Exodus 22:21
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
"Do not mistreat or oppress a foreigner, for you were foreigners in Egypt.

New Living Translation
"You must not mistreat or oppress foreigners in any way. Remember, you yourselves were once foreigners in the land of Egypt.

English Standard Version
“You shall not wrong a sojourner or oppress him, for you were sojourners in the land of Egypt.

Berean Study Bible
You must not exploit or oppress a foreign resident, for you yourselves were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

New American Standard Bible
"You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

King James Bible
Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Christian Standard Bible
"You must not exploit a resident alien or oppress him, since you were resident aliens in the land of Egypt.

Contemporary English Version
Do not mistreat or abuse foreigners who live among you. Remember, you were foreigners in Egypt.

Good News Translation
"Do not mistreat or oppress a foreigner; remember that you were foreigners in Egypt.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
You must not exploit a foreign resident or oppress him, since you were foreigners in the land of Egypt."

International Standard Version
"You are not to wrong or oppress an alien, because you were aliens in the land of Egypt.

NET Bible
"You must not wrong a foreigner nor oppress him, for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

New Heart English Bible
"You shall not wrong a foreigner, neither shall you oppress him, for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"Never mistreat or oppress foreigners, because you were foreigners living in Egypt.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

New American Standard 1977
“And you shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Thou shalt neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

King James 2000 Bible
You shall neither wrong a stranger, nor oppress him: for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

American King James Version
You shall neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

American Standard Version
And a sojourner shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him: for ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Thou shalt not molest a stranger, nor afflict him: for yourselves also were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Darby Bible Translation
Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him; for ye have been strangers in the land of Egypt.

English Revised Version
And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Webster's Bible Translation
Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

World English Bible
"You shall not wrong an alien, neither shall you oppress him, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt.

Young's Literal Translation
'And a sojourner thou dost not oppress, nor crush him, for sojourners ye have been in the land of Egypt.
Study Bible
Laws of Social Responsibility
20Whoever sacrifices to any god except the LORD alone must be utterly destroyed. 21You must not exploit or oppress a foreign resident, for you yourselves were foreigners in the land of Egypt. 22You must not mistreat any widow or orphan.…
Cross References
Exodus 23:9
Do not oppress a foreign resident, since you yourselves know how it feels to be foreigners; for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

Leviticus 19:13
You must not defraud your neighbor or rob him. You must not withhold until morning the wages due a hired hand.

Leviticus 19:33
When a foreigner resides with you in your land, you must not oppress him.

Leviticus 19:34
You must treat the foreigner living among you as native-born and love him as yourself, for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt. I am the LORD your God.

Leviticus 25:35
Now if your countryman becomes destitute and cannot support himself among you, you are to help him like a foreigner or temporary resident, so that he can continue to live among you.

Deuteronomy 1:16
At that time I charged your judges: “Hear the disputes between your brothers, and judge fairly between a man and his brother or a foreign resident.

Deuteronomy 10:19
So you also must love the foreigner, since you yourselves were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

Deuteronomy 23:7
Do not despise an Edomite, for he is your brother. Do not despise an Egyptian, because you lived as a foreigner in his land.

Deuteronomy 23:16
Let him live among you wherever he chooses, in the town of his pleasing. Do not oppress him.

Deuteronomy 27:19
‘Cursed is he who withholds justice from the foreigner, the fatherless, or the widow.’ And let all the people say, ‘Amen!’

Psalm 146:9
The LORD protects the sojourners; He sustains the fatherless and the widow, but the ways of the wicked He frustrates.

Jeremiah 7:6
if you no longer oppress the foreigner, the fatherless, and the widow, and no longer shed innocent blood in this place or follow other gods to your own harm,

Jeremiah 22:3
This is what the LORD says: Administer justice and righteousness. Rescue the victim of robbery from the hand of his oppressor. Do no wrong or violence to the foreigner, the fatherless, or the widow. Do not shed innocent blood in this place.

Ezekiel 22:7
Father and mother are treated with contempt. Within your walls the foreign resident is exploited, the fatherless and the widow are oppressed.

Zechariah 7:10
Do not oppress the widow or the fatherless, the foreigner or the poor. And do not plot evil in your hearts against one another.’

Treasury of Scripture

You shall neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

vex a stranger

Exodus 23:9 Also you shall not oppress a stranger: for you know the heart of …

Leviticus 19:33 And if a stranger sojourn with you in your land, you shall not vex him.

Leviticus 25:35 And if your brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with you; …

Deuteronomy 10:19 Love you therefore the stranger: for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Jeremiah 7:6 If you oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and …

Jeremiah 22:3 Thus said the LORD; Execute you judgment and righteousness, and deliver …

Zechariah 7:10 And oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, the stranger, nor the poor…

Malachi 3:5 And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness …

for ye were strangers

Exodus 20:2 I am the LORD your God, which have brought you out of the land of …

Exodus 23:9 Also you shall not oppress a stranger: for you know the heart of …

Deuteronomy 10:19 Love you therefore the stranger: for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Deuteronomy 15:15 And you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, …

Deuteronomy 23:7 You shall not abhor an Edomite; for he is your brother: you shall …







(21-24) The juxtaposition of laws against oppression with three crimes of the deepest dye seems intended to indicate that oppression is among the sins which are most hateful in God's sight. The lawgiver, however, does not say that it is to be punished capitally, nor, indeed, does he affix to it any legal penalty. Instead of so doing, he declares that God Himself will punish it "with the sword" (Exodus 22:24). Three classes of persons particularly liable to be oppressed are selected for mention--(1) Strangers, i.e., foreigners; (2) widows; and (3) orphans. Strangers have seldom been protected by any legislation, unless, indeed, they formed a class of permanent residents, like the Met?ci at Athens. The law of civilised communities has generally afforded some protection to the orphan and the widow, particularly in respect of rights of property. The protection given is, however, very generally insufficient; and it is of the highest importance that it should be supplemented by an assured belief that, beyond all legal penalties there lies the Divine sentence of wrath and punishment, certain to fall upon every one who, careless of law and right, makes the stranger, the widow, or the orphan to suffer wrong at his hands.

(21) For ye were strangers.--Ye should, therefore, sympathise with "strangers;" not "vex them," not "oppress them," but "love them as yourselves" (Leviticus 19:34). The condition of foreigners in Israel is shown to have been more than tolerable by the examples of the Kenites (Judges 1:16; Judges 4:11); of Araunah the Jebusite (2Samuel 24:18-24); of Uriah the Hittite (2Samuel 23:39), Zelek the Ammonite (2Samuel 23:37), and others.

Verse 21. - Law against oppression of foreigners. It may be doubted whether such a law as this was ever made in any other country. Foreigners are generally looked upon as "fair game," whom the natives of a country may ridicule and annoy at their pleasure. Native politeness gives them an exceptional position in France; but elsewhere it is the general rule to "vex" them. The Mosaic legislation protested strongly against this practice (Exodus 23:9; Leviticus 19:33), and even required the Israelites to "love the stranger who dwelt with them as themselves" (Leviticus 19:34). For ye were strangers. Compare Leviticus 19:34, and Deuteronomy 10:19. In Exodus 23:9 the addition is made - "For ye know the heart of a stranger" - ye know; i.e., the feelings which strangers have when they are vexed and oppressed - ye know this by your own sad experience, and should therefore have a tenderness for strangers. Thou shall not vex a stranger,.... One that is not born in the same country, but comes into another country to sojourn, as Jarchi; not a native of the place, but of another kingdom or country; a stranger to the commonwealth of Israel, that is only in it for a time on trade and business, or through one providence or another; or else a proselyte is meant, not a proselyte of righteousness, who has embraced the true religion; but a proselyte of the gate, that takes upon him the commands of the sons of Noah; or, as Aben Ezra here expresses it, who takes upon him not to serve idols; such were allowed to dwell among the Israelites, and they were to carry it friendly and kindly to them, and "not vex" them, nor irritate them with words, as the Targum of Jonathan, and so Jarchi; by calling them names, Gentiles, uncircumcised persons, and the like; upbraiding them with their country, ignorance, and manner of life; they were not to say to a proselyte, as Ben Melech observes, remember thy former works; or, if the son of a proselyte, remember thy father's works:

nor oppress him; by taking his goods, as the above Targum, and so Jarchi; by refusing to assist him with advice or otherwise, to trade with him, or to give him lodging, and furnish him with the necessaries of life:

for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: out of which they were but just come, and therefore such a reason must be very striking and moving upon them: the Targum of Jonathan prefaces it,"and my people, the house of Israel, remember that ye were strangers, &c.''this they could not have forgot in so short a time, and the remembrance of this should move their compassion to strangers hereafter, when they came to settle in their own land; and therefore, as they would that men should have done to them when in such circumstances, the same they should do to others; and besides, the remembrance of this would serve to abate their pride and vanity, and their overbearing disposition. 22; 1 - 31 Judicial laws. - The people of God should ever be ready to show mildness and mercy, according to the spirit of these laws. We must answer to God, not only for what we do maliciously, but for what we do heedlessly. Therefore, when we have done harm to our neighbour, we should make restitution, though not compelled by law. Let these scriptures lead our souls to remember, that if the grace of God has indeed appeared to us, then it has taught us, and enabled us so to conduct ourselves by its holy power, that denying ungodliness and wordly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world, Titus 2:12. And the grace of God teaches us, that as the Lord is our portion, there is enough in him to satisfy all the desires of our souls.
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