Leviticus 11:16
New International Version
the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk,

New Living Translation
the eagle owl, the short-eared owl, the seagull, hawks of all kinds,

English Standard Version
the ostrich, the nighthawk, the sea gull, the hawk of any kind,

Berean Study Bible
the ostrich, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk,

King James Bible
And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,

New King James Version
the ostrich, the short-eared owl, the sea gull, and the hawk after its kind;

New American Standard Bible
the ostrich, the owl, the seagull, and the hawk in its kind,

NASB 1995
and the ostrich and the owl and the sea gull and the hawk in its kind,

NASB 1977
and the ostrich and the owl and the sea gull and the hawk in its kind,

Amplified Bible
the ostrich, the nighthawk, the sea gull, every species of hawk,

Christian Standard Bible
ostriches, short-eared owls, gulls, any kind of hawk,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
the ostrich, the short-eared owl, the gull, any kind of hawk,

American Standard Version
and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the seamew, and the hawk after its kind,

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the little owl, the heron and the crow,

Brenton Septuagint Translation
and every raven, and the birds like it, and the hawk and his like,

Douay-Rheims Bible
The ostrich, and the owl, and the larus, and the hawk according to its kind.

English Revised Version
and the ostrich, and the night hawk, and the seamew, and the hawk after its kind;

GOD'S WORD® Translation
ostriches, nighthawks, seagulls, all types of falcons,

International Standard Version
ostrich, nighthawk, seagull, hawks of every kind,

JPS Tanakh 1917
and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds;

Literal Standard Version
and the ostrich, and the nightjar [[or male ostrich]], and the seagull, and the hawk after its kind,

NET Bible
the eagle owl, the short-eared owl, the long-eared owl, the hawk of any kind,

New Heart English Bible
the horned owl, the screech owl, and the gull, any kind of hawk,

World English Bible
the horned owl, the screech owl, and the gull, any kind of hawk,

Young's Literal Translation
and the owl, and the night-hawk, and the cuckoo, and the hawk after its kind,

Additional Translations ...
Context
Clean and Unclean Animals
15any kind of raven, 16 the ostrich, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk, 17the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl,…

Cross References
Leviticus 11:15
any kind of raven,

Leviticus 11:17
the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl,

Deuteronomy 14:15
the ostrich, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk,

Isaiah 34:11
The desert owl and screech owl will possess it, and the great owl and raven will dwell in it. The LORD will stretch out over Edom a measuring line of chaos and a plumb line of destruction.


Treasury of Scripture

And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,

Deuteronomy 14:15-18
And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind, …

Psalm 102:6
I am like a pelican of the wilderness: I am like an owl of the desert.

Isaiah 13:21,22
But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there…









(16) And the owl.--Better, and the ostrich, as the Authorised Version rightly renders it in the margin in three out of the eight passages in which it occurs, viz., Job 30:29, Isaiah 34:13; Isaiah 43:20; literally, the daughter or inhabitant of the desert. The ostrich, which is the largest bird and the swiftest of all cursorial animals, was associated by the Hebrews with the terrors of the wilderness, and was regarded by the ancients as an unnatural hybrid, as a kind of half bird and half quadruped. It dwells amongst desolated places (Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:13; Jeremiah 50:39), fills the air with its doleful and hideous wails (Micah 1:8) and cruelly neglects its eggs to be hatched by the sun or trodden down under foot (Lamentations 4:3; Job 39:17-18). Owing to its proverbial stupidity, this hybrid is selected with another monster to illustrate the abundant goodness of the Lord, by showing that even this creature will become sensible of gratitude and break forth into thanksgiving and praise (Isaiah 43:20). The flesh of the ostrich was eaten by the ancient Ethiopians, Indians, and other nations. The Romans regarded ostrich brains as a great delicacy. The ostrich occasionally devours fowls and other small vertebrates like a bird of prey, and tradition assures us that ostriches consumed the body of Agag.

And the night hawk.--Of all the unclean birds constituting this list, the one here rendered night hawk is the most difficult to identify. The name in the original (tachmas) simply describes the bird as "the violent" one, or the rapacious, or "the cruel," and this designation would apply to any bird of prey not already specified in this catalogue. Hence it has alternately been taken for the owl, the night hawk, the male ostrich, the falcon, the seabird gannet, the cuckoo, and the swallow. It will, however, be seen that all the large birds of prey which are here hazarded, have either already been mentioned or are mentioned in the sequel of this list, whilst the small birds, viz., the cuckoo and the swallow, are too insignificant and too harmless to be placed between the large raptorial companions. In this uncertainty of opinion it is best to leave the Authorised Version alone. The name only occurs again in the parallel passage in Deuteronomy 14:15.

And the cuckow.--Rather, and the sea-gull. Like the foregoing bird of prey, the shachaph here mentioned only occurs again in the duplicate list of unclean animals in Deuteronomy 14:15. It literally means the thin, slender, or cadaverous bird, and is taken by the most ancient authorities to denote the sea-gull, which is "the raven of the sea." It darts down with great velocity upon its victim, like a bird of prey. It not only eats fishes, insects, and smaller aquatic animals, but feeds upon carrion. The eggs of the gulls and the flesh of the young birds are to this day eaten both in the East and in some northern countries of Europe.

And the hawk.--Besides the parallel passage in Deuteronomy 14:15, the hawk (netz) also occurs in Job 39:26, where it is described as a migratory bird, since it migrates to a more southern climate on the approach of winter. It feeds upon mammals, birds, and amphibia, and attacks even its own parent, mate, and offspring. It abounds in a variety of species in all parts of Asia. Hence the remark "after his kind." Some tribes regard the flesh of the hawk as very palatable.



Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
the ostrich,
בַּ֣ת (baṯ)
Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's 1323: A daughter

the night hawk,
הַתַּחְמָ֖ס (hat·taḥ·mās)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 8464: A species of unclean bird, an owl

the gull,
הַשָּׁ֑חַף (haš·šā·ḥap̄)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 7828: A sea mew, gull

and
וְאֶת־ (wə·’eṯ-)
Conjunctive waw | Direct object marker
Strong's 853: Untranslatable mark of the accusative case

any kind
לְמִינֵֽהוּ׃ (lə·mî·nê·hū)
Preposition-l | Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 4327: A sort, species

of hawk;
הַנֵּ֖ץ (han·nêṣ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 5322: A flower, a hawk


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OT Law: Leviticus 11:16 The horned owl the screech owl (Le Lv Lev.)
Leviticus 11:15
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