Leviticus 11:13
New International Version
"'These are the birds you are to regard as unclean and not eat because they are unclean: the eagle, the vulture, the black vulture,

New Living Translation
"These are the birds that are detestable to you. You must never eat them: the griffon vulture, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,

English Standard Version
“And these you shall detest among the birds; they shall not be eaten; they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,

Berean Study Bible
Additionally, you are to detest the following birds, and they must not be eaten because they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,

New American Standard Bible
'These, moreover, you shall detest among the birds; they are abhorrent, not to be eaten: the eagle and the vulture and the buzzard,

King James Bible
And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,

Christian Standard Bible
"You are to abhor these birds. They must not be eaten because they are abhorrent: eagles, bearded vultures, Egyptian vultures,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
You are to detest these birds. They must not be eaten because they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,

International Standard Version
"These are detestable things for you among winged creatures that you are not to eat, because they are detestable for you: the eagle, vulture, osprey,

NET Bible
"'These you are to detest from among the birds--they must not be eaten, because they are detestable: the griffon vulture, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,

New Heart English Bible
"'These you shall detest among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the vulture, and the black vulture,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"Here are the kinds of birds you must consider disgusting and must not eat. They are eagles, bearded vultures, black vultures,

JPS Tanakh 1917
And these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;

New American Standard 1977
‘These, moreover, you shall detest among the birds; they are abhorrent, not to be eaten: the eagle and the vulture and the buzzard,

Jubilee Bible 2000
And these ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they shall be an abomination: the eagle, the ossifrage, the ospray,

King James 2000 Bible
And these are they which you shall hold in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the vulture, and the osprey,

American King James Version
And these are they which you shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,

American Standard Version
And these ye shall have in abomination among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the gier-eagle, and the ospray,

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And these are the things which ye shall abhor of birds, and they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle and the ossifrage, and the sea-eagle.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Of birds these are they which you must not eat, and which are to be avoided by you: The eagle, and the griffon, and the osprey,

Darby Bible Translation
And these shall ye have in abomination of the fowls; they shall not be eaten; an abomination shall they be: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the sea-eagle,

English Revised Version
And these ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the gier eagle, and the ospray;

Webster's Bible Translation
And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,

World English Bible
"'These you shall detest among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the vulture, and the black vulture,

Young's Literal Translation
And these ye do abominate of the fowl; they are not eaten, an abomination they are: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
Study Bible
Clean and Unclean Animals
12Everything in the water that does not have fins and scales shall be detestable to you. 13Additionally, you are to detest the following birds, and they must not be eaten because they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture, 14the kite, and any kind of falcon;…
Cross References
Leviticus 11:11
They shall be an abomination to you; you must not eat their meat, and you must detest their carcasses.

Leviticus 11:12
Everything in the water that does not have fins and scales shall be detestable to you.

Leviticus 11:14
the kite, and any kind of falcon;

Deuteronomy 14:12
but these you may not eat: the eagle, the vulture, the black vulture,

Zechariah 5:9
Then I lifted up my eyes and saw two women approaching, with the wind in their wings. Their wings were like those of a stork, and they lifted up the basket between heaven and earth.

Treasury of Scripture

And these are they which you shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,

Deuteronomy 14:12-20
But these are they of which ye shall not eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray, …

Job 28:7
There is a path which no fowl knoweth, and which the vulture's eye hath not seen:

Job 38:41
Who provideth for the raven his food? when his young ones cry unto God, they wander for lack of meat.

the ossifrage.







Lexicon
Additionally,
וְאֶת־ (wə·’eṯ-)
Conjunctive waw | Direct object marker
Strong's Hebrew 853: Untranslatable mark of the accusative case

you are to detest
תְּשַׁקְּצ֣וּ (tə·šaq·qə·ṣū)
Verb - Piel - Imperfect - second person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 8262: To be filthy, to loathe, pollute

the following
אֵ֙לֶּה֙ (’êl·leh)
Pronoun - common plural
Strong's Hebrew 428: These, those

birds,
הָע֔וֹף (hā·‘ō·wp̄)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5775: Flying creatures

and they must not
לֹ֥א (lō)
Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's Hebrew 3808: Not, no

be eaten
יֵאָכְל֖וּ (yê·’ā·ḵə·lū)
Verb - Nifal - Imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 398: To eat

because they
הֵ֑ם (hêm)
Pronoun - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 1992: They

are detestable:
שֶׁ֣קֶץ (še·qeṣ)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8263: Detestation, detestable thing

the eagle,
הַנֶּ֙שֶׁר֙ (han·ne·šer)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5404: The eagle

the bearded vulture,
הַפֶּ֔רֶס (hap·pe·res)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6538: (a bird of prey) perhaps bearded vulture

the black vulture,
הָעָזְנִיָּֽה׃ (hā·‘ā·zə·nî·yāh)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5822: (a bird of prey) perhaps vulture
(13) Ye shall have in abomination among the fowls.--The third of the four great divisions of the animal kingdom--viz., the birds of the air, in accordance with their proper sequence--is discussed in Leviticus 11:13-19. It will be seen that, whilst in the case of the two preceding divisions of the animal kingdom certain signs are given by which to distinguish the clean from the unclean animals, in the division before us a list is simply given of the birds which are unclean and prohibited. This absence of all criteria is all the more remarkable, since after some of the birds mentioned it is added "after his kind," or "after her kind" (see Leviticus 11:14-16; Leviticus 11:19), thus showing that kindred species were included in the prohibition, and that it was left to those who had to administer this law, to lay down some general signs by which the proscribed species are to be known. Hence the following rules obtained during the second Temple. Those birds are unclean (1) which snatch their food in the air, and devour it without first dropping it on the ground; (2) which strike with their talons and press down with their foot the prey to the ground, and then tear off pieces with their beak for consumption; (3) which "divide their feet" when standing on an extended rope or branch, placing two toes on the one side and two on the other, and not three in front and one behind; and (4) whose eggs are equally narrow or equally round at both ends, and have the white in the middle and the yolk around it.

The eagle.--As the king of the birds, the eagle stands first in the list. It denotes here all the species of the eagle proper. Arabian writers, scientific travellers, and the most distinguished naturalists, concur in their testimony that the eagle eats carrion when it is still fresh, thus harmonizing with the description in Job 39:10; Proverbs 30:17; Matthew 24:28, &c. The assertion, therefore, that the bird here meant is the Egyptian vulture, because the eagle disdains dead bodies and feeds only on what it kills itself, is erroneous. Besides the kindred dialects, all the ancient versions and the best Hebrew scholars place it beyond a doubt that Nesher here denotes eagle. Afterwards, however, the carrion-kite and the golden vulture were also reckoned among the different species of eagles. Hence the allusion in Micah 1:16.

The ossifrage.--That is, the bone-breaker, or simply the breaker, is the literal translation of the expression here used in the original, which only occurs again in the parallel passage in Deuteronomy 14:12. It is most probably the bearded griffin or lammergeier, which unites in itself the eagle and the vulture, and is therefore aptly called gypaetus or vulture-eagle, and appropriately stands in the list here between the eagle and the vulture. The fitness of its name may be seen from its habits. It takes the bones of animals, which other birds of prey have denuded of the flesh, up into the air and then lets them fall upon a well-selected projecting rock. and thus literally breaks them in order to get at their marrow, or to render the fragments of the bones more digestible.

And the ospray, or sea-eagle. It is about the size of the golden-eagle, and preys principally upon fish, but also occasionally on birds and other animals, and when its extreme voracity is not satisfied, will devour the most putrid carrion. Hence its place in the catalogue of unclean birds. The word only occurs again in the parallel passage, Deuteronomy 14:12.

Verses 13-19. - The unclean birds are those which are gross feeders, devourers of flesh or offal, and therefore offensive to the taste, beginning with the eagle and vulture tribe. It is probable that the words translated owl (verse 16), night hawk (verse 16), cuckow (verse 16) should be rendered, ostrich, owl, gull, and perhaps for swan (verse 18), heron (verse 19), lapwing (verse 19), should be substituted ibis, great plover, hoopoe. In the case of the bat, we have again phenomenal language used. Being generally regarded as a bird, it is classed with birds. 11:1-47 What animals were clean and unclean. - These laws seem to have been intended, 1. As a test of the people's obedience, as Adam was forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge; and to teach them self-denial, and the government of their appetites. 2. To keep the Israelites distinct from other nations. Many also of these forbidden animals were objects of superstition and idolatry to the heathen. 3. The people were taught to make distinctions between the holy and unholy in their companions and intimate connexions. 4. The law forbad, not only the eating of the unclean beasts, but the touching of them. Those who would be kept from any sin, must be careful to avoid all temptations to it, or coming near it. The exceptions are very minute, and all were designed to call forth constant care and exactness in their obedience; and to teach us to obey. Whilst we enjoy our Christian liberty, and are free from such burdensome observances, we must be careful not to abuse our liberty. For the Lord hath redeemed and called his people, that they may be holy, even as he is holy. We must come out, and be separate from the world; we must leave the company of the ungodly, and all needless connexions with those who are dead in sin; we must be zealous of good works devoted followers of God, and companions of his people.
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OT Law: Leviticus 11:13 These you shall detest among the birds (Le Lv Lev.) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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