Revelation 11:15
And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.
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(15) And the seventh angel . . .—Better, And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in the heaven (persons) saying, The kingdom of the world is become (the possession) of our Lord, and of His Christ, and He shall reign to the ages of ages. The literal translation is, The kingdom of the world is become our Lords, and of His Christ. As far as the expression “our Lord’s” is concerned, there is no need that any word, such as kingdom or possession, should be supplied, but the additional phrase “of His Christ” creates an awkwardness, and the word “possession,” or inheritance, may not inappropriately be used from the Psalm which foretells this final establishment of the kingdom of the anointed Messiah, the Christ of God. “Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession” (Psalm 2:8). It is the kingdom—not, as in the English version, “the kingdoms”—of the world which has become Christ’s possession. The contest is not for the kingdoms, the separate nationalities: the varying political systems might exist, as far as mere organisation is concerned, under the rule of Christ; the contest is for the kingdom of the world. Satan was willing to surrender the kingdoms of the world to our Lord on condition of a homage which would have left him still in possession of the kingdom of the world. But now the close of the contest is the overthrow of the kingdom of evil, the establishment of the kingdom of good: that is, of God; and He shall reign for ever and ever. Dean Alford pointed out that our familiarity with the “Hallelujah Chorus” tempted us to put an emphasis on the word He which is not sanctioned by the Greek; it is the reign of the Lord which is the prominent thought. The reign is unto the ages of ages. Surely this means always. We are not told whose voices sing this chorus; it is just the tumultuous sound of heavenly voices, growing into natural and irresistible chorus as the trumpet heralds the approach of the glorious end.

Revelation 11:15-18. And the seventh angel sounded, &c. — With the sounding of this angel, the third wo commences, which is rather implied than expressed, as it will be described more fully hereafter. The third wo brought on the inhabitants of the earth, is the ruin and downfall of the antichristian kingdom: and then, and not till then, according to the heavenly chorus, the kingdoms of this world will become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign for ever and ever — St. John is rapt and hurried away as it were to a view of the happy millennium, without considering the steps preceding and conducting to it. At the same time, the four and twenty elders — Or the ministers of the church, (Revelation 11:16-18,)

are represented as praising and glorifying God, for manifesting his power and kingdom more than he had done before. They give likewise an intimation of some succeeding events, as the anger of the nations, Gog and Magog, (Revelation 20:8,) and the wrath of God, displayed in their destruction, (Revelation 20:9,) and the rewarding of all the good, small and great, as well as the punishing of the wicked. Here we have only a summary account of the circumstances and occurrences of the seventh trumpet, but the particulars will be dilated and enlarged upon hereafter. And thus are we arrived at the consummation of all things, through a series of prophecies, extending from the apostle’s days to the end of the world. It is this series which has been our clew to conduct us in our interpretation of these prophecies: and though some of them may be dark and obscure, considered in themselves, yet they receive light and illustration from others preceding and following. All together, they are, as it were, a chain of prophecies, whereof one link depends on and supports another. If any parts remain yet obscure and unsatisfactory, they may perhaps be cleared up by what the apostle himself hath added by way of explanation.

11:14-19 Before the sounding of the seventh and last trumpet, there is the usual demand of attention. The saints and angels in heaven know the right of our God and Saviour to rule over all the world. But the nations met God's wrath with their own anger. It was a time in which he was beginning to reward his people's faithful services, and sufferings; and their enemies fretted against God, and so increased their guilt, and hastened their destruction. By the opening the temple of God in heaven, may be meant, that there was a more free communication between heaven and earth; prayer and praises more freely and frequently going up, graces and blessings plentifully coming down. But it rather seems to refer to the church of God on earth. In the reign of antichrist, God's law was laid aside, and made void by traditions and decrees; the Scriptures were locked up from the people, but now they are brought to the view of all. This, like the ark, is a token of the presence of God returned to his people, and his favour toward them in Jesus Christ, as the Propitiation for their sins. The great blessing of the Reformation was attended with very awful providences; as by terrible things in righteousness God answered the prayers presented in his holy temple now opened.And the seventh angel sounded - See the notes on Revelation 8:2, Revelation 8:6-7. This is the last of the trumpets, implying, of course, that under this the series of visions was to end, and that this was to introduce the state of things under which the affairs of the world were to be wound up. The place which this occupies in the order of time, is when the events pertaining to the colossal Roman power - the fourth kingdom of Daniel Dan. 2-7 - should have been completed, and when the reign of the saints Daniel 7:9-14, Daniel 7:27-28 should have been introduced. This, both in Daniel and in John, is to occur when the mighty power of the papacy shall have been overthrown at the termination of the twelve hundred and sixty years of its duration. See the notes on Daniel 7:25. In both Daniel and John the termination of that persecuting power is the commencement of the reign of the saints; the downfall of the papacy, the introduction of the kingdom of God, and its establishment on the earth.

And there were great voices in heaven - As of exultation and praise. The grand consummation had come, the period so long anticipated and desired when God should reign on the earth had arrived, and this lays the foundation for joy and thanksgiving in heaven.

The kingdoms of this world - The modern editions of the New Testament (see Tittmann and Hahn) read this in the singular number - "The kingdom of this world has become," etc. According to this reading, the meaning would be, either that the sole reign over this world had become that of the Lord Jesus; or, more probably, that the dominion over the earth had been regarded as one in the sense that Satan had reigned over it, but had now become the kingdom of God; that is, that "the kingdoms of this world are many considered in themselves; but in reference to the sway of Satan, there is only one kingdom ruled over by the 'god of this world'" (Prof. Stuart). The sense is not materially different whichever reading is adopted; though the authority is in favor of the latter (Wetstein). According to the common reading, the sense is, that all the kingdoms of the earth, being many in themselves, had been now brought under the one scepter of Christ; according to the other, the whole world was regarded as in fact one kingdom - that of Satan - and the scepter had now passed from his hands into those of the Saviour.

The kingdoms of our Lord - Or, the kingdom of our Lord, according to the reading adopted in the previous part of the verse. The word "Lord" here evidently has reference to God as such - represented as the original source of authority, and as giving the kingdom to his Son. See the notes on Daniel 7:13-14; compare Psalm 2:8. The word "Lord" - Κυριος Kurios - implies the notion of possessor, owner, sovereign, supreme ruler - and is thus properly given to God. See Matthew 1:22; Matthew 5:33; Mark 5:19; Luke 1:6, Luke 1:28; Acts 7:33; Hebrews 8:2, Hebrews 8:10; James 4:15, al. saepe.

And of his Christ - Of his anointed; of him who is set apart as the Messiah, and consecrated to this high office. See the notes on Matthew 1:1. He is called "his Christ," because he is set apart by him, or appointed by him to perform the work appropriate to that office on earth. Such language as what occurs here is often employed, in which God and Christ are spoken of as, in some respects, distinct - as sustaining different offices, and performing different works. The essential meaning here is, that the kingdom of this world had now become the kingdom of God under Christ; that is, that that kingdom is administered by the Son of God.

And he shall reign forever and ever - A kingdom is commenced which shall never terminate. It is not said that this would be on the earth; but the essential idea is, that the scepter of the world had now, after so long a time, come into his hands never more to pass away. The fuller characteristics of this reign are stated in a subsequent part of this book Revelation 20-22. What is here stated is in accordance with all the predictions in the Bible. A time is to come when, in the proper sense of the term, God is to reign on the earth; when his kingdom is to be universal; when his laws shall be everywhere recognized as binding; when all idolatry shall come to an end; and when the understandings and the hearts of people everywhere shall bow to his authority. Compare Psalm 2:8; Isaiah 9:7; Isaiah 11:9; Isaiah 45:22; 60; Daniel 2:35, Daniel 2:44-45; Daniel 7:13-14, Daniel 7:27-28; Zechariah 14:9; Malachi 1:11; Luke 1:33. On this whole subject, see the very ample illustrations and proofs in the notes on Daniel 2:44-45; Daniel 7:13-14, Daniel 7:27-28; compare the notes on Revelation 20-22.

15. sounded—with his trumpet. Evidently "the LAST trumpet." Six is close to seven, but does not reach it. The world judgments are complete in six, but by the fulfilment of seven the world kingdoms become Christ's. Six is the number of the world given over to judgment. It is half of twelve, the Church's number, as three and a half is half of seven, the divine number for completeness. Bengel thinks the angel here to have been Gabriel, which name is compounded of El, God, and Geber, MIGHTY MAN (Re 10:1). Gabriel therefore appropriately announced to Mary the advent of the mighty God-man: compare the account of the man-child's birth which follows (Re 12:1-6), to which this forms the transition though the seventh trumpet in time is subsequent, being the consummation of the historical episode, the twelfth and thirteen chapters. The seventh trumpet, like the seventh seal and seventh vial, being the consummation, is accompanied differently from the preceding six: not the consequences which follow on earth, but those IN HEAVEN, are set before us, the great voices and thanksgiving of the twenty-four elders in heaven, as the half-hour's silence in heaven at the seventh seal, and the voice out of the temple in heaven, "It is done," at the seventh vial. This is parallel to Da 2:44, "The God of heaven shall set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break to pieces all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever." It is the setting up of Heaven's sovereignty over the earth visibly, which, when invisibly exercised, was rejected by the earthly rulers heretofore. The distinction of worldly and spiritual shall then cease. There will be no beast in opposition to the woman. Poetry, art, science, and social life will be at once worldly and Christian.

kingdoms—A, B, C, and Vulgate read the singular, "The kingdom (sovereignty) of (over) the world is our Lord's and His Christ's." There is no good authority for English Version reading. The kingdoms of the world give way to the kingdom of (over) the world exercised by Christ. The earth-kingdoms are many: His shall be one. The appellation "Christ," the Anointed, is here, where His kingdom is mentioned appropriately for the first time used in Revelation. For it is equivalent to King. Though priests and prophets also were anointed, yet this term is peculiarly applied to Him as King, insomuch that "the Lord's anointed" is His title as King, in places where He is distinguished from the priests. The glorified Son of man shall rule mankind by His transfigured Church in heaven, and by His people Israel on earth: Israel shall be the priestly mediator of blessings to the whole world, realizing them first.

he—not emphatic in the Greek.

shall reign for ever and ever—Greek, "unto the ages of the ages." Here begins the millennial reign, the consummation of "the mystery of God" (Re 10:7).

And the seventh angel sounded; the last of those angels mentioned Revelation 8:2.

And there were great voices in heaven, saying; St. John in his vision heard great acclamations and shoutings for the victory which Christ and his gospel had got over the beast.

The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever; so that a great part of the world, casting off the papacy, that new Gentilism, together with all their abominable idolatries and superstitions, embraced the truth of the gospel. Here ariseth a great question, whether the seven vials, of which we shall find the 16th chapter treating, {Revelation 16:1-21} do belong all to the seventh trumpet, or some of them belong to the sixth trumpet, of which mention hath been before made. Great divines are on both sides as to this question. Mr. Pool, in his Latin Synopsis, hath collected together their reasons, of which I shall give a short account, leaving my reader for a fuller satisfaction to the Latin Synopsis.

Those who think that the seven vials do all relate to the seventh trumpet, and contemporize with it, in defence of their opinion say:

1. That the seven seals, and the seven trumpets, and the seven vials, are all mentioned in the same form of speech; and therefore the seven vials are not to be divided, some to one trumpet, some to another.

2. Because the seventh trumpet and the seven vials are one and the same thing, nothing being revealed under the seven vials which doth not belong to the seventh trumpet; they agree in their titles of woes, in the nature of the revelations, in their objects, both the one and the other declaring the ruin of antichrist; both of them are mentioned as the last plagues to come upon the world before the last day.

3. All the vials are of the same nature, declaring but the judgments by which God, setting up the kingdom of Christ, would ruin antichrist; they only differ in the degrees of the plagues, each one rising higher than the other.

4. The seventh trumpet cannot declare the ruin of antichrist, unless the seven vials be poured out under it, for they show the means by which he must be destroyed.

5. The seventh trumpet soundeth immediately upon the slaying of the witnesses, and contemporizeth with the whole course of their renewed liberty, and therefore the period signified by it must be before the fall of antichrist, declared by the sixth vial.

6. The seventh trumpet soundeth immediately after the expiration of the twelve hundred and sixty days; before the end of which none of the vials were poured out.

Those who think that divers of the vials were poured out, or shall be poured out, before the sounding of this seventh trumpet, say, that the beast’s kingdom beginning to fall under the sixth trumpet, several of the vials, declaring the degrees of his falling, must belong to that. It appeareth by all we have in this chapter Revelation 11:7-15, that antichrist’s kingdom was in a great measure weakened under the sixth trumpet, particularly from Revelation 11:11-13. To which those who think that all the vials related to the seventh trumpet say, that they grant that there were some preparations to the final ruin of antichrist, during the period of the sixth trumpet, but the seven vials signify the further progress and perfection of his ruin, which falls under the period signified by the seventh trumpet. This being premised, I proceed with the text.

It is doubted here whether those words, are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ, be to be understood as being actually so, or now beginning to be so. Those who make the sense that they now actually were so, must understand the time to be the day of judgment, or some time next to it, and consequently must think that five at least of the seven vials, mentioned Revelation 16:1-21, belonged to the sixth trumpet. Those who make the sense, are beginning to become the kingdoms of the Lord, or shall shortly be so, may make all the seven vials to belong to the seventh trumpet. By becoming the kingdoms of the Lord Christ, he means in outward profession; so as antichrist shall reign no more, but they shall be ruled by the officers of the Lord Christ, until they be taken up to reign with him in glory.

And the seventh angel sounded,.... The last of the seven angels, who had trumpets given them to sound, Revelation 8:2. The days of the voice of this angel, as in Revelation 10:7, cannot refer to the times of Constantine; for though there was then a strange turn of affairs in favour of the kingdom of Christ, when there was a great spread of the Gospel, and large conversions in many places, and many churches were raised and formed in several countries, and the whole empire became Christian; yet this, as we have seen, came to pass under the sixth seal, before any of the trumpets were sounded, and much less this seventh and last; nor do they belong to the times of the Reformation in Germany. Brightman fixes the sounding of this trumpet to the year 1558, when the kings of Sweden and Denmark set up the Gospel in their kingdoms, and reformed them from Popery; and when Queen Elizabeth came to the throne of England, and rooted out great part of the Romish superstition: but it is certain that this angel has not yet sounded his trumpet, and therefore cannot refer to anything past, but to what is to come; we are yet under the sixth trumpet; the outward court is not yet given to the Gentiles; the witnesses are not slain, and much less risen and ascended; the earthquake, the fall of the tenth part of the city, and the slaughter of seven thousand names of men, with what will follow thereon, are things yet to come; the Turkish woe is not over, and antichrist still reigns, and the kingdoms of this world are far from appearing to be the kingdoms of Christ. Some think, and indeed the generality of interpreters, that this respects the voice of the archangel, and trump of God, the last trump, which will sound at the resurrection of the dead, and the day of judgment; but none of these appear in the account of things under this trumpet; but rather the whole has a view to the spiritual reign of Christ, when both the eastern and western antichrist will be destroyed; the Gospel will be carried all over the world, and there will be large conversions both among Jews and Gentiles, and Christ will reign in a spiritual manner over all the earth. Hence it follows,

and there were great voices in heaven; these are either the voices of the angels in heaven, who rejoice at every appearance, and breaking forth of Christ's kingdom and glory, as in Revelation 5:11; and indeed, if they rejoice at the conversion of one sinner, at a single addition to Christ's interest, then much more will they, when the kingdoms of this world become his; or rather these may be the voices of the multitude of the saints in the churches, the same company with those in Revelation 19:1; who express their joy at the judgment of the great whore, and at the marriage of the Lamb; and who, as here, are attended with the thanksgivings and hallelujahs of the four and twenty elders: and it may be, that these are also the voices of the four living creatures, the ministers of the word, since the four and twenty elders generally follow them, Revelation 4:9; they may be the witnesses, who were silenced, but are now raised up, and are ascended into heaven, and their mouths are opened, and their voices heard again:

saying, the kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; by "the kingdoms of this world" are meant worldly kingdoms, which are set up by worldly power, and are supported by worldly policy, and subsist upon worldly principles and maxims; the government of which proceeds upon worldly ends and views; in distinction from the kingdom of Christ, which is not of this world, and is not supported by any such methods; and they are the kingdoms, into which the world is divided, which, and the glory of them, Satan showed to Christ, and insolently offered to give him them, if he would worship him; but these were to come to Christ in another way, and at another time. The Alexandrian copy, and some others, the Complutensian edition, the Vulgate Latin version, and all the Oriental versions, read in the singular number, "the kingdom of this world"; the whole government of it, which is his by right of nature, and will be overturned, and overturned again and again, till he comes, whose right it is; and then all power, rule, and authority, will be put down, and his kingdom, which will tilt the face of the whole earth, will take place: all the antichristian states and kingdoms are here intended, particularly the kingdoms into which the Roman empire, sometimes called the whole world, Luke 2:1, is divided, which are ten; one of the ten, a tenth part of the city or jurisdiction of Rome, will fall at the close of the sixth trumpet, and the other nine, or the other nine parts, will fall at the sounding of the seventh; the ten kings, that have given their kingdoms to the beast, will have an aversion to the whore, hate her, and burn her flesh, will fall off from her, and into the hands of Christ; there will be a general and thorough reformation from Popery in all the kingdoms of the Roman empire: but though these are greatly intended, yet not only they, but the Mahometan nations also, as the Turkish woe will now be over, and the great river Euphrates dried up, to make way for the kings of the east, those large kingdoms and countries of China, Tartary, and Persia; and these now under the power of the Turk will embrace the Christian faith; and also all the Pagan nations are to be taken into the account, and who will now enjoy the light of the Gospel: and all, and everyone those Pagan, Papal, and Mahometan kingdoms, will "become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ"; by "our Lord" may be designed God the Father, who is the Lord of the whole earth, the Lord God Almighty, and is acknowledged as such by angels and men; and by "his Christ", his Son Jesus Christ, who is equal with him; and what belongs to the one belongs to the other; and who, as Mediator, is his anointed One; anointed to be prophet, priest, and King; anointed with the oil of gladness, the Holy Ghost; see Psalm 2:2, where the same distinction is. In the Targum on Isaiah 4:2 mention is made of , "the Messiah"; or "Christ of Jehovah": and in the same Targum on Isaiah 53:10, it is said, "they shall look" , "upon the kingdom of their Messiah"; though it may be rather that Christ is designed by both these phrases, and the words be rendered, "our Lord, even his Christ"; since the phrase, "our Lord", as well as Christ, is generally understood of Jesus Christ in the New Testament; and who is Lord of all, of angels, and of men, and the Christ of God. Now these kingdoms will become his, not merely by right, for so they are his already, by right of nature, and creation, and preservation; but these have shaken off his government, and have refused to have him to reign over them, and have fallen into the hands of usurpers, as Satan, the god of this world, the Romish antichrist, that reigns over the kings of the earth, and Mahomet the king of the locusts; but now these will, in fact, come into his hands, and be under his government; they will acknowledge him as their Lord and Sovereign, and fear and worship him, as King of saints: and this will be brought about, not by force of arms, as Mahomet got his dominions; nor by policy and fraud, by imposture and lying wonders, by which the pope of Rome has obtained his authority over the nations; but partly by the pouring out of the vials of God's wrath upon the seat of the beast, and upon the river Euphrates, that is, both upon the pope and Turk, which will weaken and destroy their power and authority, and make way for Christ to set up his kingdom; and partly, and chiefly, by the preaching of the Gospel: now will an open door be set, which none can shut; many will run to and fro, and knowledge will be increased; the earth will be covered with it, as the sea with waters; multitudes of souls everywhere will be converted; a nation will be born at once; churches will be set up in every place, which are Christ's kingdom, where he reigns, and where his subjects are, and his laws are put in execution; where his word will be now faithfully preached, his ordinances purely administered, and he, in his person, office, and grace, will be alone exalted: the consequence of which will be,

and he shall reign for ever and ever; no usurper will ever start up more, or obtain, neither Satan, nor the beast, nor the false prophet, shall ever regain their power and authority any more; neither Paganism, nor Judaism, nor antichristianism, either Papal or Mahometan, shall ever have place more: Christ will reign in this spiritual way, more or less, until he comes personally, and then he will reign with his people on earth a thousand years; and when they are ended, he will reign with them in heaven to all eternity; for though, at the end of these years, he shall deliver up the kingdom to the Father, yet he will not cease to reign; indeed he will not reign in the same manner, but he will reign with equal power and authority, and over, and with the same persons. The Vulgate Latin version adds, "Amen".

{27} And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, {28} The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.

(27) Of whose sounding the trumpet Christ expressly foretold in Re 10:7 and this is the second part of this chapter, containing a general history of the Christian Church, from the time of Boniface to the consummation of the victory declared by voice from heaven. In this history there are three branches: a preparation by the sound of the angels trumpet: a narration by the voice of heavenly angels and elders and a confirmation by sign.

(28) The narration has two parts: an acclamation of the heavenly creatures in this verse, and both an adoration by all the elders in Re 11:16 and also a thanksgiving in Re 11:17,18. The sense of the acclamation is, Now the Lord has entered his kingdom and has restored his church in which most mightily recovered from the profanation of the Gentiles, he may glorify himself. Namely that, which the Lord ordained when he first ordained his Church, that the faith of the saints does now behold as accomplished.

Revelation 11:15. ἐγένοντο φωναὶ μεγ., κ.τ.λ. To whom these voices belonged, is neither to be asked nor to be answered. Ewald wants to ascribe them to the four beasts;[2961] De Wette, to the angels; Beng., to various dwellers in heaven, angels and men. Hengstenb. tries to show that the innumerable hosts, Revelation 7:9 sq., are to be understood. This is incorrect, because the hosts which John there sees proleptically in heaven do not as yet correspond in Revelation 11:15, with the progressive course of the visions, but are not actually in heaven until Revelation 15:2 sqq.[2962] Also in Revelation 11:15-19 Hengstenb. mistakes the proleptical reference correctly understood by C. a Lap., Beng., Ew., De Wette, etc., by regarding all the contents of the seventh trumpet (the third woe) exhausted already with Revelation 11:19. Still more preposterously, Ebrard limits the seventh trumpet to Revelation 11:15-18.[2963]

ἘΝ Τῷ ΟὐΡΑΝῷ, where John is not as yet,[2964] but whither the look of the seer is directed.[2965]

ΛΈΓΟΝΤΕς. Cf. Revelation 4:8, Revelation 5:13. Ἡ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΊΑ ΤΟῦ ΚΌΣΜΟΥ. The regal dominion over the world.[2966] Instead of the obj. gen., in Revelation 17:18, ἘΠΊ follows. Cf. also Revelation 1:6, Revelation 12:10. The immediately following ΚΑῚ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΎΣΕΙ presupposes not only the active idea of Ἡ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΊΑ, but also this reading. Incorrectly, Luther, according to the var. supported by Ew. ii., ἘΓΈΝΟΝΤΟ ΑἹ ΒΑΣΙΛΕῖΑΙ: the kingdoms of this world.

The proleptical[2967] in the songs of the heavenly voices lies in this, that immediately after the sound of the trumpet, and yet before any thing else has actually occurred of what is afterwards celebrated with similar songs of praise,[2968] they say, ἘΓΈΝΕΤΟ Ἡ ΒΑΣ., Κ.Τ.Λ.[2969] In reality the dominion over the world does not become God’s and that of his Anointed until the wrathful judgment described, viz., until ch. 18, yea, in another respect until Revelation 20:10, has actually dislodged from its assumed dominion all ungodly and antichristian power, which, by its rebellion[2970] against the only King and Lord, had usurped, to an extent, a part of his βασιλεία. The inner justification of the prolepsis—which Hengstenb. acknowledges only at Revelation 11:15-18 in the relation to Revelation 11:19, where he finds the final judgment—lies in the fact that the seventh trumpet has already actually sounded; that one, therefore, from which the real fulfilment of the mystery of God will infallibly proceed.[2971] But even if only a special series of further visions leads to that final consummation, yet the prospective celebration of that glorious result, especially in the mouth of the dwellers in heaven, has, after the sounding of the seventh trumpet, its full justification and beautiful significance; the allusion, however, in connection with this, to redemption, as the proper root of the fact here celebrated,[2972] is entirely out of place.

τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ τοῦ χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ. Not only the expression,[2973] but also the idea, points back to Psalm 2:2, for the Lord’s Anointed is the Son of God because of the βασιλεία, which is taken in general, indeed, from the nations,[2974] yet only for their destruction.

The ἡμῶν with τ. κυρίου does not give here a statement strange in itself concerning the co-regency of the saints,[2975] but corresponds, as also Revelation 12:10, Revelation 19:1, Revelation 5:6, to the joy of those who now behold their Lord and God, whom they themselves serve, in his victorious dominion over the judged world.

κ. βασιλεύσει εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τ. αἰών. For, after his overthrow of all powers opposed to God, no new enemy could arise. The subj. to βασιλεύσει is ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν;[2976] but his Christ is manifestly understood as partner of this ΒΑΣΙΛΕΊΑ.[2977]

[2961] Revelation 4:8.

[2962] Cf. Revelation 19:1 sqq.

[2963] See on Revelation 11:19.

[2964] Cf. Revelation 10:1.

[2965] De Wette.

[2966] Beng., De Wette, Hengstenb., etc.

[2967] Also Klief.

[2968] Cf. Revelation 19:1 sqq.

[2969] Cf. Revelation 11:17 sq.: εἵληφας



[2970] Beng.

[2971] Beng., De Wette, etc.

[2972] Hengstenb.

[2973] Cf. Revelation 12:10; Acts 4:26.

[2974] Cf. Revelation 11:18.

[2975] Hengstenb.

[2976] According to Revelation 11:17 : κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκρ.

[2977] Beng., De Wette.

Revelation 11:15-19. At the blast of the seventh trumpet, which[2960] will bring the glorious end, songs of praise resound in heaven which proclaim the fulfilment as having already occurred (Revelation 11:15-18). At the opening of the heavenly temple of God, the ark of the covenant therein is visible, and lightnings, and other signs, indicating the judgments belonging to the actual fulfilment of the mystery of God, occur.

[2960] Cf. Revelation 10:7.

Revelation 11:15. The rout of Satan (Revelation 12:10 and Revelation 20:4-10) means the absolute messianic (ὁ Χ. only in these sections = “messiah” in the eschatological sense) authority of God, as the destruction or submission of paganism (cf. Revelation 11:13) means the true coming of the eschatological βασιλεία (cf. Revelation 19:1-6, after Rome’s downfall). The apocalyptic motto is not so much “The Lord reigns,” as “The Lord is to reign”. Meanwhile he overrules, and every preliminary judgment shoots the pious mind forward to anticipate the final triumph. Linguistically τοῦ Χριστοῦ might mean here as in Habakkuk 3:13 God’s chosen people, but the usage of the Apocalypse puts this out of the question. There is no need to delete the words here as a gloss (so, e.g., Baljon, von Soden, Rauch) or the similar phrase in En. 48:10 (with Dalman).

The Seventh Trumpet, Revelation 11:15-19. Chap. Revelation 12:7-1215. great voices] Cf. Revelation 16:17.

The kingdoms of this world &c.] Read, The kingdom of the world is become our Lord’s and His Christ’s. The phrase “His Christ” is founded on the O. T. phrase “the Lord’s Anointed;” cf. St Luke 2:26.

he shall reign] Who? Our Lord or His Christ? St John probably would have regarded the question as meaningless, though comparing Revelation 11:1 (see note on “therein”) it is not likely that he used the sing, consciously to imply that Christ and His Father are One. It would be more to the point to compare “Christ the Lord” in St Luke 2:11 with “the Lord’s Christ” already quoted.

Revelation 11:15. [114] Ὁ ἛΒΔΟΜΟς, the seventh) The principal trumpet is that of the seventh angel. This closely approached the very times of the apostles: but it was about to have a long continuance. The near approach of the events, which were about to follow in it, were often viewed by the apostles separately, and held forth by them to the view of the faithful: but in consequence of the length of the interval, scoffers denied the end itself, in which the course of the events was about to issue; while the faithful did not fully comprehend the long continuance of the interval. Each class furnished the apostles with a reason for explaining the mystery more fully: 2 Peter 3:2; 2 Thessalonians 2.

[114] ἡ οὐαὶ ἡ τρίτη, the third woe) This is predicted finally, ch. Revelation 12:12 : then ch. 13 and 14 it actually follows.—V. g.

Whether Gabriel is the angel here meant, we propose in the German Exegesis as a subject of consideration for the reader. And the very name גבריאל agrees; for אל is God, and גבר a man, strong. Therefore that name exhibits the sum of the message to Mary, Luke 1:31; Luke 1:35; and here of the commencement of the trumpet in heaven: for, ch. Revelation 12:5, there is born υἱὸς ἄῤῥην; that is, אל גבור, Isaiah 9:5. I give no definition; I make no conjecture; I only inquire. But that which follows I affirm: This trumpet is the most important of all, which both of itself has here a most joyful meaning, and renders joyful all the trumpets of the former angels, but only to the inhabitants of heaven. Wherefore they are not to be heard, who here prefer to interpret sorrowful trumpets, used by the Jews in excommunication, rather than festive trumpets. The injury arising from the abuse of Jewish antiquities, in the explanation of the New Testament, and especially of the Apocalypse, is greater than the advantage arising from the use of the same. Truth is learned from the very clearness of the text, containing its own αὐτάρκειαν (self-dependent completeness); the abuse introduces errors. We see other examples on ch. Revelation 13:18 (Annot. ii. § 2), and on ch. Revelation 14:20, Revelation 17:9, note 1. It would be better not to have recourse to the books of the Jews, if no better reward for the labour could be carried off from them.—ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, in heaven) This is strictly parallel with that passage of Daniel 2:44, “IN the days of those kings (not, after they shall be destroyed), the God OF HEAVEN shall set up a kingdom.” He is called the God of heaven, as showing His majesty in heaven. Comp. altogether Revelation 11:13, note. Afterwards the action descends to the earth. See shortly afterwards concerning the kingdom of the world.—λέγοντες) See App. Ed. ii. So ch. Revelation 4:1. Many read, ἡ φωνὴ λέγων.[115] See also ch. Revelation 5:12, and the remarks which we have made above on ch. Revelation 9:13-14, and Wolf’s remarks on Revelation 14:7, Revelation 19:1. Dionysius of Alexandria thus expressed his opinion respecting the writer of the Apocalypse, not 200 years afterwards: ΔΙΆΛΕΚΤΟΝ ΜΈΝΤΟΙ ΚΑῚ ΓΛῶΣΣΑΝ ΟὐΚ ἈΚΡΙΒῶς ἙΛΛΗΝΊΖΟΥΣΑΝ ΑὐΤΟῦ ΒΛΈΠΩ, ἈΛΛʼ ἸΔΙΏΜΑΣΙ ΜῈΝ ΒΑΡΒΑΡΙΚΟῖς ΧΡΏΜΕΝΟΝ, ΚΑΊ ΠΟΥ ΚΑῚ ΣΟΛΟΙΚΊΖΟΝΤΑ. But, says Lightfoot, he forms this judgment concerning dialect and phraseology, who was acquainted with neither, and he censures as a fault that which chiefly commends this book. For John θεοδίδακτος (being taught of God), everywhere in his Apocalypse assumed the style of the Old Testament: while this man, who was ignorant of the Hebrew language, reckoned as a SOLECISM the whole of that, which was THE DIALECT OF GOD, and believed that that which he could not understand was barbarous.—Op. Posth. f. 145. But yet the readings of the Apocalypse (which present the appearance of a solecism), as Dionysius demonstrates, are ancient, are repeated, and have an analogy to one another: but those which follow the ordinary syntax have been introduced by copyists, many ages after Dionysius.—ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ κόσμου, the kingdom of the world is become) This reading of an early age is much more glorious than that of the hasty copyist, ἐγένοντο αἱ βασιλεῖαι,[116] Κ.Τ.Λ. Blemishes of such a character, and of such importance, as I have noticed, ch. Revelation 1:18, Revelation 3:12, Revelation 5:14, Revelation 6:11, Revelation 11:2; Revelation 11:17, Revelation 14:1, Revelation 15:3, Revelation 17:8; Revelation 17:16, Revelation 20:4, Revelation 21:24, Revelation 22:19, etc., remain in those editions, which are eagerly reprinted the revision which applies a remedy to them (I do not complain on my own account) lies neglected. See Pref. § viii. Admon. 20. We return to the passage. The kingdoms of the world give way to the kingdom of the world. Thus Obadiah, Obadiah 1:21, and the Psalms repeatedly. Vitringa indeed correctly says, The fulfilment of this oracle is in vain sought in the time of Constantine: Anacr. Ap. p. 512; but at the same time he thinks that this prophecy will be fulfilled after the destruction of the beast. In both points D. Lange assents to him. Here a true analysis of the text is especially necessary: moreover we have presented such a one above, in the Introduction to the Apoc. Number 6. Many separate the natural sequence of ch. 11 and those which follow; but it vindicates itself. See Erkl. Offenb. p. 71 and following, 552, 564, etc. The third woe, which is set forth in ch. Revelation 12:12, and is described particularly in ch. 13, is long ago in course, of accomplishment: and from things present it is distinguished, what things are past under the trumpet of the seventh angel, and what are still future.—τοῦ Κυρίου[117]) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. Κυρίου is here used as a proper name (as Grotius and Le Buy admit), with which that which immediately follows, καὶ Χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ, best agrees: for the expression is, the Lord’s Christ, משיה יהוה, not the Christ of OUR Lord. And thus in the Apocalypse the inhabitants of heaven say, God, Lord, our God, the Lord our God; but never, our Lord. Athanasius, in his Synopsis on this passage, and Rupertus, in his Comm. p. 308, were of the same opinion, if they did not retain the same reading.—ΚΑῚ ΤΟῦ ΧΡΙΣΤΟῦ ΑὐΤΟῦ, and of His Christ, or Anointed) This is the first appellation of Christ in this prophetic Treatise, after the Introduction of the book, namely, in the mention of the Kingdom under the trumpet of the seventh angel. For Christ is called a King antonomastically,[118] as Hiller observes, Syntagm. p. 356. Comp. Brent’s Homily xlii. on Acts, and Explan. of Catech. p. 114 and following, and p. 23. Elisha the prophet was anointed, 1 Kings 19:16; priests were anointed, Exodus 28:41; but with especial propriety, Kings. Whence the title of Anointed, put absolutely, denotes nothing but a king. The usual expression is, the Lord’s anointed, not the anointed king: but [in the case of the priest] the only expression used is, the priest that is anointed, by way of epithet: Leviticus 4:5. Nay, the Anointed is even expressly distinguished from the priest, 1 Samuel 2:35; Psalm 132:16-17. In the whole Evangelic history, the name, Christ, is never set forth under the title of priest; it very frequently is under the name of king. And moreover, as often as the Messiah is mentioned in the Scripture, there is a reference to his Kingdom. The priestly office and the prophetical also are both contained in the kingly (which by a metaphor is the meaning of Shepherd also: ch. Revelation 12:5). See Hebrews 2:17, note. Among the Gentiles also, one man has often borne the kingly office in addition to the priestly, sometimes under the title of priest, sometimes under that of king.

[115] AB Vulg. read λέγοντες. Rec. Text, λέγουσαι, with C.—E.

[116] Ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεια, ABCh Vulg. Ἐγένοντο αἱ βασιλεῖαι, Rec. Text, without good authority.—E.

[117] So AC Vulg.: but h, “Dei.” AC Vulg. and the best authorities read ἡμῶν, in opposition to Bengel.—E.

[118] See Appendix on Antonomasia.

Verse 15. - And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying. The participle "saying" is masculine, λέγοντες, in A, B; the feminine, λέγουσαι, is read in א, C, P. Though the latter would be more correct, grammatically, yet irregular construction in such cases is not uncommon in the Apocalypse. The voices were possibly those of the angels rejoicing in the triumph of the kingdom of God. Or perhaps they proceeded from the four living beings, since the elders are next mentioned (ver. 17) as offering the praises of the redeemed Church which they represent. At the opening of the seventh seal there was silence in heaven; here, at the sound of the seventh angel's trumpet, voices are heard "in heaven," but there is silence as to the fate of the wicked, with whom the trumpet visions have been chiefly concerned. In the revelation of the fate in store for the Church, as well as in that of the doom awarded to the ungodly, the visions stop short of describing circumstances connected with the life after the judgment day. The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign forever and ever. Ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλαία, in the singular, is found in א, A, B, C, P, and versions, and is adopted by the Revised Version. Ἐγένοντο αἱ βασιλεῖαι, the plural, is read in two cursives. We can understand the first part of this verse by referring to Revelation 12:10. God's power and authority is established by the final overthrow of Satan. It naturally follows the account, in vers. 12, 13, of the vindication of God's witnesses, and of the glory rendered by the rest of mankind. With God the Father is associated Christ, by whose means the overthrow of the devil is effected, and by whom his servants overcome (cf. Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:9; Revelation 7:14; Revelation 12:11). This is the final victory; henceforth "he shall reign forever and ever." Revelation 11:15The kingdoms - are become (ἐγένοντο αἱ βασιλεῖαι)

Read ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία, the kingdom - is become.

Of our Lord, etc.

Compare Psalm 2:2-9.

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