ICC New Testament Commentary
And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.PARABLE OF THE VINEYARD
12:1-12. Jesus, having denied the authority of the rulers, proceeds to show them in a parable the unfaithfulness to their trust which has lost for them their authority. The story is that of a vineyard let out on shares to cultivators, who maltreat the servants sent by the owner to collect his share, and finally kill his son, and whom the owner destroys, and turns over the vineyard to others. He also cites the proverb of the stone rejected by the builders which becomes the corner stone. The rulers see that the parable is aimed at them, but fear of the multitude holds them in check for the present.
1. Καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖν—And he began to say to them in parables.
λαλεῖν, instead of λέγειν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BGL Δ 1, 13, 69, 118, 124, 346, mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. Pesh. Harcl. marg.
αὐτοῖς evidently refers to the representatives of the Sanhedrim, the parable being a continuation of Jesus’ conversation with them.1 Mt. says that the chief priests and the Pharisees knew that the parable was directed at them; but he also represents Jesus as saying that the kingdom is to be taken from them, and given to a nation producing its fruits.2 But this confusion of rulers and people must not obscure the plain fact that in Mt. the parable is against the rulers. Lk. says that the parable was spoken to the people, but that the rulers knew that it was spoken against them, two things that are not at all inconsistent.3 ἐν παραβολαῖς—in parables. This use of the plural indicates that Mk. had other parables in mind, though he gives only one. Mt. gives three, all bearing on the same general subject. Mk. states the general fact of teaching in parables, and selects one from the rest. This is one of the facts which seem to indicate that Mk. had the same collection of the teachings of Jesus as Mt. and Lk. to draw upon, viz. the Logia. Ἀμπελῶνα ἄνθρωπος ἐφύτευσεν—A man planted a vineyard. This figure of the vineyard is taken from Isaiah 5:1, Isaiah 5:2. Even the details are reproduced. In the LXX. we find φραγμὸν περιέθηκα … ᾠκοδόμησα πύργον … προλήνιον ὤρυξα.
φραγμόν—is any kind of fence, or wall, that separates lands from each other. ὑπολήνιον—is the receptacle for the juice of the grapes, placed under the ληνός, or winepress, in which the grapes were trodden.4 πύργον—is the tower from which the watchman overlooked the vineyard. It was also used as a lodge for the keeper of the vineyard. γεωργοῖς—means tillers or cultivators. ἐξέδετο5—ἀπεδήμησε—went abroad. Far country, AV. is an exaggeration.
ἐξέδετο, instead of -δοτο, Tisch. WH. א AB* CKL.
2. τῷ καιρῷ—at the season, at the proper time. As this vineyard was equipped with a winepress, this would not be at the grape harvest, but any time following the winemaking. λάβῃ ἀπὸ τ. καρπῶν—The vineyard was let out on shares, the owner receiving a certain part of the product.
τῶν καρπῶν, instead of τοῦ καρποῦ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCLN Δ 33, 433, three mss. Lat. Vet. Pesh.
3. Καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν ἔδειραν1—And they took (him), and beat him.
καὶ, instead of οἱ δὲ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BDL Δ 33, mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.
4. κἀκεῖνον ἐκεφαλίωσαν2 καὶ ἠτίμασαν—and that one they beat about the head, and insulted.
Omit λιθοβολήσαντες having stoned, before ἐκεφαλίωσαν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL Δ 1, 28, 33, 91, 118, 299, Latt. Egyptt. ἐκεφαλίωσαν, instead of -αίωσαν, Tisch. WH. RV. א BL. ἠτιμασαν, instead of ἀπέστειλαν ἠτιμωμένον, Tisch. Treg. marg. WH. א BL 33, Latt. Egyptt. ἠτίμησαν Treg. RV. D.
5. Καὶ ἄλλον ἀπέστειλε—And he sent another.
Omit πάλιν, again, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL Δ 33, mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. οὓς before μὲν instead of τοὺς, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BDL Δ 1, 33, and before δὲ same except D.
καὶ πολλοὺς ἄλλους, οὓς μὲν δέροντες, οὓς δὲ ἀποκτέννοντες—and many others (they maltreated), beating some, and killing some. The verb to be supplied here has to be taken from the general statement of the treatment of the messengers by the cultivators of the vineyard, as the participles must agree with οἱ γεωργοί understood, and denote the several kinds of maltreatment.
There is no doubt that Jesus has in mind here the treatment of the prophets by the rulers and people, of which there is frequent mention by the O.T. writers.3 The parable is thus not an analogy, but an allegory.
6. Ἔτι ἕνα εἶχεν, υἱὸν ἀγαπητόν· ἀπέστειλε αὐτὸν ἔσχατον πρὸς αὐτούς—Still (after losing all these), he had one (other to send), a beloved son: he sent him last to them. ἐντραπήσονται τὸν υἱόν μου—they will respect my Son_4 The Son in the allegory represents Jesus himself. The nation, which had rejected God’s servants, the prophets, will finally put to death the Son himself, the Messianic King.
εἶχεν υἱὸν, instead of υἱὸν ἔχων, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BC2 L Δ 33, Harcl. (Pesh.). Omit αὐτοῦ his after ἀγαπητόν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL Δ mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. Vulg. Pesh. Omit καὶ after ἀπέστειλε Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BLX2Δ 13, one ms. Lat. Vet. Pesh.
8. καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος1—and threw him out of the vineyard. They put this indignity on his body, as this followed the killing.
Insert αὐτον after ἐξέβαλον, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV.א ABCDMN ΓΠ mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Syrr.
9. Τί ποιήσει ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος ;—What will the master of the vineyard do?
Omit οὖν, then, after τί, Tisch. WH. BL one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.
ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει—he will come and destroy. According to Matthew 21:41, Jesus drew this answer from the chief priests and scribes themselves.
10. Οὐδὲ2 τὴν γραφὴν παύτην ἀνέγνωτε;—And did you not read this Scripture?3
In the original, this stone, rejected by the builders, but become the head of the corner, is Israel itself, rejected by the nations, defeated and exiled, but destined by God for the chief place among them all. The Psalm was sung probably after the return from the exile, when everything indicates that the hopes of the nation were raised to the highest pitch; when it seemed as if God was taking the first step towards the aggrandizement of the chosen people.
ἐγενήθη εἰς4 κεφαλὴν γωνίας5—became the head of the corner, denoting the corner stone, which binds together the two sides of the building, and so becomes architecturally the most important stone in the structure. The story that there was a stone in the building of the Temple which had such a history, is unnecessary to account for so natural a metaphor, and evidently arose from the metaphorical use here.
11. παρὰ κυρίου ἐγενέτο αὕτη—this (corner stone) came from the Lord. αὕτη evidently refers to κεφαλὴν γωνίας. In the original, the feminine is used, but obviously according to Hebrew usage, for the neuter, referring to the event itself as ordered by Jehovah. But the use of the fem. to translate this Heb. fem. is quite without precedent in the N.T., and is unnecessary here, as we have a grammatical reference to the fem. κεφαλήν. The meaning is “This corner stone came from the Lord, and is wonderful in our eyes.”
This use of the passage from the Ps. by Jesus is a very good illustration of the Messianic application of O.T. writings. There can be no doubt from the context that the historical reference is to the people of Israel. But what is said of Israel was a common and proverbial happening, that might come true of any one whose being contained within itself the promise of better things than belonged to his start in life, and is especially true of the truly religious person or nation. Cf. the parable of the mustard seed, and Isa_53. As a principle, therefore, it would apply especially to the Messiah. The question, whether Jesus used the passage according to a common view of his time as directly Messianic, or only as a statement of this principle, depends on our view of him. It seems to be a rational inference, from what we know of Jesus, that he had derived his idea of the Messianic office partly from the O.T., and that that idea is possible only with a rational treatment of the O.T., while the current view of his time would be derived from a literalistic and irrational treatment of it. And in general, we know that he so far transcended his age as to take a spiritual view of the O.T., and there is no reason to suppose that this would not include the rational treatment of a passage like this. That is, Jesus would see in it not a direct reference to himself, but only the statement of a principle applicable to himself.
12. ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπε—for they knew that he spoke the parable against them. This is the reason for their seeking to take him, not for their fear of the people. But as the latter statement is the last made, Meyer makes the subject of ἔγνωσαν to be the ὄχλος just mentioned, in which case this would be a reason for their fear of the people. But there is a total absence of anything to indicate such a change of subject in ἔγνωσαν, and this is a greater difficulty than the one which Meyer seeks to remove. Meyer’s view also deprives the statement of its appositeness.1
The statement that they knew that Jesus spoke this parable against them is conclusive in regard to the meaning of it, and falls in with the parable itself, and with its context, placed as it is in the midst of a controversy between himself and the authorities. It is directed against the Jewish hierarchy, pointing out their sin in rejecting one after another of the prophets, culminating in their murder of the Messiah himself, and predicting their fate in consequence. But Mt., while he makes the same statement, v. 45, about the reference of the parable, makes Jesus say, v. 43, that the kingdom shall be taken from them, and given to a nation producing its fruits. This would seem to make the parable apply to the nation, and not to the hierarchy. Everything else, however, in Mt., as in Mk. and Lk., points to the hierarchy. It seems probable that Mt. therefore, in v. 43, adds to the parable, post eventum, that the nation was to share the fate of its rulers, and be superseded in their theocratic position by another (Gentile) nation. It plainly does not belong here, as the effect would be to bring rulers and people together against Jesus, whereas the statement is repeatedly made that, so far, it is Jesus and the people against the rulers.
THE QUESTION OF PAYING TRIBUTE TO ROME
13-17. Jesus is approached by Pharisees and Herodians with the question whether it is authorized under the theocracy to pay tribute to the Roman emperor, hoping to draw from him an answer, compromising him either with the Roman government or with the people. Jesus answers by pointing to the image and inscription of the emperor on the coin as a proof of their obligation to him, and bids them pay to Cæsar what belongs to him, and to God what belongs to him.
13. φαρισαίων κ. τ. Ἡρωδιάνων—These emissaries were chosen, because they occupied different sides of the question proposed to him. The Pharisees owed their popularity partly to their intense nationality and their hatred of foreign rule. The Herodians, on the other hand, were adherents of the Herods, who owed what power they possessed to the Roman government. Neither party, however, took an extreme position. The Pharisees are not to be confounded with the Zealots; they submitted to the inevitable. Nor is it to be supposed that the Herods had any particular love for the government that had helped them to power, to be sure, but had taken advantage of their weakness to make themselves supreme, and the Herods only their tributaries. Still, as to the question of the paying of tribute, with all the corollaries, they would be divided, and Jesus must offend one, or the other, by his answer. ἀγρεύσωσι λόγῳ—they may catch him with a word. The word is to be not his own, but their question, artfully contrived to entangle him. The figure is that of the hunter with his net or snare.1
14. Καὶ ἐλθόντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ—and coming, they say to him.
καὶ instead of οἱ δὲ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL Δ 33, mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt.
This address of his artful enemies is well described in the ἀγρεύσωσι. The question which they have to propose is one bristling with dangers, but then, they tell him, that is just what you do not care for. You have a sole regard for the truth, not for consequences nor persons. Διδάσκαλε—Teacher. They said Rabbi. ἀληθὴς—true, i.e. truthful. καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός—and carest not for any one. This shows the particular kind of regard for the truth which they had in mind. It was one which did not stand in fear of man, would not be hindered by awe of kings, not even of the Roman emperor. οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον—for thou dost not look at the person of men; dost not pay attention to those things which belong to outward condition, such as rank or wealth. This is a widening of the meaning of πρόσωπον, belonging to the Heb. τὴν ὁδὸν τ. Θεοῦ—the way of God, the course prescribed for men by God.2 ἔξεστι κῆνσον3 Καίσαρι4 δοῦναι ἢ ου;—Is it right to give tribute to Cæsar or not? This question took on a special form among the Jews, who claimed to be the members of a theocracy, so that paying tribute to a foreigner would seem like disloyalty to the Divine government. The question of policy, or necessity, is kept in the background, and the problem is confined to the rightfulness of paying such tribute. ἢ οὔ—ἢ μὴ.5
15. Ὁ δὲ εἰδὼς (ἰδὼν) αὐτῶν τὴν ὑπόκρισιν—But he, knowing (seeing) their dissimulation.
ἰδὼν, instead of εἰδὼς Tisch. א * D 13, 28, 69, 346, mss. Lat. Vet.
ὑπόκρισιν—this word has been transliterated into our word hyprocrisy at a great loss of picturesqueness and force. It means acting, from which the transition to the meaning dissimulation is easy. What Jesus knew about these men was, that they were playing a part in their compliments, and their request for advice. They were acting the part of inquirers; really, they were plotters. They were trying to compromise him either with the government or the people. In his trial before Pilate we see what use they intended to make of one of the two answers to which they thought he was reduced. Luke 23:2. τί με πειράζετε;—why do you try me? Our word tempt, in the sense of solicit to evil, is out of place here.1 What they were doing was to put him to the test maliciously. δηνάριον—a shilling.2
The point of Jesus’ reply is, that the very coin in which the tribute is paid bears on its face the proof not only of their subjection to the foreign government, but of their obligation to it. Coinage is a privilege claimed by government, but it is one of the things in which the government most clearly represents the interest of the governed. Tribute becomes in this way, not an extortion, or exaction, but a return for service rendered.
17. Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Τὰ Καίσαρος ἀπόδοτε Καίσαρι—And Jesus said to them, The things belonging to Cæsar pay to Cæsar.
Ὁ δὲ, instead of Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCL Δ 33, Theb.
ἀπόδοτε—pay. They had said, δοῦναι, give. Jesus makes it a matter of payment. τὰ Καίσαρος—the things of Cæsar. Strictly speaking, this means, Pay to the Roman government Roman coin. They themselves were tacitly recognizing the government, and availing themselves of their privileges under it by using its coin, and that left them no pretext for denying its rights. The coin represents simply the right of the government. The image and superscription on it show the government maintaining to the people the position not only of power, but of rights. It is in this, as in all things, the defender of rights. This gives to the government itself rights, of which tribute is representative. But our Lord’s reply is entirely characteristic. It suggests, rather than amplifies or explains. κ. τὰ τ. Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ—and the things belonging to God to God. The way in which they had presented the question implied that there was a conflict between the claims of the earthly and heavenly governments. But Jesus shows them as each having claims. Cæsar has claims, and also God; pay both. The difficulty with the Jews, and with all bodies claiming to represent God, is that they are zealous for him in a partisan way, jealous of his prerogatives, dignities, and the like, and make that do service for a real loyalty to him. These men were eager to assert God’s claim against a foreign king. Jesus was anxious that they should recognize his real claims, those that involved no real conflict, but belonged in the wider sphere of common duties. κ. ἐξεθαύμαζον—and they wondered. Well they might. Jesus had not only parried their attack, which was a small matter, but had thrown light on a very difficult question. The conflict of duties is one of the perplexities of life, and the question of the relation of the Christian to civil government is often one of the most trying forms of the general problem. Jesus’ answer is practically, Do not try to make one duty exclude another, but fulfil one so as to consist with all the rest. As far as the special matter is concerned, it recognizes the right of civil government, the obligation of those who live under a theocracy to be subject to civil authority, an obligation not abrogated, but enforced by their duty to God; that the Divine obedience does not exclude, but include other obediences; and finally, that human government, as included thus within the Divine scheme of things, is among the economies to be conformed to its perfect idea.
ἐξεθαύμαζον, instead of ἐθαύμασαν, Tisch. WH. RV. א B.
JESUS ANSWERS THE PUZZLE OF THE SADDUCEES ABOUT THE RESURRECTION
18-27. The next attack on Jesus comes from another source. The Sadducees, the priestly class, being disbelievers in the resurrection, bring to him what is apparently their standing objection, of a woman having seven husbands here, and ask him whose wife she will be in the resurrection. Jesus’ answer is in two parts: first, that there is no marriage in the resurrection state; and secondly, that when God calls himself the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, their continued life is implied. Anything else is inconsistent with that relation.
18. Σαδδουκαῖοι—The word denotes the sect as Zadokites. There is little doubt that the word itself comes from this proper name Zadok, and not from צַדִּיק, meaning righteous. Probably, the particular Zadok meant is the priest who distinguished himself by his fidelity in the time of David. 2 Samuel 15:24 sq., 1 K. 1:32 sq. After the return from the exile, among the different families constituting the priesthood, the sons of Zadok seem to have occupied the chief place. They were the aristocracy of the priesthood, and Ezekiel assigns them exclusive rights to its functions. Ezekiel 40:46, Ezekiel 43:19, Ezekiel 44:15, Ezekiel 48:11. The Sadducees, that is to say, were the party of the priests, and especially of the priestly aristocracy. As a school of opinion, they were characterized by the denial of the authority of tradition, maintaining the sole authority of the written Scriptures. As corollaries of this, they denied the resurrection, and the existence of angels or spirits.1 καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν, λέγοντες—and they questioned him, saying.
ἐπηρώτων, instead of ἐπηρώτησαν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL Δ 33, Latt. Pesh. Memph.
19. καὶ μὴ ἀφῇ τέκνον, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα—and leave no child, that his brother take the woman.
τέκνον, instead of τέκνα, Tisch. Treg. marg. WH. RV. א ca BL Δ 1, 18, 241, 299, mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Omit αὐτοῦ after τὴν γυναῖκα, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BCL Δ 1, 61, 209, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.
This quotation is from Deuteronomy 25:5, Deuteronomy 25:6. It is introduced in order to show that the law itself provides for these successive marriages, thus expressly legalizing these successive relations, which the resurrection would make simultaneous. Their question is, therefore, whether the same Scriptures teach this, and the resurrection, which is inconsistent with it. The quotation does not attempt to reproduce the language.
21. μὴ καταλιπὼν σπέρμα2—not having left seed.
μὴ καταλιπὼν, instead of καὶ οὐδὲ αὐτὸς ἀφῆκε, and neither did he leave, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCL 33, one ms. Lat. Vet. Egyptt.
22. καὶ οἱ ἑπτὰ οὐκ ἀφῆκαν σπέρμα—and the seven left no seed.
Omit ἔλαβον αὐτὴν … καὶ before οὐκ ἀφῆκαν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL Δ* 28, 33, Memph.
This childlessness is specified as the chief element in the indeterminateness of the question, since if either of them had had children, that might have decided the question to whom the woman belonged.
ἔσχατον πάντων3 καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέθανεν—last of all the woman died also.
ἔσχατον, instead of ἐσχάτη, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCGHKL ΔΠ 1, 13, 28, 33, 69, mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. Pesh.
23. ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει τίνος αὐτῶν ἔσται γυνή;—In the resurrection, whose wife shall she be of them? This was probably the standing puzzle of the Sadducees, in which they sought to discredit the resurrection by reducing it to an absurdity.
Omit οὖν, therefore, before ἀναστάσει, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BC* EF HLSUVX ΓΠ two mss. Lat. Vet. Omit ὄταν ἀναστῶσιν, whenever they arise. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL Δ 28, 33, two mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. Pesh.
24. Ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε, μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφάς, μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ; Jesus said to them, Is it not on this account that you err, because you know not the Scriptures, nor the power of God? διὰ τοῦτο points forward to the μὴ εἰδότες,1 the part. being used causally. What follows in v. 25, 26, develops these two defects in their consideration of the matter. Their ignorance of the power of God is taken up first, in v. 25.
Ἒφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, instead of Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCL Δ 33, Memph. Pesh.
25. This verse contains Jesus’ statement of the power of God in the resurrection. He has power not only to raise, but so to change the body, that marriage ceases to be one of its functions. It was because they were ignorant of this, that the Sadducees thought their case of seven husbands would be an argument against the resurrection.
ὅταν … ἀναστῶσιν—whenever they arise. ὅταν leaves the time of the resurrection indefinite. γαμίζονται—denotes the act of the father in bestowing his daughter in marriage.2 ὡς ἄγγελοι—the angels come as a race, not from procreation, but directly from creation. The power of God appears in this, in the transformation and clarifying of the resurrection body, so that marriage is not a part of the future state.
γαμίζονται, instead of γαμίσκονται, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BCDGLU Δ 1, 124, 209. Omit οἱ after ἄγγελοι, Tisch. (Treg.) WH. RV. א CDFKLMU ΔΠ Memph. Harcl.
26. This verse shows their ignorance of the Scriptures, which speaks of God as the God of their ancestors, language which is inconsistent with their mortality.
ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ3 Μωϋσέως, ἐπὶ τοῦ βάτου4—in the book of Moses, at the place concerning the bush.
τοῦ, instead of τῆς, before βάτου, Tisch. Treg. WH. א ABCLX ΓΔΠ. πῶς, instead of ὡς, before εἶπεν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCLU Δ 108, 131.
Omit ὁ, the, before Θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, and Θεὸς Ἰακώβ, Treg. WH. RV. BD, two passages in Origen.
27. Οὐκ ἔστιν Θεὸς νεκρῶν ἀλλὰ ζώντων—Without the art., Θεὸς becomes the pred., not the subj., and νεκρῶν is also anarthrous, so that it reads, He is not a God of dead men, but of living.
As this is commonly explained, it is made to hinge on the use of the present, instead of the past. The statement is, he is their God, not he was; and hence, they are still living. But this is a non sequitur, since it is a common expression in regard to both dead and living, and would be taken in the same sense, or used in the same sense, by either Pharisees or Sadducees. But it follows from the nature of God that, when he calls himself the God of any people, certain things are implied in the statement about these people, e.g. that they are righteous, not sinners; blessed, not wretched; and here living, not dead. That is, immortality may be inferred from the nature of God himself in the case of those whom he calls his. But Jesus applies it to the resurrection of the dead generally, and not simply of the righteous dead. What the Sadducees denied was the possibility of the resurrection on materialistic grounds; at the basis of their denial of the resurrection was the other denial of spiritual being.1 But Jesus proves the possibility of the resurrection by examples.2 Notice that Jesus does not reveal the fact of the resurrection, but argues it from acknowledged premises. Given, he says, the fact of God, and the resurrection follows. He recognizes the rational ground of immortality. And what is of more importance, he recognizes the validity of our intuition about God. We can say that certain things may be assumed about him on first principles.
Omit ὁ before Θεὸς, Treg. WH. RV. BDKLM marg. ΔΠ. Omit Θεὸς before ζώντων, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABCDFKLM marg. UX ΔΠ Latt. Egyptt. Pesh.
πολὺ πλανᾶσθε—you make a great mistake. This concise statement at the close makes an abrupt, but for that reason, forcible ending of the conversation.
Omit ὑμεῖς οὖν, you therefore, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCL Δ one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.
A SCRIBE QUESTIONS JESUS CONCERNING THE FIRST COMMANDMENT
28-34. A Scribe, apparently without the usual prejudices of his class, and impressed by his answer to the Sadducees, approaches Jesus with an honest question as to the first of the commandments of the Law. Jesus answers with the quotation from Deut. used at the beginning of morning and evening prayer, affirming the unity of God, and the consequent duty of loving him with an undivided heart. He adds a second command from Lev., bidding the people of God to love their neighbors as themselves. The Scribe assents to this, and adds that obedience to this law of love is a greater thing than all sacrifices. Whereupon, Jesus assures him that he is not far from the kingdom of God. But his enemies are evidently satisfied—they do not dare to question him further.
Judging from the fact, that he was led to put this question by seeing how well Jesus had answered the Sadducees, and from his commendation of our Lord’s reply to himself, as also from our Lord’s commendation of his answer, it seems probable that the Scribe did not ask this question in a captious spirit. He thought, Here is possibly an opportunity to get an answer to our standing question, about the first commandment. Mt. states the matter differently, making him one of a group of Pharisees, who gathered about Jesus with the usual purpose of testing him. He also omits the mutual commendation of Jesus and the Scribe.1 Lk. puts this scene at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry in Southern Palestine. He coincides with Mt. in regard to the purpose of the question, saying that the lawyer ἀνέστη ἐκπειράζων.2
28. ἰδὼν (εἰδὼς) ὅτι καλῶς ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς, ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν, Ποία ἐστὶ ἐντολὴ πρώτη πάντων3—seeing (knowing) that he answered them well, asked him, What (sort of) commandment is first of all?
ἰδὼν, instead of εἰδὼς, Tisch. Treg. א* CDL 1, 13, 28, 69, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. ἐντολὴ πρώτη πάντων, instead of πρώτη πασῶν τῶν ἐντολῶν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCLU Δ 33, 108, 127, 131, Memph. Syrr.
ποία asks about the quality of command, as if the scribe had in mind the different classes of laws. This is indicated also by his reply, v. 33.
29. Ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ὅτι πρώτη ἐστίν—Jesus answered, The first is.
Ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς, instead of Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀπεκρίθη, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BL Δ 33, Memph. Pesh. Omit αὐτῶ, Tisch. (Treg.) WH. RV. on same authority. ἐστίν, instead of πασῶν τῶν ἐντολῶν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BL Δ Memph.
Ἄκουε, Ἰσραήλ, Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν, Κύριος εἷς ἐστί—Hear, O Israel, The Lord our God, the Lord is one.1 These words, calling the attention of Israel to the oneness of Jehovah, were used at the beginning of morning and evening prayer in the temple, as a call to worship. Κύριος, Lord, is the translation of the Heb. Yahweh, and it is probable therefore that the second Κύριος is subject instead of predicate.2 This unity has for its conclusion, that worship is not to be divided among several deities, but concentrated on one.
30. ἀγαπήσεις—thou shalt love. Love is the duty of man toward God, and this is in itself a revelation of the nature of God. It is only one who loves who demands love, and only one in whom love is supreme demands love as the supreme duty. He requires of men what is consonant with his own being. ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας—from all the heart. The preposition denotes the source of the love. It is to be from all the heart on the same principle of the unity of God. Being one, he requires an undivided love. This is added to the Sept. statement, which includes only the διανοίας, ψυχῆς, and ἰσχύος. The Heb. includes the καρδίας, but omits διανοίας. καρδία is the general word for the inner man; ψυχή is the soul, the life-principle, διανοία is the mind, and ἰσχύς is the spiritual strength. There is no attempt at classification, or exactness of statement, but simply to express in a strong way the whole being.
Omit αὕτη πρώτη ἐντολή, this is the first commandment, Tisch. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. א BEL Δ Egyptt.
31. Δευτέρα αὕτη—The second is this.
Omit Καὶ, And, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BL Δ mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Omit ὁμοία, like, Tisch. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. א BL Δ Egyptt.
The Scribe did not ask for the second commandment, but the statement is incomplete without it. Our Lord wished to show that this first commandment did not stand at the head of a long list of heterogeneous commands, among which it was simply primus inter pares, but that it was one of two homogeneous commands, which exhausted the idea of righteousness. This second commandment does not stand in the O.T. in the commanding position of the first, but is brought in only incidentally in Leviticus 19:18, where, moreover, neighbor is evidently restricted to a brother Jew. Jesus puts it in a commanding position, and widens the meaning of neighbor to fellowman. ὡς σεαυτόν—the degree of the love to God is expressed by “from all thy heart”; the degree of human love is “as thyself.” The love of God includes in itself all other affections, but this love of the neighbor has over against it a love of self, with which Jesus allows it to divide the man. This self-love is already there, monopolizing the man, and the command is to subordinate it to the love of God, and to coördinate it with the love of man.
32. καλῶς, διδάσκαλε· ἐπʼ ἀληθείας εἶπες, ὅτι εἷς ἐστί—Well, teacher! you said truly that he is one. AV. Well, Master; thou didst speak the truth; for, etc. This is not wrong, but what follows ὅτι is so nearly what Jesus said, that it seems more natural to make it a repetition of that, than a reason for the scribe’s approval of it. RV. Of a truth, Master, thou hast well said, that, etc. The distribution of the words and of emphasis is against this. It would read ἐπʼ ἀληθείας καλῶς εἶπες.
Omit θεός, God, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABKLMSUX ΓΔΠ one ms. Lat. Vet. many mss. Vulg. Pesh.
οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος πλὴν αὐτοῦ—there is no other but he. This addition to Jesus’ words is taken by the Scribe from Deuteronomy 4:35, Deuteronomy 4:39. His enumeration of the parts of man entering into the love of God differs again from that of Jesus. The following table shows them all together.
Heb. καρδία, ψυχή, ἰσχύς.
Sept. διανοία, ψυχή, ἰσχύς.
Jesus. καρδία, ψυχή, διανοία, ἰσχύς.
Scribe. καρδία, σύνεσις, ἰσχύς.
But of course, this is a matter of no importance, the two latter representing only the oratio variata of the writer.
33. Omit καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς, and from all the soul, Tisch. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. א BL Δ 1, 118, 209, 299, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph. περισσότερον, instead of πλεῖον, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BL Δ 33. Omit τῶν before θυσιῶν, Treg. WH. ABDX ΓΠ.
περισσότερον—a more eminent thing. The positive expresses the idea of eminence, of surpassing other things, and the comparative denotes a higher degree of this quality. ἁλοκαυτωμάτων1—whole burnt offerings.2 These words of the Scribe are an addition to what Jesus says about the superiority of these two commands. Jesus had compared them simply with other laws. The Scribe compares them specially with the laws of sacrifice, after the manner of the prophets.
34. νουνεχῶς—intelligently.1 οὐ μακρὰν εἶ ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλείας τ. Θεοῦ—You are not far from the kingdom of God. The evident enthusiasm with which the Scribe received the statement of Jesus, and his ability to enter into the spirit of it so as to develop it in his own way, showed that he himself could not be far from the kingdom, with whose law he has shown himself to be in sympathy. To be friendly to its ideas, and sympathetic with its spirit, was the next thing to actual submission to it. αὐδεὶς οὐκέτι ἐτόλμα αὐτὸν ἐπερωτῆσαι—no one dared to question him further. The question of the Scribe was friendly, but the whole series of questions to which it belonged was far from friendly; it was captious and hostile, having for its object to destroy the authority of Jesus by showing that he was no more than any other teacher when he came to face the real puzzles of the learned men. But Jesus had shown in his answers no mere mastery of the usual weapons of debate, but a grasp of the principles involved in each case, so that the purpose of his enemies was foiled, and his authority stood stronger than ever. It was no use to ask him questions therefore, which only recoiled on the questioners.
JESUS’ QUESTION, HOW THE MESSIAH CAN BE BOTH SON AND LORD OF DAVID
35-37. Jesus now raises a question himself. Their questions have been really a challenge of his Messianic claim. His question is a criticism of their Messianic idea. They call the Messiah Son of David, and Jesus asks how the exalted language of the Psalm in which David calls him Lord can be applied to one who is only David’s son.
35. ἀποκριθεὶς—Answering their questions now by propounding one in his turn. πῶς λέγουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς;—How do the Scribes say …? According to the statement of Mt., he asked the Scribes, What do you think about the Messiah? whose son is he? And when they answered David’s, then he raises his difficulty. This simply emphasizes what is stated also in our account, that this title is treated by him as Rabbinical rather than Scriptural.
This is not a conundrum, a Scriptural puzzle, but a criticism of the Messianic teaching of the Rabbis. By emphasizing his descent from David as the essential thing about him, they were in danger of passing over the really important matter, which made him not so much David’s son, but his Lord. He felt that the title, Son of David, into which the Scribes compressed their conception of the Messianic position, misrepresented by its narrowness the prophetic statement of the Messianic kingdom, and involved in itself all the errors of current Jewish Messianism. And he was conscious himself of a greatness that could not be ascribed to his descent from David, but was the result only of his unique relation to God. Hence his question, which does not intend to match their riddles with another, but is intended to expose the insufficiency of the Messianic idea taught by the Rabbis. For this purpose he selects a passage from Psa_110, which was currently ascribed to David and was classed as Messianic. In this Psalm, so interpreted, David is made to address the Messianic king as his Lord. And the argument is made to hinge on this address—How can David call him Lord, when he is David’s son? Right here, then, we have the gravest difficulty to be encountered anywhere in regard to the N.T. acceptance of the traditional view of the O.T. For criticism rejects the Davidic authorship of this Psalm. It does not allege plain anachronisms, as in many Psalms, e.g. the mention of the temple, or of the destruction of Jerusalem, in Psalms ascribed to David. But there are other signs which point plainly to the great improbability of Davidic authorship. In the first place, it belongs to a group of Psalms, Books IV. and V., of the Psalter, which is evidently of late date; and the reasons would have to be special and obvious which would lead us to detach it from the rest. Whereas, it bears all the marks common to the class. Moreover, if it was written by David, then we have to suppose that there was some person occupying his own position of theocratic king, but so much more exalted than he that he calls him Lord. And this could only be the Messiah, the final flower of the Davidic line, whom David sees in vision. But the Psalm in that case would stand entirely by itself as being simply a vision of an indefinite future, having no roots in the circumstances of the times, whereas all O.T. prophecy is of an immediate future growing directly out of the present. This leads immediately to the conclusion that the Psalm is addressed by the Psalmist to some reigning king, who is also somehow a priest, and that the writer cannot himself be a king. And, finally, the Messianic conception in the time of David had reached no further than this, that his royal line was not to fail, even if his sons and successors proved sometimes unworthy. But the idea of a Messianic king, who was to be the ideal and climax of the Davidic line, and whom David himself could call Lord, was the fruit only of a long period of national disaster, creating the feeling that only such a unique person could restore the national hopes. The idea of a personal Messiah belongs to the period succeeding the close of the canon. This is the essential reason for rejecting the Davidic authorship. How, then, if David did not write the Psalm, can we account for our Lord’s ascription of it to him? The explanation that will account for all the other cases of this kind, viz., that the authorship is of no account, leaving him free to accept the current view as a mere matter of nomenclature and identification, without committing him to an endorsement of it, will not do here, since the argument turns on the authorship. But the real explanation of all the cases is, that inspiration, which accounts for whatever extraordinary knowledge belonged to Jesus in his earthly life, does not extend to such matters of critical research as authorship. Inspiration belongs to the sphere of the moral and religious intuitions, and did not keep even Jesus from ignorance of matters outside of its sphere. And here, in its proper sphere, it gave him a view of the deeper meaning of Scripture, that led to his declaration that Son of David would come very far from adequately stating their view of the Messianic king. That would include the universalism of the prophets, and the suffering servant of Jehovah of Isaiah. Moreover, it would include a unique relation to God, and to universal manhood, that would place him in a different class from David, and an exalted position, which would be indicated by the titles chosen by himself, Son of Man and Son of God, rather than Son of David.
36. αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῷ, Εἶπεν (ὁ) Κύριος1 τῷ κυρίῳ μου—David himself said in the Holy Spirit, the Lord said to my lord.
Omit γὰρ, for, after αὐτὸς, Tisch. Treg. marg. WH. RV. א BLTdΔ 13, 28, 59, 69, two mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Omit ὁ before Κύριος, Treg. WH. BD. B omits it in Sept.
ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ—in the Holy Spirit. This phrase denotes inspiration. David said this with the authority that belongs to an inspired man.1 (ὁ) Κύριος—in the original, this is Yahweh (Jehovah), of which ὁ Κύριος is the translation in the Sept.2 ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου—a footstool of thy feet.
ὑποκάτω, under, instead of ὑποπόδιον, WH. RV.marg. BDgr Td 28, Egyptt.
37. Αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν Κύριον—David himself calls him Lord. This makes the difficulty of their position—how lordship and sonship go together.
Omit οὖν, therefore, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BDLTd Δ 28, 106, 251, mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt.
ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος—the great multitude present at the feast, the multitude being distinguished from the leaders. This statement is parallel to those which represent Jesus, all through this controversy, as carrying the people with him.
WARNING AGAINST THE SCRIBES
38-40. Somewhere in the course of his teaching on this last day of public instruction, Jesus introduces a warning against the Scribes, the religious teachers and leaders of his time. He charges them with ostentation, an unhealthy craving for position and flattery, and a fearful inconsistency between the profuseness of their worship and the cruel meanness of their lives. Their condemnation, he says, will be greater than if they had been consistently wicked.
38. ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ—in the course of his teaching. Mk. does not place this warning exactly. Nor Lk. Mt. says then. All of them introduce it in this place. But the warning is not against those qualities of the Scribes that would be suggested by their misconception of the Messianic idea.
βλέπετε ἀπὸ—Beware of.3 ἐν στολαῖς περιπατεῖν—to walk about in long robes. These στολαί were the dress of dignitaries, such as kings and priests—long robes reaching to the feet. ἀσπασμοὺς—salutations of respect.
39. πρωτοκαθεδρίας4—first seats.
πρωτοκλισίας1—chief (reclining) places, not rooms, AV. What this chief place at table was, the varying custom prevents our saying.
40. οἱ κατεσθίοντες—If this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, the nom. is an irregularity, as its noun is in the Gen_2 It is better, therefore, to begin a new sentence here, making οἱ κατεσθίοντες the subj. of λήμψονται—those who devour, etc., shall receive.3 This devouring of widows’ houses would be under the forms of civil law, but in contravention of the Divine law of love. προφάσει—for a covering. That is, they tried to hide their covetousness behind a show of piety. See 1 Thessalonians 2:5, where the meaning is, that the apostle did not use his preaching of the Gospel as a mere cloak of covetousness. περισσότερον κρίμα—more abundant, or overflowing condemnation. The adjective is strong. The comparison is with what they would receive if they made no pretence of piety. Notice that the show, as it is commonly with men, is of religion, while the offence is against humanity. The warning is addressed to the people, and bids them beware of religious leaders who affect the outward titles and trappings of their office, and offset their lack of humanity by a show of piety.
The exact verbal correspondence of Mk. and Lk. in this warning is proof positive of their interdependence.
JESUS’ COMMENDATION OF THE WIDOW’S OFFERING
41-44. The day closes with a scene in the treasury of the temple. Jesus is watching the multitude casting their offerings into the trumpet-shaped mouths of this receptacle, and among them many rich men casting in much. But there is one poor widow, who casts in two small coins, worth about a third of a cent, and Jesus commends her as having given more than all the rest. They, he says, gave out of their excess; she, out of her lack, gave all her living.
41. Καὶ καθίσας κατέναντι τοῦ γαζοφαλυκίου—And having taken a seat over against the treasury.
Omit ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BL Δ two mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.
γαζοφυλακίου—treasury.1 The treasury meant is probably that in the outer court of the temple, having thirteen openings shaped like trumpets, for the reception of temple offerings and of gifts for the poor. χαλκὸν—literally, brass, but, like the Latin œs, a general word for all money. ἔβαλλον—were casting, denoting the repeated act.
42. μία χήρα—one widow; contrasted with the many rich. δύο λεπτά, ὅ ἐστι κοδράντης—the λεπτόν was the eighth part of an as, the value of which was one and two-thirds cents, so that two λεπτά were about two-fifths of a cent. κοδράντης is the Latin word quadrans, meaning a quarter of an as. But the real value appears only from the fact that the denarius, or ten asses, was a day’s wages.
43. εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν τῶν βαλλόντων εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον—said to them, Verily I say to you, that this poor widow cast in more than all who are casting into the treasury.
εἶπεν, instead of λέγει, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABDKLU ΔΠ, two mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. Syrr. ἔβαλεν, instead of βέβληκε, Treg. WH. RV. אc (א* ἔβαλλεν) ABDL Δ 33 βαλλόντων, instead of βαλόντων, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABDLX ΓΔΠ.
… πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν τῶν βαλλόντων—cast in more than all who are casting. This is a case where the use of the comp., instead of the superl., is misleading, as the superl. means most of them all, whereas the comp. strictly means more than all together.
44. ὑστερήσεως—This expression is the exact opposite of περισσεύοντος, one meaning more than enough, and the other less than enough; excess and deficiency. RV. superfluity and want. ὅλον τὸν βίον—all her living, her resources. The idea of περισσευεύοντος is that they did not trench on their resources, but gave a part only of what they had over and above that, while the poor widow gave all her resources. Hence, while the real value of their gifts was many times greater than hers, the ideal value of hers was the greatest of them all. Money values are not the standard of gifts in the kingdom of God, but only these ideal values. It is only as the gift measures the moral value of the giver, that it counts with him who looks at the heart.
It is noticeable that Mk. closes his account of this stormy scene in the Temple with this idyl. The connection is not the verbal and superficial relation to the widows of v. 40, but the contrast between the outward meagreness and inward richness of the widow’s service, and the outward ostentation and inward barrenness of the Pharisees’ religion.
WH. Westcott and Hort.
RV. Revised Version.
B Codex Vaticanus.
G Codex Wolfi A.
L Codex Regius.
1 .Codex Basiliensis
13 Codex Regius.
69 Codex Leicestrensis.
346 Codex Ambrosianus.
Lat. Vet. Vetus Latina.
Egyptt. Egyptian Versions.
marg. Revided Version marg.
1 See 11:33, 12:12.
2Matthew 21:43, Matthew 21:45.
3Luke 20:9, Luke 20:19.
4 AV. wine-fat. Fat is an old English word for vat. RV., pit for the winepress.
5 This vb. is common in Grk., but occurs in N.T. only in this parable in the Synoptics. The irregular form, ἐξέδετο for δοτο, is also repeated.
AV. Authorised Version.
A Codex Alexandrinus.
C Codex Bezae.
K Codex Cyprius.
N Codex Purpureus.
33 Codex Regius.
1 ἔδειραν means they flayed him, literally. This modified meaning, they beat him, does not belong to the best usage, though it is found sometimes from Aristophanes down.
D Codex Ephraemi.
2 ἐκεφαλίωσαν is evidently a corrupt form of ἐκεφαλαίωσαν, and that word is treated as if it came from κεφαλή, instead of κεφάλαιον. Properly, it means to bring under heads, to summarize, but here, apparently, to wound in the head. It occurs only here in the N.T. Thay.-Grm. Lex.
28 Codex Regius.
Latt. Latin Versions.
32 Chronicles 36:15, 2 Chronicles 36:16, Nehemiah 9:26, Jeremiah 25:3-7.
4 On the use of the acc., instead of the regular dat., see Win. 32, 1 b, a.
1 On this use of the adv. as a prep., see Win. 54, 6.
M Codex Campianus.
Syrr. Syriac Versions.
2 On the meaning of οὐδέ without a preceding negative, see Win. 55, 6, 2.
3 The passage is Psalm 118:22, Psalm 118:23.
4 A translation of the Heb. הָיָה לְ. Win. 29, 3 a.
5 A translation of the Heb. ראשׁ פִּ נָּה.
1 See Win. 61, 7b.
1 Thay.-Grm. Lex.
2 This use of ὁδός is familiar in the Heb. but uncommon, though not unknown, in the Greek.
3 κῆσον is the Latin word census, meaning a registration of persons and property on which taxation is based. In the N. T., it denotes the tax itself.
4 Καίσαρι—there is a mixture here of the personal and the titular use of this name. As a title of the Roman emperors, it takes the article properly.
5 οὐ is used in the first question, because it is one of objective fact. μὴ in the second, because it is a question of proposed action, subjective. Win. 55, 1 a.
1 See RV. American readings. Classes of Passages.
2 Penny, EV. is specially misleading, since the denarius had not only the nominal value of our shilling, but a far greater relative value, as it was a day’s wages. The denarius was a Roman coin, equivalent to ten asses, a ten as piece.
1 See Schürer, II. 2, 26, II.
209 An unnamed, valuable manuscript.
2 μὴ is used here, instead of οὐ, because the denial is in some way subjective. μὴ gives it something the tone of “so the story goes.”
3 ἔσχατον is here an adv. and denotes the last of a series of events, and its conjunction with πάντων denoting persons is therefore incongruous. Hence the substitution of έσχάτη by some copyist. Cf. 1 Corinthians 15:8.
H Codex Wolfi B.
E Codex Basiliensis.
F Codex Borelli.
S Codex Vaticanus.
U Codex Nanianus.
V Codex Mosquensis.
1 μὴ is the negative used, because the statement is made by Jesus as a conjecture, of which he asks their opinion.
2 See 1 Corinthians 7:38. γαμίζονται is a Biblical word.
3 βίβλος is originally the name of the papyrus plant, from which paper was made, and then a book or scroll. The quotation is from Exodus 3:6.
4 The use of ἐπὶ is analogous to that with the gen. of persons or things to locate an event by its connection with some person or thing; at the passage which tells about the bush. Win. 47, g, d.
1 See Acts 23:8.
2 Compare Paul’s proof of the resurrection by the case of Jesus. 1 Corinthians 15:12 sqq.
3 On the gender of πάντων, see Win. 27, 6. On this use of πάντων with superlative, the only case in N.T., See Win. 36, note.
1Deuteronomy 6:4, Deuteronomy 6:5. This is quoted just as it stands in the Sept.
2 See Deuteronomy 6:4, RV.marg.
1 The classical Greek has the verb ὁλοκαυτόω, to burn whole, but this word is confined to the Bible and to Philo.
2 See Psalm 40:6, Psalm 51:16, Psalm 50:8-15, Isaiah 1:11, Hosea 5:6.
1 This word does not occur elsewhere in the N.T.
1 On κύριος without the art. See Win. 19, 1 a.
T fragment of Lectionary.
1 Mt. says ἐν πνεύματι. This is the only case of the use of this phrase in the Gospels.
2 This passage is quoted from the Sept. without change.
3 See on 8:15.
4 This word is found only here and in the parallel passages from Mt. and Lk. in the N.T., and elsewhere, in ecclesiastical writings.
1 This word is also found only in the parallel accounts of this discourse, and in ecclesiastical writings.
2 See Win., who treats it as an annex with an independent structure. 59, 8 b, 62, 3.
3 So Grotius, and following him, Bengel, Meyer, and others.
1 A Scriptural word, of which the first part is a Persian word for treasure.
And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard.
And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.
And again he sent unto them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled.
And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some.
Having yet therefore one son, his wellbeloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son.
But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours.
And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.
What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others.
And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner:
This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?
And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.
And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words.
And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it.
And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Caesar's.
And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.
Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying,
Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed.
And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise.
And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the woman died also.
In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife.
And Jesus answering said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God?
For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven.
And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?
He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err.
And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all?
And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:
And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.
And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.
And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he:
And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.
And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question.
And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the Son of David?
For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly.
And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and love salutations in the marketplaces,
And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts:
Which devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation.
And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much.
And there came a certain poor widow, and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing.
And he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury:
For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living.
ICC New Testament commentary on selected books
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