Deuteronomy 16:19 You shall not wrest judgment; you shall not respect persons, neither …

1 Samuel 8:3 And his sons walked not in his ways, but turned aside after lucre, …

1 Samuel 12:3,4 Behold, here I am: witness against me before the LORD, and before …

Proverbs 30:15,16 The horse leach has two daughters, crying, Give, give. There are …

Amos 5:12 For I know your manifold transgressions and your mighty sins: they …

Micah 3:11 The heads thereof judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach …

Micah 7:3 That they may do evil with both hands earnestly, the prince asks, …

rulers. Heb. shields.

Psalm 47:9 The princes of the people are gathered together, even the people …

(18, 19) The Authorised version is here very defective. Translate, Their carousal hath become degraded; with whoring they whore. Her shields love shame. A blast hath seized her in its wings, so that they are covered with shame for their offerings. "Shields" mean the princes of the people, as in Psalm 47:9. The fern. "her" in these verses refers to Ephraim, in accordance with the common Hebrew idiom. The change of person to the masculine plural is characteristic of the style of Hebrew prophecy. The storm-wind hath seized upon her with its wings--carried her away like a swarm of locusts or a baffled bird.

Verses 18, 19. - The first of these two verses gives a picture of the degeneracy of the times; the second predicts the destruction that would ensue. Their drink is sour (margin, is gone): they have committed whoredom continually. If the first clause be taken literally,

(1) it denotes a charge of drunkenness preferred against Ephraim. To this vice the people of the northern kingdom, as is well known, were addicted: the wine, from oft-repeated potations, became sour in the stomach and produced loathsome eructations.

(2) Some, connecting closely the first and second clauses, and translating as in the margin, explain the meaning to be that "when their intoxication is gone they commit whoredom." But though drunkenness and debauchery frequently go together, it is rather during the former than afterwards that the latter is indulged in.

(3) The first clause had better be understood figuratively, and the latter either literally or figuratively, or both. Thus the sense is the degeneracy of principle among the people in general, or rather among the principal men of that day. By the finest wine becoming vapid, the prophet represents the leading men of the nation, on whom so much depended and from whom so much might be expected, as becoming unprincipled, and as being addicted to immorality or idolatry, or probably both (hazneh hiznu): "whoring they have committed whoredom."

(1) Her rulers (margin, shields) with shame do love, Give ye; or rather,

(2) her shields lore, love shame. The first takes הֵביּ for הָבוּ, as imperative of יָהַב, to give, and should rather be, "Her shields love, ' Give ye - shame, as there is no preposition before the word "shame;" even thus it is awkward. Most modern expositors take הֵבוּ as a contraction of אָהֵב ו, and so a repetition of part of the full verb preceding; thus: אָחְבוּ הֵבוּ, equivalent to "loved, loved." Ewald, Delitzsch, and Pusey understand it so; the latter says this "is probably one of the earliest forms of the intensive verb, repeating a part of the verb itself with its inflection." And Keil calls it "a construction resembling the pealal form." Among the sebirin, or conjectural readings, we find both words united into one; thus: אֲהַבהֵבוּ, equivalent to "mightily love." The shields are the princes, or natural protectors of the state, as in Psalm 47:9, "The princes of the people are gathered together.., for the shields of the earth be. long unto God." The shame they loved was the sin which is a shame to either princes or people, causes shame, and ends in shame. Isaiah expounds the thought (in Isaiah 1:22), a comparison of which confirms the above exposition.

(1) The wind hath bound her up in her wings; or,

(2) she hath bound up the wind with her in her skirts.

In the one case the wind is the strong storm-wind of Divine wrath that will seize on Ephraim, wrap her up with its wings, and carry her away. In the other, Ephraim wraps up the wind, that is, disappointment, the result of her sin, in the fold of her skirt. The

(1) translation of the first clause of ver. 19 is supported by Rashi: "The storm takes her in its wings, as that bird which the wind does not let rest until it makes him go far away; so the enemies will come upon them and carry them into exile." Translation

(2) is favored by Aben Ezra and Kimchi; the former says, "As the man who binds the wind in the folds of his robe without finding anything therein." And they shall be ashamed because of their sacrifices. Frustrated in her hopes, and disappointed by the idols, from which she hoped so much and got so little, she is ashamed of the sacrifices she offered them; not of the altars (LXX.), for the preposition rain is indispensable.



Their drink is sour,.... In their stomachs, having drank so much that they cannot digest it; hence nauseous eructations, with a filthy stench, are belched out; so it is a charge of drunkenness which Ephraim or the ten tribes were addicted to, and are accused of, Isaiah 28:1 or "their drink is gone" (y); it has lost its colour, brightness, smell, and flavour; it is turned to vinegar; expressive of the general corruption and depravity of manners and religion among them; see Isaiah 1:22 or "their drink departeth", or "causeth to depart"; or "is refractory" (z); that is, it made them refractory, like a refractory belief, as before; caused them to depart from God and his worship, and led them into all sin and irreligion, particularly what follows:

they have committed whoredom continually; corporeal whoredom, which drunkenness leads to; and spiritual whoredom or idolatry, which they had committed, and continued in, ever since the days of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, and increased therein:

her rulers with shame do love, give ye; or "her shields" (a); those that should have been the protectors of Israel, compared before to a heifer; and preserved them not only from their external enemies, but from all innovations in religion; and which we rightly enough render "rulers", civil and ecclesiastic, kings, princes, and priests; see Psalm 47:9, these "loved, give ye", which was a "shame" to them: the sense is, either they loved gifts and bribes, and were continually saying, "give, give", when causes were to be tried, and so perverted justice and judgment, which was very shameful; or they loved wine and strong drink, and therefore required it to be continually given them, which was very scandalous in rulers more especially, Proverbs 30:4; or they loved whoredom, both in a corporeal and spiritual sense, and desired more harlots and more idols, and added to their old ones, which was very abominable and ignominious. So the Targum,

"they turned themselves after fornication they loved, which brought shame unto them;''

and these may be considered as so many reasons why Judah should have nothing to do with Israel.

(y) "recessit potus eorum", Montanus, Drusius; "recessit vinum eorum", Schmidt. (z) "Recedere fecit inerum eorum", Tarnovius; "refractarium est merum eorum", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator. (a) "clypei ejus", Montanus, Vatablus; "scuta ejus", Drusius, Tarnovius; "cujus clypei", Cocceius. 18. Their drink is sour—metaphor for utter degeneracy of principle (Isa 1:22). Or, unbridled licentiousness; not mere ordinary sin, but as abandoned as drunkards who vomit and smell sour with wine potations [Calvin]. Maurer not so well translates, "When their drinking is over, they commit whoredoms," namely, in honor of Astarte (Ho 4:13, 14).

her rulers—Israel's; literally, "shields" (compare Ps 47:9).

with shame … love, Give ye—(Pr 30:15). No remedy could be effectual against their corruptions since the very rulers sold justice for gifts [Calvin]. Maurer translates, "The rulers are marvelously enamored of shame." English Version is better.4:12-19 The people consulted images, and not the Divine word. This would lead to disorder and sin. Thus men prepare scourges for themselves, and vice is spread through a people. Let not Judah come near the idolatrous worship of Israel. For Israel was devoted to idols, and must now be let alone. When sinners cast off the easy yoke of Christ, they go on in sin till the Lord saith, Let them alone. Then they receive no more warnings, feel no more convictions: Satan takes full possession of them, and they ripen for destruction. It is a sad and sore judgment for any man to be let alone in sin. Those who are not disturbed in their sin, will be destroyed for their sin. May we be kept from this awful state; for the wrath of God, like a strong tempest, will soon hurry impenitent sinners into ruin.
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