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Smith's Bible DictionaryTomb
From the burial of Sarah in the cave of Machpelah, (Genesis 23:19) to the funeral rites prepared for Dorcas, (Acts 9:37) there is no mention of any sarcophagus, or even coffin, in any Jewish burial. Still less were the rites of the Jews like those of the Pelasgi or Etruscans. They were marked with the same simplicity that characterized all their religious observances. This simplicity of rite led to what may be called the distinguishing characteristic of Jewish sepulchres --the deep loculus --which, so far as is now known, is universal in all purely Jewish rock-cut tombs, but hardly known elsewhere. Its form will be understood by referring to the following diagram, representing the forms of Jewish sepulture. In the apartment marked A there are twelve such loculi about two feet in width by three feet high. On the ground floor these generally open on the level of the door; when in the upper story, as at C, on a ledge or platform, on which the body might be laid to be anointed, and on which the stones might rest which closed the outer end of each loculus. The shallow loculus is shown in chamber B, but was apparently only used when sarcophagi were employed, and therefore, so far as we know, only during the Graeco-Roman period, when foreign customs came to be adopted. The shallow loculus would have been singularly inappropriate and inconvenient where an unembalmed body was laid out to decay, as there would evidently be no means of shutting it off from the rest of the catacomb. The deep loculus, on the other hand, was strictly conformable with Jewish customs, and could easily be closed by a stone fitted to the end and luted into the groove which usually exists there. This fact is especially interesting as it affords a key to much that is otherwise hard to be understood in certain passages in the New Testament; Thus in (John 11:59) Jesus says, "Take away the stone," and (ver. 40) "they took away the stone" without difficulty, apparently. And in ch. (John 20:1) the same expression is used "the stone is taken away." There is one catacomb-- that known as the "tomb of the kings" --which is closed by a stone rolled across its entrance; but it is the only one, and the immense amount of contrivance and fitting which it has required is sufficient proof that such an arrangement was not applied to any other of the numerous rock tombs around Jerusalem nor could the traces of it have been obliterated had if anywhere existed. Although, therefore, the Jews were singularly free from the pomps and vanities of funereal magnificence, they were at all stages of their independent existence an eminently burying people. Tombs of the patriarchs . --One of the most striking events in the life of Abraham is the purchase of the field of Ephron the Hittite at Hebron, in which was the cave of Machpelah, in order that he might therein bury Sarah his wife, and that it might be a sepulchre for himself and his children. There he and his immediate descendants were laid 3700 years ago, and there they are believed to rest now, under the great mosque of Hebron; but no one in modern times has seen their remains, or been allowed to enter into the cave where they rest. From the time when Abraham established the burying-place of his family at Hebron till the time when David fixed that of his family in the city which bore his name, the Jewish rulers-had no fixed or favorite place of sepulture. Each was buried on his own property, or where he died, without much caring for either the sanctity or convenience chosen. Tomb of the kings. --Of the twenty-two kings of Judah who reigned at Jerusalem from 1048 to 590 B.C. eleven, or exactly one half, were buried in one hypogeum in the "city of David." Of all these it is merely said that they were buried in "the sepulchres of their fathers" or "of the kings" in the city of David, except of two-- Asa and Hezekiah. Two more of these kings--Jehoram and Joash --were buried also in the city of David "but not in the sepulchres of the kings." The passage in (Nehemiah 3:18) and in Ezek 43:7,9 Together with the reiterated assertion of the books of Kings and Chronicles that these sepulchres were situated in the city of David, leaves no doubt that they were on Zion, or the Eastern Hill, and in the immediate proximity of the temple. Up to the present time we have not been able to identify one single sepulchral excavation about Jerusalem can be said with certainty to belong to a period anterior to that of the Maccabees, or more correctly, to have been used for burial before the time of the Romans. The only important hypogeum which is wholly Jewish in its arrangement, and may consequently belong to an earlier or to any epoch, is that known as the tombs of the prophets, in the western flank of the Mount of Olives. It has every appearance of having originally been a natural cavern improved by art, and with an external gallery some 140 feet in extent, into which twenty-seven deep or Jewish loculi open. Graeco-Roman tombs . --Besides the tombs above enumerated, there are around Jerusalem, in the valleys of Hinnom and Jehoshaphat and on the plateau to the north, a number of remarkable rock-cut sepulchres, with more or less architectural decoration, sufficient to enable us to ascertain that they are all of nearly the same age, and to assert with very tolerable confidence that the epoch to which they belong must be between the introduction of Roman influence and the destruction of the city by Titus, A.D. 70. In the village of Siloam there is a monolithic cell of singularly Egyptian aspect which Deuteronomy Saulcy assumes to be a chapel of Solomon's Egyptian wife. It is probably of very much more modern date, and is more Assyrian than Egyptian in character. The principal remaining architectural sepulchres may be divided into three groups: first, those existing in the valley of Jehoshaphat, and known popularly as the tombs of Zechariah of St. James and of Absalom. Second those known as the tombs of the Judges, and the so-called Jewish tomb about a mile north of the city. Third, that known as the tomb of the kings, about half a mile north of the Damascus Gate. Of the three first-named tombs the most southern is known as that of Zechariah a popular name which there is not even a shadow of tradition to justify. Tombs of the judges . --The hypogeum known as the tombs of the judges is one of the most remarkable of the catacombs around Jerusalem, containing about sixty deep loculi, arranged in three stories; the upper stories with ledges in front, to give convenient access, and to support the stones that close them; the lower flush with the ground; the whole, consequently, so essentially Jewish that it might be of any age if it were not for its distance from the town and its architectural character. Tombs of Herod . --The last of the great groups enumerated above is that known as the tomb of the kings --Kebur es Sulton --or the Royal Caverns, so called because of their magnificence and also because, that name is applied to them by Josephus. They are twice again mentioned under the title of the "monuments of Herod." There seems no reason for doubting that all the architectural tombs of Jerusalem belong to the age of the Romans. Tomb of Helena of Adiabene . --There was one other very famous tomb at Jerusalem, which cannot he passed over in silence, though not one vestige of it exists --the supposed tomb of Helena. We are told that "she with her brother was buried in the pyramids which she had ordered to be constructed at a distance of three stadia from Jerusalem." Joseph. Ant. xx. 4,3. This is confirmed by Pelusanias. viii. 16. The tomb was situated outside the third wall near a gate between the tower Psephinus and the Royal Caverns. B.J. v. 22 and v. 4,2. The people still cling to their ancient cemeteries in the valley of Jehoshaphat with a tenacity singularly characteristic of the east. [BURIAL, SEPULCHRES]
ATS Bible DictionaryTomb
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary1. (n.) A pit in which the dead body of a human being is deposited; a grave; a sepulcher.
2. (n.) A house or vault, formed wholly or partly in the earth, with walls and a roof, for the reception of the dead.
3. (n.) A monument erected to enclose the body and preserve the name and memory of the dead.
International Standard Bible EncyclopediaRACHEL'S TOMB
(matstsebheth qebhurath rachel): In Genesis 35:20 we read: "Jacob set up a pillar upon her grave: the same is the Pillar of Rachel's grave unto this day," i.e. the time of the writer. Though the pillar, i.e sepulchral monument, has long disappeared, the spot is marked until this day, and Christians, Jews and Mohammedans unite in honoring it. The present tomb, which, apparently, is not older than the 15th century, is built in the style of the small-domed buildings raised by Moslems in honor of their saints. It is a rough structure of four square walls, each about 23 ft. long and 20 ft. high; the dome rising 10 ft. higher is used by Mohammedans for prayer, while on Fridays the Jews make supplication before the empty tomb within. It is doubtful, but probable, that it marks the exact spot where Rachel was buried. There are, apparently, two traditions as to the location of the place. The oldest tradition, based upon Genesis 35:16-20; Genesis 48:7, points to a place one mile North of Bethlehem and 4 miles from Jerusalem. Matthew 2:18 speaks for this place, since the evangelist, reporting the slaughter of the innocents of Bethlehem, represents Rachel as weeping for her children from her neighboring grave. But according to 1 Samuel 10:2;, which apparently represents another tradition, the place of Rachel's grave was on the "border of Benjamin," near Beth-el, about 10 miles North of Jerusalem, at another unknown Ephrath. This location, some believe, is corroborated by Jeremiah 31:15, where the prophet, in relating the leading away of the people of Ramah, which was in Benjamin, into captivity, introduces Rachel the mother of that tribe as bewailing the fate of her descendants. Those that believe this northern location to be the place of Rachel's grave take the words, "the same is Beth-lehem," in Genesis 35:19; Genesis 48:7, to be an incorrect gloss; but that is a mere assumption lacking sufficient proof.o, following J. P. Peters, rearranges the text by transferring the clause "and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council" to the end of the preceding verse (Encyclopaedia Biblica, IV, cols. 4001). There certainly does not seem to be trustworthy external evidence to prove that the terms "the judgment," "the council," "the Gehenna of fire" stand to each other in a relation of gradation, as lower and higher legal courts, or would be so understood by Christ's hearers. What is beyond dispute is that Christ condemns the use of disparaging and insulting epithets as a supreme offense against the law of humanity, which belongs to the same category as murder itself. It should be added, however, that it is the underlying feeling and not the verbal expression as such that constitutes the sin. Hence, our Lord can, without any real inconsistency, address two of His followers as "foolish men" (Luke 24:25, anoetoi, practically equivalent to Raca, as is also James's expression, "O vain man," James 2:20).
Greek3419. mnemeion -- a memorial, a monument
... a memorial, a monument. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: mnemeion Phonetic
Spelling: (mnay-mi'-on) Short Definition: a tomb, sepulcher Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3419.htm - 7k
3418. mnema -- a memorial, a sepulcher
5028. taphos -- a burial, hence a grave
Strong's Hebrew1430b. gadish -- a tomb
... gadish. 1431 . a tomb. Transliteration: gadish Short Definition: tomb. Word Origin
from an unused word Definition a tomb NASB Word Usage tomb (1). ...
/hebrew/1430b.htm - 5k
1430. gadiysh -- a heap, stack
6900. qeburah -- a grave, burial
6913. qeber -- a grave, sepulcher
1004. bayith -- a house
The Tomb of Jesus
The Angel in the Tomb
April the Fifth the Empty Tomb
Jesus in the Tomb.
The Tomb of the Pharaoh
The Empty Tomb. Ch. 24:1-12
Whether Christ was in the Tomb Only one Day and Two Nights?
In Joseph's Tomb
Christ Hath Left the Dismal Tomb; --
Guards are Placed Around the Tomb of Jesus.
ThesaurusTomb (70 Occurrences)
... dead. 4. (vt) To place in a tomb; to bury; to inter; to entomb. Int. Standard
Bible Encyclopedia. RACHEL'S TOMB. (matstsebheth ...
/t/tomb.htm - 31k
Entrance (190 Occurrences)
Week (18 Occurrences)
Rolled (38 Occurrences)
Early (157 Occurrences)
Rachel's (5 Occurrences)
Magdalene (12 Occurrences)
Door (249 Occurrences)
Ran (100 Occurrences)
Golgotha (4 Occurrences)
Bible ConcordanceTomb (70 Occurrences)
Matthew 27:60 and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut out in the rock, and he rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, and departed.
Matthew 27:61 Mary Magdalene was there, and the other Mary, sitting opposite the tomb.
Matthew 27:64 Command therefore that the tomb be made secure until the third day, lest perhaps his disciples come at night and steal him away, and tell the people,'He is risen from the dead;' and the last deception will be worse than the first."
Matthew 27:65 Pilate said to them, "You have a guard. Go, make it as secure as you can."
Matthew 27:66 So they went with the guard and made the tomb secure, sealing the stone.
Matthew 28:1 Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.
Matthew 28:2 Behold, there was a great earthquake, for an angel of the Lord descended from the sky, and came and rolled away the stone from the door, and sat on it.
Matthew 28:8 They departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and ran to bring his disciples word.
Mark 6:29 When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb.
Mark 15:46 He bought a linen cloth, and taking him down, wound him in the linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb which had been cut out of a rock. He rolled a stone against the door of the tomb.
Mark 16:2 Very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.
Mark 16:3 They were saying among themselves, "Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us?"
Mark 16:5 Entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were amazed.
Mark 16:8 They went out, and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them. They said nothing to anyone; for they were afraid.
Luke 23:53 He took it down, and wrapped it in a linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb that was cut in stone, where no one had ever been laid.
Luke 23:55 The women, who had come with him out of Galilee, followed after, and saw the tomb, and how his body was laid.
Luke 24:1 But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they and some others came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared.
Luke 24:2 They found the stone rolled away from the tomb.
Luke 24:9 returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest.
Luke 24:12 But Peter got up and ran to the tomb. Stooping and looking in, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and he departed to his home, wondering what had happened.
Luke 24:22 Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb;
Luke 24:24 Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him."
John 11:17 So when Jesus came, he found that he had been in the tomb four days already.
John 11:31 Then the Jews who were with her in the house, and were consoling her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up quickly and went out, followed her, saying, "She is going to the tomb to weep there."
John 11:38 Jesus therefore, again groaning in himself, came to the tomb. Now it was a cave, and a stone lay against it.
John 12:17 The multitude therefore that was with him when he called Lazarus out of the tomb, and raised him from the dead, was testifying about it.
John 19:41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden. In the garden was a new tomb in which no man had ever yet been laid.
John 19:42 Then because of the Jews' Preparation Day (for the tomb was near at hand) they laid Jesus there.
John 20:1 Now on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene went early, while it was still dark, to the tomb, and saw the stone taken away from the tomb.
John 20:2 Therefore she ran and came to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and said to them, "They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we don't know where they have laid him!"
John 20:3 Therefore Peter and the other disciple went out, and they went toward the tomb.
John 20:4 They both ran together. The other disciple outran Peter, and came to the tomb first.
John 20:6 Then Simon Peter came, following him, and entered into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying,
John 20:8 So then the other disciple who came first to the tomb also entered in, and he saw and believed.
John 20:11 But Mary was standing outside at the tomb weeping. So, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb,
Acts 2:29 "Brothers, I may tell you freely of the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.
Acts 7:16 and they were brought back to Shechem, and laid in the tomb that Abraham bought for a price in silver from the children of Hamor of Shechem.
Acts 13:29 When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb.
Romans 3:13 "Their throat is an open tomb. With their tongues they have used deceit." "The poison of vipers is under their lips;"
Revelation 11:9 From among the peoples, tribes, languages, and nations people will look at their dead bodies for three and a half days, and will not allow their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb.
Genesis 23:6 "Hear us, my lord. You are a prince of God among us. Bury your dead in the best of our tombs. None of us will withhold from you his tomb. Bury your dead."
Genesis 35:20 Jacob set up a pillar on her grave. The same is the Pillar of Rachel's grave to this day.
Genesis 50:5 'My father made me swear, saying, "Behold, I am dying. Bury me in my grave which I have dug for myself in the land of Canaan." Now therefore, please let me go up and bury my father, and I will come again.'"
Deuteronomy 34:6 He buried him in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth Peor: but no man knows of his tomb to this day.
Judges 8:32 Gideon the son of Joash died in a good old age, and was buried in the tomb of Joash his father, in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.
Judges 16:31 Then his brothers and all his family came down and took him and brought him up and buried him between Zorah and Esh'ta-ol in the tomb of Mano'ah his father. He had judged Israel twenty years.
1 Samuel 10:2 When you have departed from me today, then you shall find two men by Rachel's tomb, in the border of Benjamin at Zelzah; and they will tell you,'The donkeys which you went to seek have been found; and behold, your father has stopped caring about the donkeys, and is anxious for you, saying, "What shall I do for my son?"'
2 Samuel 2:32 They took up Asahel, and buried him in the tomb of his father, which was in Bethlehem. Joab and his men went all night, and the day broke on them at Hebron.
2 Samuel 3:32 They buried Abner in Hebron: and the king lifted up his voice, and wept at the grave of Abner; and all the people wept.
2 Samuel 4:12 David commanded his young men, and they killed them, and cut off their hands and their feet, and hanged them up beside the pool in Hebron. But they took the head of Ishbosheth, and buried it in the grave of Abner in Hebron.
2 Samuel 17:23 When Ahithophel saw that his counsel was not followed, he saddled his donkey, and arose, and got him home, to his city, and set his house in order, and hanged himself; and he died, and was buried in the tomb of his father.
2 Samuel 19:37 Please let your servant turn back again, that I may die in my own city, by the grave of my father and my mother. But behold, your servant Chimham; let him go over with my lord the king; and do to him what shall seem good to you."
2 Samuel 21:14 They buried the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son in the country of Benjamin in Zela, in the tomb of Kish his father: and they performed all that the king commanded. After that God was entreated for the land.
1 Kings 13:22 but came back, and have eaten bread and drunk water in the place of which he said to you, "Eat no bread, and drink no water;" your body shall not come to the tomb of your fathers.'"
1 Kings 13:30 He laid his body in his own grave; and they mourned over him, saying, "Alas, my brother!"
1 Kings 13:31 It happened, after he had buried him, that he spoke to his sons, saying, "When I am dead, then bury me in the tomb in which the man of God is buried. Lay my bones beside his bones.
2 Kings 9:28 His servants carried him in a chariot to Jerusalem, and buried him in his tomb with his fathers in the city of David.
2 Kings 13:21 It happened, as they were burying a man, that behold, they spied a band; and they cast the man into the tomb of Elisha: and as soon as the man touched the bones of Elisha, he revived, and stood up on his feet.
2 Kings 21:26 He was buried in his tomb in the garden of Uzza: and Josiah his son reigned in his place.
2 Kings 23:17 Then he said, "What monument is that which I see?" The men of the city told him, "It is the tomb of the man of God, who came from Judah, and proclaimed these things that you have done against the altar of Bethel."
2 Kings 23:30 His servants carried him in a chariot dead from Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own tomb. The people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's place.
2 Chronicles 16:14 They buried him in his own tombs, which he had dug out for himself in the city of David, and laid him in the bed which was filled with sweet odors and various kinds of spices prepared by the perfumers' art: and they made a very great burning for him.
Job 10:19 I should have been as though I had not been. I should have been carried from the womb to the grave.
Job 21:32 Yet he will be borne to the grave. Men shall keep watch over the tomb.
Psalms 5:9 For there is no faithfulness in their mouth. Their heart is destruction. Their throat is an open tomb. They flatter with their tongue.
Isaiah 14:18 All the kings of the earth are at rest in glory, every man in his house,
Isaiah 14:19 But you are cast away from your tomb like an abominable branch, clothed with the slain, who are thrust through with the sword, who go down to the stones of the pit; like a dead body trodden under foot.
Isaiah 22:16 'What are you doing here? Who has you here, that you have dug out a tomb here?' Cutting himself out a tomb on high, chiseling a habitation for himself in the rock!"
Isaiah 53:9 And they made his grave with the wicked, and with a rich man in his death; although he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.
Jeremiah 5:16 Their quiver is an open tomb, they are all mighty men.
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