Leviticus 11:18
New International Version
the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,

New Living Translation
the barn owl, the desert owl, the Egyptian vulture,

English Standard Version
the barn owl, the tawny owl, the carrion vulture,

Berean Study Bible
the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,

King James Bible
And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,

New King James Version
the white owl, the jackdaw, and the carrion vulture;

New American Standard Bible
the white owl, the pelican, and the carrion vulture,

NASB 1995
and the white owl and the pelican and the carrion vulture,

NASB 1977
and the white owl and the pelican and the carrion vulture,

Amplified Bible
the white owl, the pelican, the carrion vulture,

Christian Standard Bible
barn owls, eagle owls, ospreys,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,

American Standard Version
and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the vulture,

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the stork and the hoopoe with its kinds,

Brenton Septuagint Translation
and the red-bill, and the pelican, and swan,

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the swan, and the bittern, and the porphyrion,

English Revised Version
and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the vulture;

GOD'S WORD® Translation
barn owls, pelicans, ospreys,

International Standard Version
water-hens, pelicans, carrion,

JPS Tanakh 1917
and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the carrion-vulture;

Literal Standard Version
and the waterhen, and the pelican, and the Egyptian vulture,

NET Bible
the white owl, the scops owl, the osprey,

New Heart English Bible
the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,

World English Bible
the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,

Young's Literal Translation
and the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,

Additional Translations ...
Context
Clean and Unclean Animals
17the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl, 18 the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey, 19the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe, and the bat.…

Cross References
Leviticus 11:13
Additionally, you are to detest the following birds, and they must not be eaten because they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,

Leviticus 11:17
the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl,

Leviticus 11:19
the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe, and the bat.

Deuteronomy 14:17
the desert owl, the osprey, the cormorant,


Treasury of Scripture

And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,

no references listed for this verse.









(18) And the swan.--The word here translated "swan," which, besides the parallel list in Deut., also occurs in Leviticus 11:30, among the names of the lizards, denotes, according to tradition, another variety of the owl. Whatever difficulty there may be about the true import of the word, it is certainly not the swan. It has, however, also been translated "ibis," "bat," "purple water-hen," "heron," "pelican," and "goose."

And the pelican.--The pelican is one of the largest and most voracious of the web-footed birds. It fills its capacious pouch with fish almost to suffocation, which it disgorges either for its own future consumption, or for the nourishment of its young, by pressing the under mandible against the neck and breast to assist the vomiting up of the contents. Hence its Hebrew name, which denotes "the vomiter." During this operation the red nail of the upper mandible comes in contact with the breast, thus imparting to it the appearance of blood, which is most probably the origin of the fable that it feeds its young with its own life-blood. The pelican often builds in deserted places as far as twenty miles from the shore. When it has filled its expansive pouch with prey, it retires to its lonely place of repose, where it remains with its head leaning against its breast almost motionless till impelled by hunger to fly to the water in search for a fresh store of victims. It is to this melancholy attitude of lonely desolation that the Psalmist refers when he says, "I am like a pelican of the wilderness" (Psalm 102:6), and it is to its habit of building in deserted places that the prophets allude when they describe the desolation of Edom and Nineveh by saying that "the pelican shall possess" them (Isaiah 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14). In the last two passages the Authorised Version, which wrongly translates it "cormorant" in the text, has rightly pelican in the margin.

And the gier eagle.--As the name of a bird, this word (racham), which is here in the masculine form, and denotes "the merciful," only occurs again in the parallel passage, Deuteronomy 14:17, where, however, it is in the feminine (rachamah). The species here intended is most probably the Gyps, called alternately the sacred or Egyptian vulture and Pharaoh's hen, which is often figured on the ancient Egyptian monuments. It was regarded with religious veneration in Egypt, both because it prevented epidemics by acting as scavenger, and because of its extreme devotion and tenderness to its young, since it was believed to watch over its offspring a hundred and twenty days every year, and to feed them, if necessary, with the blood of its thighs. Hence it was used to denote both "mother" and "merciful" in Egyptian, and hence, too, its name "merciful" in Hebrew. The ancients also believed that there were no male vultures, and that the females conceived through the wind. It was probably to counteract this superstitious belief that the lawgiver uses here the masculine form and the feminine form in the parallel passage in Deuteronomy 14:17. The vulture is most loathsome in its habits, and feeds upon the foulest carrion, for which reason it is put in the list of unclean birds.



Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
the white owl,
הַתִּנְשֶׁ֥מֶת (hat·tin·še·meṯ)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's 8580: A hard breather, two unclean creatures, a lizard and a, bird, the tree-toad and the water-hen

the desert owl,
הַקָּאָ֖ת (haq·qā·’āṯ)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's 6893: (a bird) perhaps pelican

the osprey,
הָרָחָֽם׃ (hā·rā·ḥām)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 7360: A kind of vulture


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OT Law: Leviticus 11:18 The white owl the desert owl (Le Lv Lev.)
Leviticus 11:17
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