Exodus 22
Holman Christian Standard Bible

Laws about Theft

1When a man steals an ox or a sheep and butchers it or sells it, he must repaya five cattle for the ox or four sheep for the sheep. 2bIf a thief is caught in the act of breaking in, and he is beaten to death, no one is guilty of bloodshed.c 3But if this happens after sunrise,d there is guilt of bloodshed. A thief must make full restitution. If he is unable, he is to be sold because of his theft.e 4If what was stolen — whether ox, donkey, or sheep — is actually found alive in his possession, he must repay double.

Laws about Crop Protection

5When a man lets a field or vineyard be grazed in, and then allows his animals to go and graze in someone else’s field, he must repayf with the best of his own field or vineyard.

6When a fire gets out of control, spreads to thornbushes, and consumes stacks of cut grain, standing grain, or a field, the one who started the fire must make full restitution for what was burned.

Laws about Personal Property

7When a man gives his neighbor money or goods to keep, but they are stolen from that person’s house, the thief, if caught, must repay double. 8If the thief is not caught, the owner of the house must present himself to the judgesg to determineh whether or not he has taken his neighbor’s property.i 9In any case of wrongdoing involving an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or anything else lost, and someone claims, ‘That’s mine,’j the case between the two parties is to come before the judges.k The one the judges condemnl must repay double to his neighbor.

10When a man gives his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any other animal to care for, but it dies, is injured, or is stolen, while no one is watching, 11there must be an oath before the LORD between the two of them to determine whether or not he has taken his neighbor’s property. Its owner must accept the oath, and the other man does not have to make restitution. 12But if, in fact, the animal was stolen from his custody, he must make restitution to its owner.m 13If it was actually torn apart by a wild animal, he is to bring it as evidence; he does not have to make restitution for the torn carcass.

14When a man borrows an animal from his neighbor, and it is injured or dies while its owner is not there with it, the man must make full restitution. 15If its owner is there with it, the man does not have to make restitution. If it was rented, the loss is covered byn its rental price.

Laws about Seduction

16If a man seduces a virgin who is not engaged, and he has sexual relations with her, he must certainly pay the bridal price for her to be his wife. 17If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he must pay an amount in silver equal to the bridal price for virgins.o

Capital Offenses

18You must not allow a sorceressp to live.

19Whoever has sexual intercourse with an animalq must be put to death.

20Whoever sacrifices to any gods, except the LORD alone, is to be set apart for destruction.r

Laws Protecting the Vulnerable

21You must not exploit a foreign residents or oppress him, since you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

22You must not mistreat any widow or fatherless child.t 23If you do mistreat them, they will no doubt cry to Me, and I will certainly hear their cry.u 24My anger will burn, and I will kill you with the sword; then your wives will be widows and your children fatherless.v

25If you lend money to My people, to the poor person among you, you must not be like a moneylender to him; you must not charge him interest.w

26If you ever take your neighbor’s cloak as collateral, return it to him before sunset. 27For it is his only covering; it is the clothing for his body.x What will he sleep in? And if he cries out to Me, I will listen because I am compassionate.y

Respect for God

28You must not blaspheme Godz or curse a leader among your people.aa

29You must not hold back offeringsab from your harvest or your vats. Give Me the firstborn of your sons. 30Do the same with your cattle and your flock. Let them stay with their mothers for seven days, but on the eighth day you are to give them to Me.ac

31Be My holy people. You must not eat the meat of a mauled animalad found in the field; throw it to the dogs.


Footnotes:
a. 22:1 2Sm 12:6; Pr 6:31; Lk 19:8
b. 22:2 Ex 22:1 in Hb
c. 22:2 Nm 35:27; Mt 24:43
d. 22:3 Lit if the sun has risen over him
e. 22:3 Ex 21:2,16
f. 22:5 LXX adds from his field according to its produce. But if someone lets his animals graze an entire field, he must repay ; DSS, Sam also support this reading.
g. 22:8 Or to God
h. 22:8 LXX, Tg, Vg read swear
i. 22:8 Dt 17:8-9
j. 22:9 Lit That is it
k. 22:9 Or before God
l. 22:9 Or one whom God condemns
m. 22:11-12 Gn 31:39; Heb 6:16
n. 22:15 Lit rented, it comes with
o. 22:16-17 Gn 34:12; Dt 22:28-29
p. 22:18 Lv 20:27; Dt 18:11; 1Sm 28:3
q. 22:19 Lv 18:23; 20:15; Dt 27:21
r. 22:20 Dt 17:2-5
s. 22:21 Lv 19:33; Dt 10:19
t. 22:22 Dt 24:17; Jms 1:27
u. 22:23 Ps 18:6; Lk 18:7
v. 22:24 Ps 69:4; 109:9
w. 22:25 Lv 25:36-37; Dt 23:20; Ps 15:5
x. 22:27 Lit skin
y. 22:26-27 Ex 34:6; Dt 24:6
z. 22:28 Or judges
aa. 22:28 Ec 10:20; Ac 23:5
ab. 22:29 Ex 13:2; 23:16
ac. 22:30 Lv 22:27; Dt 15:19
ad. 22:31 Ex 19:2; Ezk 4:14
Exodus 21
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