Deuteronomy 25:5
New International Version
If brothers are living together and one of them dies without a son, his widow must not marry outside the family. Her husband’s brother shall take her and marry her and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to her.

New Living Translation
“If two brothers are living together on the same property and one of them dies without a son, his widow may not be married to anyone from outside the family. Instead, her husband’s brother should marry her and have intercourse with her to fulfill the duties of a brother-in-law.

English Standard Version
“If brothers dwell together, and one of them dies and has no son, the wife of the dead man shall not be married outside the family to a stranger. Her husband’s brother shall go in to her and take her as his wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her.

Berean Study Bible
When brothers dwell together and one of them dies without a son, the widow must not marry outside the family. Her husband’s brother is to take her as his wife and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law for her.

King James Bible
If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband's brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an husband's brother unto her.

New King James Version
“If brothers dwell together, and one of them dies and has no son, the widow of the dead man shall not be married to a stranger outside the family; her husband’s brother shall go in to her, take her as his wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her.

New American Standard Bible
“When brothers live together, and one of them dies and has no son, the wife of the deceased shall not be married outside the family to a strange man. Her husband’s brother shall have relations with her and take her to himself as his wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her.

NASB 1995
“When brothers live together and one of them dies and has no son, the wife of the deceased shall not be married outside the family to a strange man. Her husband’s brother shall go in to her and take her to himself as wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her.

NASB 1977
“When brothers live together and one of them dies and has no son, the wife of the deceased shall not be married outside the family to a strange man. Her husband’s brother shall go in to her and take her to himself as wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her.

Amplified Bible
“If brothers are living together and one of them dies without a son, the widow of the deceased shall not be married outside the family to a stranger. Her husband’s brother shall be intimate with her after taking her as his wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her.

Christian Standard Bible
“When brothers live on the same property and one of them dies without a son, the wife of the dead man may not marry a stranger outside the family. Her brother-in-law is to take her as his wife, have sexual relations with her, and perform the duty of a brother-in-law for her.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
When brothers live on the same property and one of them dies without a son, the wife of the dead man may not marry a stranger outside the family. Her brother-in-law is to take her as his wife, have sexual relations with her, and perform the duty of a brother-in-law for her.

American Standard Version
If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no son, the wife of the dead shall not be married without unto a stranger: her husband's brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And when brothers will dwell as one and one of them will die and he has no son, the wife of the dead will not marry a foreign man, but her husband's brother shall take her and she shall be his wife and he shall perform the duty of a husband's brother to her.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And if brethren should live together, and one of them should die, and should not have seed, the wife of the deceased shall not marry out of the family to a man not related: her husband's brother shall go in to her, and shall take her to himself for a wife, and shall dwell with her.

Douay-Rheims Bible
When brethren dwell together, and one of them dieth without children, the wife of the deceased shall not marry to another: but his brother shall take her, and raise up seed for his brother:

English Revised Version
If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no son, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband's brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an husband's brother unto her.

Good News Translation
"If two brothers live on the same property and one of them dies, leaving no son, then his widow is not to be married to someone outside the family; it is the duty of the dead man's brother to marry her.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
When brothers live together and one of them dies without having a son, his widow must not marry outside the family. Her husband's brother must marry her and sleep with her. He must do his duty as her brother-in-law.

International Standard Version
"When two brothers are living together and one of them dies without leaving a son, his widow must not be married outside the family to a foreigner. Instead, the brother-in-law must go to her, take her as his wife, and by doing so perform the duty of a brother-in-law.

JPS Tanakh 1917
If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not be married abroad unto one not of his kin; her husband's brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her.

Literal Standard Version
When brothers dwell together, and one of them has died and has no son, the wife of the dead is not given to a strange man; her husband’s brother goes in to her, and has taken her to him for a wife, and performs the duty of her husband’s brother;

NET Bible
If brothers live together and one of them dies without having a son, the dead man's wife must not remarry someone outside the family. Instead, her late husband's brother must go to her, marry her, and perform the duty of a brother-in-law.

New Heart English Bible
If brothers dwell together, and one of them die, and have no son, the wife of the dead shall not be married outside to a stranger: her husband's brother shall go in to her, and take her to him as wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother to her.

World English Bible
If brothers dwell together, and one of them die, and have no son, the wife of the dead shall not be married outside to a stranger: her husband's brother shall go in to her, and take her to him as wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother to her.

Young's Literal Translation
'When brethren dwell together, and one of them hath died, and hath no son, the wife of the dead is not without to a strange man; her husband's brother doth go in unto her, and hath taken her to him for a wife, and doth perform the duty of her husband's brother;

Additional Translations ...
Context
Widowhood and Marriage
5When brothers dwell together and one of them dies without a son, the widow must not marry outside the family. Her husband’s brother is to take her as his wife and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law for her. 6The first son she bears will carry on the name of the dead brother, so that his name will not be blotted out from Israel.…

Cross References
Matthew 22:24
"Teacher," they said, "Moses declared that if a man dies without having children, his brother is to marry the widow and raise up offspring for him.

Mark 12:19
"Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man's brother dies and leaves a wife but no children, the man is to marry his brother's widow and raise up offspring for him.

Luke 20:28
"Teacher," they said, "Moses wrote for us that if a man's brother dies and leaves a wife but no children, the man is to marry his brother's widow and raise up offspring for him.

Genesis 19:31
One day the older daughter said to the younger, "Our father is old, and there is no man in the land to sleep with us, as is the custom over all the earth.

Genesis 38:8
Then Judah said to Onan, "Sleep with your brother's wife. Perform your duty as her brother-in-law and raise up offspring for your brother."

Ruth 1:11
But Naomi replied, "Return home, my daughters. Why would you go with me? Are there still sons in my womb to become your husbands?

Ruth 3:2
Now is not Boaz, with whose servant girls you have been working, a relative of ours? In fact, tonight he is winnowing barley on the threshing floor.


Treasury of Scripture

If brothers dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without to a stranger: her husband's brother shall go in to her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an husband's brother to her.

brethren

Matthew 22:24
Saying, Master, Moses said, If a man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.

Mark 12:19
Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.

Luke 20:28
Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us, If any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.

husband's brother.

Genesis 38:8,9
And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto thy brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to thy brother…

Ruth 1:12,13
Turn again, my daughters, go your way; for I am too old to have an husband. If I should say, I have hope, if I should have an husband also to night, and should also bear sons; …

Ruth 3:9
And he said, Who art thou? And she answered, I am Ruth thine handmaid: spread therefore thy skirt over thine handmaid; for thou art a near kinsman.









Deuteronomy 25:5-10. LEVIRATE MARRIAGES.

(5) If brethren dwell together.--This law is made the subject of a whole treatise in the Talmud, called Yebamoth. The object of the law was held to be attained if the family of the dead man was perpetuated, and did not become extinct. And therefore the marriage specified was not necessarily between the brother and the brother's wife, but might be between other representatives of the two persons in question. (See Ruth 4)

The law is older than Moses. We first hear of it in the household of Judah the son of Jacob (Genesis 38:8). The violation of the law then was punished with death, not with disgrace only.

But that which makes the law most memorable, is the teaching elicited from the lips of our Saviour by the question which the Sadducees raised upon it (see marginal reference). It is worth while to observe that the law itself demands that in some sense there should be a resurrection. Boaz puts it thus (Ruth 4:5), "to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance." Why should the name of the dead be kept up, if the dead has passed out of existence? We may well believe that this law was partly intended (like baptism for the dead, or like giving children the names of their departed progenitors) for the express purpose of keeping alive the hope of resurrection in the minds of the chosen people.

(11,12) When men strive together. . . .--Another precept of humanity. In Exodus 21:22, "If men strive and hurt a woman with child," punishment or compensation must follow. The law in this place is the counterpart of that. Men must be protected as well as women. . . .

Verses 5-10. - Levirate marriages. If a man who was married died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to raise up a successor to the deceased, who should be his heir. The brother who refused this duty must be publicly disgraced. The design of this institution - which was not originated by Moses, but came down from early times (Genesis 38:8), and is to be found amongst ether nations than the Jews, and that even in the present day - was to preserve a family from becoming extinct and to secure the property of a family from passing into the hands of a stranger. The notion that the usage "had its natural roots in the desire inherent in man who is born for immortality, and connected with the hitherto undeveloped belief in an eternal life, to secure a continued personal existence for himself and immortality for his name through the perpetuation of his family, and in the life of the son who took his place" (Keil), seems wholly fanciful. Verse 5. - Dwell together; i.e. not necessarily in the same house, but in the same community or place (cf. Genesis 13:6; Genesis 36:7). And have no child; literally, have no son; but this is rightly interpreted as meaning child (so the LXX.; Vulgate; Josephus, 'Antiq.,' 4:8, 23; Matthew 22:25; Madmen., 'In Jibbum.,' 2:6-9); for, if the deceased left a daughter, the perpetuation of the family and the retention of the property might be secured through her (cf. Numbers 27:4, etc.).

Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
When
כִּֽי־ (kî-)
Conjunction
Strong's 3588: A relative conjunction

brothers
אַחִ֜ים (’a·ḥîm)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 251: A brother, )

dwell
יֵשְׁב֨וּ (yê·šə·ḇū)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's 3427: To sit down, to dwell, to remain, to settle, to marry

together
יַחְדָּ֗ו (yaḥ·dāw)
Adverb
Strong's 3162: A unit, unitedly

and one
אַחַ֤ד (’a·ḥaḏ)
Number - masculine singular
Strong's 259: United, one, first

of them
מֵהֶם֙ (mê·hem)
Preposition-m | Pronoun - third person masculine plural
Strong's 1992: They

dies
וּמֵ֨ת (ū·mêṯ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 4191: To die, to kill

without
אֵֽין־ (’ên-)
Adverb
Strong's 369: A non-entity, a negative particle

a son,
וּבֵ֣ן (ū·ḇên)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 1121: A son

the widow
אֵֽשֶׁת־ (’ê·šeṯ-)
Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's 802: Woman, wife, female

must not
לֹֽא־ (lō-)
Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's 3808: Not, no

marry
תִהְיֶ֧ה (ṯih·yeh)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - third person feminine singular
Strong's 1961: To fall out, come to pass, become, be

outside [the family].
הַח֖וּצָה (ha·ḥū·ṣāh)
Article | Noun - masculine singular | third person feminine singular
Strong's 2351: Separate by a, wall, outside, outdoors

Her husband’s brother
יְבָמָהּ֙ (yə·ḇā·māh)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person feminine singular
Strong's 2993: Husband's brother

is to take her
וּלְקָחָ֥הּ (ū·lə·qā·ḥāh)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular | third person feminine singular
Strong's 3947: To take

as his
ל֛וֹ (lōw)
Preposition | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew

wife
לְאִשָּׁ֖ה (lə·’iš·šāh)
Preposition-l | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's 802: Woman, wife, female

and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law for her.
וְיִבְּמָֽהּ׃ (wə·yib·bə·māh)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular | third person feminine singular
Strong's 2992: To perform the duty of a husband's brother


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OT Law: Deuteronomy 25:5 If brothers dwell together and one (Deut. De Du)
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