2 Timothy 2:19
Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.
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(19) Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure.—Better rendered, Nevertheless God’s firm foundation standeth. Nevertheless, that is to say, though some may be shaken in faith by the unhappy teaching above referred to, yet assuredly God’s firm foundation stands unshaken. “The firm foundation laid by God” is the Church of Christ, which is here termed a foundation laid by God, because it, the Church of Christ, is the ground-storey of the glorious Temple of the future. In other words, the Church of Christ is here considered as the foundation of a far grander building, which, in the fulness of time, will rest upon its massive work (see Ephesians 2:19-22)., and this ground-storey, the corner-stone of which is Christ, “standeth” age after age, in spite of any efforts which may be made to destroy or even to shake it. The term “foundation,” here used for the Church of God on earth, is remarkable, and points to a great truth: that, after all, this life is but a beginning, and that “His Church” here is but a foundation—is only the first and early storey of that glorious Church the Divine Architect has planned, and will complete in heaven.

Having this seal.—It was a custom, which dates back from the very earliest times, to inscribe upon a building or a monument an inscription which told of its origin and purpose. In some cases, as in the oldest monuments of Egypt, the engraved writing told the name of the royal or priestly builder; so in Revelation 21:14, we read how in the wall of the City of God there were twelve foundations, and on them were engraved the names of the Twelve Apostles of the Lamb. On this “foundation storey,” of which St. Paul was now speaking, was carved a legible inscription in two sentences—the one told of comfort and hope, reminding men God would ever know “His own;” the other told of duty, reminding men that “God’s own” had no share in unrighteousness. It is called “a seal” here instead of an inscription, for a seal best conveys the idea of the solemn binding character of the writing.

The Jew was especially accustomed to see the words and promises of his God written or graven on his doorposts and on his gates. (See Deuteronomy 6:9; Deuteronomy 11:20. See, too, the words of Job 19:24, where he would have his most solemn declaration of faith graven or sealed on a rock for ever.)

The Lord knoweth them that are his.—This was the first sentence of the inscription graven on the foundation-storey. The words were probably a memory of Numbers 16:5; but the thought here goes far deeper. God’s own people, as they read the words graven on the foundation “with an iron pen and with lead for ever,” are ever reminded of their deepest, highest, truest comfort. “The Lord knoweth them that are His.” The words may be paraphrased: “He knows His own because He loves them;” never will He cease to know them, but will keep them for ever and for ever. Compare, too, the words of the Good Shepherd (John 10:14; John 10:27-29).

And, Let everyone that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.—The thought and the words are from the Old Testament. The thought is expressed in a wider and more general form in Isaiah 52:11 : “Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, touch no unclean thing . . . Be ye clean, that bear the vessels of the Lord;” and for the words “nameth the name of the Lord,” see Isaiah 26:13. “Naming the name of Jesus” must be understood in the sense of the last clause of 1Corinthians 12:3; in other words, this sentence of the inscription signifies that no man confessing with the heart that Jesus is Lord can commit iniquity deliberately—the two things are utterly incompatible. “Iniquity” here includes the teaching of those false men above alluded to, as their teaching led away from the truth, and resulted in a lax and evil way of life.

2 Timothy


2 Timothy 2:19THERE was a great deal in the Apostle Paul’s last days to excuse despondency and sadness. For himself he was poor, and a prisoner, lonely and old, looking forward to the near approach of a bloody death. For the gospel and the Church the outlook was black too. Evil had already begun to lift its head, and was threatening to increase. So this, his last letter, is full of gloomy vaticinations, but in it there is none of the pessimism that belongs to old people, none of the despondency which so often seizes upon leaders of thought and action when they come to the end of their lives, and see how little they have done, and how threateningly the clouds are gathering. But throughout, side by side with the clearest perception of evil symptoms and growing dangers, there is unconquerable confidence.

This text is a remarkable illustration of that. He has just been speaking about errors that are threatening to flood the Church, and he speaks with very grave and vehement words. And then all at once with this ‘nevertheless’ he, as it were, swings right round, and his whole soul leaps up in the glad confidence that, whatever may happen, and whatever has to be abandoned, and whoever may go away, ‘the foundation of God stands sure.’ So he heartens up his young brother Timothy, who seems to have been of a great deal softer stuff than the old man, and bids him be of good cheer and quit himself like a man.

The words of my text, then, seem to me to be very precious to us in regard to the widest interests of Christianity, and in regard to our own individual standing, especially in times like those in which our lot is east; times of transition, when a great deal is going that past generations used to think sacred, and a great many timid people are trembling for the Ark of God; and a great many old people like me are thinking that the old gospel is in danger of passing away from the face of the earth. ‘Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure.’ So let me just say a word or two about this text.

I. Look at this joyous confidence of the old man, side by side with the clearest perceptions of encircling dangers.

The ‘foundation,’ in the New Testament, is generally Jesus Christ Himself. Here the metaphor is used in a somewhat different fashion. The ‘foundation’ in the present case is not a part of a building, but the whole building, conceived of as being founded by God. ‘The foundation of God’ is, in other words, that which is founded by God - that is to say, the whole house, whatever that may be, which he himself has ‘established on the tops of the mountains.’ And you will find that that explanation is borne out by the fact that in the very next verse the Apostle speaks about ‘the house,’ which he also meant when he spoke of the foundation of God. Of course that ‘house’ is, in one aspect, the Church, but the Church not as a mere institution or external organisation, but as being the witness to the gospel It is that, and the Christ who is the gospel, which stands firm, whatever may happen. There is a great deal of idolatry of the Church. What makes it precious, and what makes it eternal, is the message that is committed to its charge.

Now it seems to me to be of very prime importance that this joyous confidence, calm and assured, should be the habitual temper of us all. The more distinctly and clearly we apprehend, and the more painfully we feel the perils, the imperfections, and the threatening errors of the present, the more should we take our stand upon this one truth, that what God has founded is indestructible, and, standing there, we may look all round the three hundred and sixty degrees of the horizon, and no matter what formidable dangers may arise, and hurry across, darkening the sea like the thunder-clouds in the heavens, we may be sure that no tempest can break which will damage the ship that carries Christ and His fortunes. Man may go, ‘nevertheless’; errors may arise, ‘nevertheless’; Churches, individuals, may become unfaithful, ‘nevertheless’; candlesticks may be removed, lights quenched, communities may be honeycombed by worldliness, if the salt may lose its savour, ‘nevertheless that which is founded by God stands sure.’ The history of the past tells us that. Why, it is the miracle of miracles that Christian people having been what they have been, and being what they are, the Church of God has not been annihilated long, long ago. Why is it? Only because that which it bears and He who is in it are indestructible, and whilst the envelope may be changed, the central Truth and the living Person who is in the Church, in spite of all its corruptions and infirmities, cannot die, nor be suppressed nor removed.

So, brethren, standing firmly as we may upon this rock of a Church indestructible, because of the immortal Christ who is in it and the eternal gospel which is committed to it, it does not become us to have our hearts in our mouths at every change that may be passing, and that must necessarily pass, upon the external organisation, which is subject, like other institutions, to time and change. What can go, let it go. It is the dead leaves that are blown off the trees. Men make breakwaters with endless pains, and deposit great blocks of concrete that they think will fling back the wildest waves in vain spray, and a winter storm comes, and one wave puts out its tongue and licks up the whole structure, and it is a mass of ruins. Yes; and the same storm that smashed the breakwater runs up harmlessly on the humble sand which God has made to be His breakwater, and which has the power to say to the wildest tempest: ‘Here shall thy proud waves be stayed.’ Much may go, ‘nevertheless the foundation of God stands sure.’ So do not be frightened out of your wits - that is to say, out of your confidence - by ‘higher criticism’ and ‘advanced views, ‘ and right-hand defections and left-hand corruptions, and the failures of communities that call themselves churches to live up to the height of their responsibilities, or at the approach of new ways of looking at old truths. And do not fancy that because the cart that carries the ark jogs, and the oxen stumble, there is any harm coming to the ark. ‘The foundation of God standeth sure.’ So let us welcome change of all that is human in the doctrine, and polity, and practice of God’s Church, and never mind what becomes of men-made creeds, and men-made ceremonies, and men-made churches. What is of God will stand. Let us be glad when ‘the things that can be shaken’ are ‘removed,’ that ‘the things which cannot be shaken’ may stand all the more firmly.

II. Notice here the divine side of the guarantee of this confidence.

‘The firm foundation of God stands’; and then the Apostle goes on, in a very picturesque fashion, ‘having this seal.’ That is a mixture of metaphors which makes a rhetorician’s hair stand on end. Paul does not mind about mingling metaphors. You cannot very well seal a foundation, but the idea in his mind is that of the confirmation, the guarantee, the pledge of the confidence that he has just been expressing. He goes on to expand the metaphor. The seal has two inscriptions on it, like the obverse and reverse of a coin, or like two sentences which might be written on the two lintels of a door. The one gives the divine and the other the human sides of the guarantee.

As for the former, the divine, it is, ‘The Lord knoweth them that are His.’ ‘The Lord’ here is, I take it, Christ. And what is the guarantee that is contained in these words? If you seek for the explanation of that phrase in its deepest, most blessed, most courage-giving sense, listen to diviner words than Paul’s. ‘I know My sheep, and am known of Mine, as the Father knoweth Me, and I know the Father.’ That knowledge is not the mere divine attribute of omniscience, which may have in it consolation, or may not, but it is something far more tender, close, gracious, and strength-giving than the bare thought of an all-seeing eye. The ‘knowledge’ which Jesus has of His sheep is a knowledge based upon, and perfected in, closest love and tenderest sympathy, and of which that ineffable communion from the depths of eternity, in which the Father knoweth the Son, and the Son knoweth the Father, and the two knowledges intertwine and interflow into one sacred, and, to us, inconceivable bond, is the example. Thus close, though we cannot say so close; thus tender, though we cannot say so tender; thus loving, though we cannot say so loving, is the bond of that knowledge which unites Jesus Christ to every soul that belongs to Him. And with that guarantee of a knowledge which means the closest union that is possible, the individuality of the two united persons being preserved, surely there comes, floated, as it were, like some precious treasure in a cedar ark upon the surface of that ocean of divine knowledge, the assurance that such a knowledge will guard against all evil and all danger its peaceful and happy objects. If the Lord thus ‘knows them that are His,’ the knowledge will be a wall of fire round about them, as well as a glory in the midst of them.

That knowledge means, then, protection and care. He will not lose what belongs to Him. He is not such a careless Owner as that a sheep may stray out of the fold and the Shepherd never notice it. He is not such a careless Householder as that from His purse there may drop, and into some dusty corner may roll away, a coin, and He not know that He has lost one of the pieces. He is not such a heartless Brother as that the younger brother may go away into the far-off land and there be starving, and the Brother’s heart at home have no pangs and no sense of separation. But He ‘knows them that are His,’ and, knowing them, He holds them with the grip of tenacious possession as well as of tender love.

So there is the deep, the sure, the divine guarantee that the foundation standeth firm. So, brethren, it is wise for us to look at the dangers, to be fully aware of the perils, to be tremblingly conscious of our own weakness, but it is folly and faithlessness to look at the danger so exclusively, or to feel our own weakness so keenly as that either one or the other, or both of them combined, shall obscure to our sight the far greater and confidence-giving truth of the knowledge, the sympathy, and the extended protecting hand, of our Brother and our Lord. We belong to Him if we have yielded our hearts to Him, and He will not ‘suffer His Holy One to see corruption,’ here or hereafter. If you look down from the narrow ledge of the Alpine arrete to the thousand feet of precipice on either side of the two or three inches where you have your footing you will get giddy and fall. If you look up you will walk steadily. Do not ignore the danger, nor pro-sumptuously forget your own weakness, but remember ‘when I said my foot slippeth Thy mercy held me up.’ Recognise the slippery ice and the feeble foot, and couple with them the other thought, ‘The Lord knoweth them that are His. ‘

III. Now, lastly, here we have the human side of the guarantee.

The reverse of the coin, the other side of the foundation bears, deep-cut, this inscription: ‘Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity,’ and the two inscriptions are always to be held together. Look how they fit one another. The one is a promise; the other is a commandment. The one says a deep thing about God; the other says a plain thing about us. It is of no use going up into the heights of ‘the Lord knoweth them that are His,’ unless you also come down to the simple teaching,’ Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity. The Jews believed the first of these two inscriptions, and it was all their religion; look what wild work it made of them and their morality, and their whole nation. There have been plenty of Christian people who have been so absorbed in the contemplation of ‘unconditional election,’ ‘eternal predestination,’ ‘final perseverance,’ and all the rest of the theological formularies that have been spun out of these words, that they have forgotten the other side altogether. And so there has been licence, and a presumptuous building upon a supposed past; there has been a contempt for the ‘outsiders,’ and the driving of a coach and six through the plainest teachings of common righteousness and morality. And the only way to keep ‘the Lord knoweth them that are His’ from being a minister of sin is, in the same breath, to say, ‘Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.’

To name the Name of Christ is the same as to say that you are His. And if you are, the best proof that you do belong to Jesus Christ is your living the life of plain, practical righteousness, and putting away from yourself everything that is evil. People talk about looking into themselves for evidences of their being ‘saved,’ as they say. I would rather take your neighbour’s opinion as to whether you are saved or not than yours; and you will be far more likely to come to the possession of calm assurance that you do belong to Jesus Christ, if your assurance is based upon this, ‘I am living as He would have me to do.’ That is the infallible sign that you are His. That homely, pedestrian righteousness, down amongst the commonplaces of daily life, and the little things of it, that, and not emotions, however soaring; not aspirations, however ardent; not the consciousness of communion apart, however deep and sweet, is the sign that we are Christ’s. However necessary all these things are, still they are necessary mainly as means to an end, and the end of all the revelation of God in Jesus Christ, and of all these joys and experiences of the individual Christian soul, is to make us live righteously, soberly, godly, in this present world. And the more we do thus live, the more we shall get, not only the consciousness of belonging to Jesus Christ, but the help by which we shall be able to stand.

So, dear brethren, my one last word to you is, hold these two things ever together in your minds and thoughts. ‘What God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.’ You have a right to be confident, because, far deeper than, and prior to, anything that you do, there are the knowledge, the love, the sympathy, and the outstretched hand of the loving and upholding Saviour. But you have only the right to the confidence based upon his knowledge of you, if that confidence is working in you a departing from iniquity. If you know that you are trying, in your poor way, to do that, and that you are trying to do it for His sake, and because you think that you are His, then, whatever may happen to others, whatever may befall some of the outworks of your faith or belief, whatever changes may impend, you may be sure of this, that ‘the foundation of God standeth sure,’ and that, weak as we are, building upon Him who is the foundation, we shall be able to resist all the assaults of evil

Only remember, that Christ Himself has told us that many would come to Him and say, ‘Lord! Lord! have we not prophesied in Thy name, and in Thy name done many wonderful works?’ And He will say unto them,

Depart from Me, I never knew you,’ and the proof that He never did is that He has to address them as ‘Ye that work iniquity’

2 Timothy 2:19. Nevertheless the foundation of God — That is, the foundation of God’s church, represented as a house, 2 Timothy 2:20; 1 Timothy 3:15; 1 Peter 2:5; in which God dwells, Ephesians 2:22; as a family inhabiting a house, Hebrews 3:3; as a temple, Ephesians 2:21; in which God displays his glory, communicates his blessings, receives the prayers, praises, and oblations of his people, and is worshipped in spirit and in truth. The foundation of this church Isaiah , 1 st, The great truth spoken of 2 Timothy 2:8, namely, the resurrection of Christ, the principal support of the whole fabric of Christianity, as manifesting Christ to be the Son of God, Romans 1:4; confirming his doctrine, showing the efficacy of his atonement, Romans 4:25; obtaining for us the Holy Spirit, John 16:7; showing the necessity of our rising to a new life, Romans 6:4-5; Ephesians 2:5-6; proving that we shall rise at the great day; that immortality is before us; and that we ought, therefore, to set our affections on, and seek, the things above. 2d, The doctrine of our resurrection through Christ, which is a capital article of Christianity, (Hebrews 6:1; 1 Corinthians 15:19,) and all the other fundamental doctrines of the gospel connected with that of Christ’s and his people’s resurrection, termed, (Ephesians 2:20,) the foundation of the apostles and prophets; that is, the foundation laid by them. See the note there, and on 1 Timothy 3:15-16. 3d, Christ himself, in whom all these doctrines are yea and amen, is the foundation of his church, and of the knowledge, experience, and practice of every individual belonging to it, of which see the note on 1 Corinthians 3:11. This three-fold foundation standeth sure — Remains immoveable and the same, throughout all ages. But who build on this foundation? Who are true members of this church, true worshippers in this spiritual temple? This we learn from the next clause. Having this seal — Or inscription, as the word σφραγις often signifies, meaning the mark made by a seal, as well as the seal itself. So it signifies Revelation 9:4; and the expression is here used with propriety, in allusion to the custom of engraving upon some stones laid in the foundation of buildings, the names of the persons by whom, and the purposes for which, the structure was raised. See Zechariah 3:9. And nothing can have a greater tendency to encourage the confidence and hope, and at the same time to engage the obedience of sincere Christians, than the double inscription here mentioned. One part of this is, The Lord knoweth — Or acknowledgeth; them that are his — Namely, those who truly turn to him in repentance, faith, and new obedience, or who confess with their mouth the Lord Jesus, even when their confessing him might be followed with the loss of all things, with imprisonment and martyrdom, and who believe with their heart unto righteousness, that God hath raised him from the dead, Romans 10:9-10. All such he assuredly knows, acknowledges, and will favour and protect as his. Dr. Whitby supposes that the apostle alludes here to Numbers 16:5, To-morrow the Lord will show who are his, and who is holy; and that the clause has a peculiar reference to the apostles, in opposition to heretical teachers. Let it be observed, however, that all these will manifest that they are the Lord’s not merely by naming the name of Christ — Or making a profession of Christianity; but by departing from iniquity — Without which they would not be worthy of being accounted members even of the visible church, as they would show themselves visibly, or evidently, to be of the devil, by doing his works, John 8:4; 1 John 3:8.

2:14-21 Those disposed to strive, commonly strive about matters of small moment. But strifes of words destroy the things of God. The apostle mentions some who erred. They did not deny the resurrection, but they corrupted that true doctrine. Yet nothing can be so foolish or erroneous, but it will overturn the temporary faith of some professors. This foundation has two writings on it. One speaks our comfort. None can overthrow the faith of any whom God hath chosen. The other speaks our duty. Those who would have the comfort of the privilege, must make conscience of the duty Christ gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, Tit 2:14. The church of Christ is like a dwelling: some furniture is of great value; some of smaller value, and put to meaner uses. Some professors of religion are like vessels of wood and earth. When the vessels of dishonour are cast out to be destroyed, the others will be filled with all the fulness of God. We must see to it that we are holy vessels. Every one in the church whom God approves, will be devoted to his Master's service, and thus fitted for his use.Nevertheless the foundation of God is sure - Margin, "steady." The meaning is, that though some had been turned away by the arts of these errorists, yet the foundation of the church which God had laid remained firm; compare Ephesians 2:20, "And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone." As long as this foundation remained firm, there was no reason to be troubled from the few instances of apostasy which had occurred; compare Psalm 11:3. It is not uncommon to compare the church to a building erected on a solid foundation; Ephesians 2:20-21; 1 Corinthians 3:9-10; Matthew 16:18.

Having this seal - Or rather a seal with this inscription. The word "seal" is sometimes used to denote the instrument by which an impression is made, and sometimes the impression or inscription itself. A seal is used for security Matthew 27:66, or as a mark of genuineness; Revelation 9:4. The seal here is one that was affixed to the foundation, and seems to refer to some inscription on the foundation-stone which always remained there, and which denoted the character and design of the edifice. The allusion is to the custom, in rearing an edifice, of inscribing the name of the builder and the design of the edifice on the cornerstone. See Rosenmuller, Alte undneue Morgenland, No. 405. So the church of Christ is a building reared by the hands of God. Its foundation has been firmly and securely laid, and on that foundation there is an inscription always remaining which determines the character of the edifice.

The Lord knoweth them that are his - This is one of the inscriptions on the foundation-stone of the church, which seems to mark the character of the building. It always stands there, no matter who apostatizes. It is at the same time a fearful inscription - showing that no one can deceive God; that he is intimately acquainted with all who enter that building; and that in the multitudes which enter there, the friends and the foes of God are intimately known. He can separate his own friends from all others, and his constant care will be extended to all who are truly his own, to keep them from falling. This has the appearance of being a quotation, but no such passage is found in the Old Testament in so many words. In Nahum 1:7, the following words are found: "And he knoweth them that trust in him;" and it is possible that Paul may have had that in his eye; but it is not necessary to suppose that he designed it as a quotation. A phrase somewhat similar to this is found in 1 Num 16:5, "the Lord will show who are his," rendered in the Septuagint, "God knoweth who are his;" and Whitby supposes that this is the passage referred to. But whether Paul had these passages in view or not, it is clear that he meant to say that it was one of the fundamental things in religion, that God knew who were his own people, and that he would preserve them from the danger of making shipwreck of their faith.

And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity - This is the other seal or inscription which is made on the foundation which God has laid. The foundation has two inscriptions - the first implying that God knows all who are his own people; the other, that all who are his professed people should depart from evil. This is not found in so many words in the Old Testament, and, like the former, it is not to be regarded as a quotation. The meaning is, that it is an elementary principle in the true church, that all who become members of it should lead holy lives. It was also true that they would lead holy lives, and amidst all the defections of errorists, and all their attempts to draw away others from the true faith, those might be known to be the true people of God who did avoid evil.

19. Nevertheless—Notwithstanding the subversion of their faith, "the firm foundation of God standeth" fast (so the Greek ought to be translated). The "foundation" here is "the Church" [Alford], "the ground" or basement support "of the truth" (1Ti 3:15), Christ Himself being the ultimate "foundation" (1Co 3:11). In the steadfast standing of the Church there is involved the steadfast certainty of the doctrine in question (2Ti 2:18). Thus the "house" (2Ti 2:20) answers to the "foundation"; it is made up of the elect whom "the Lord knoweth" (acknowledgeth, recognizes, Ps 1:6; Mt 7:23; Joh 10:14; 1Co 8:3) as "His," and who persevere to the end, though others "err concerning the faith" (Mt 24:24; Joh 10:28; Ro 8:38, 39; 1Jo 2:19). Bengel takes "the foundation" to be the immovable faithfulness of God (to His promises to His elect [Calvin]). This contrasts well with the erring from the faith on the part of the reprobate, 2Ti 2:18. Though they deny the faith, God abates not His faithfulness (compare 2Ti 2:13).

having—seeing that it has [Ellicott].

seal—"inscription": indicating ownership and destination: inscriptions were often engraven on a "foundation" stone (Re 21:14) [Alford]. This will agree with the view that "the foundation" is the Church (Eph 2:20). If it be taken God's immovable faithfulness, the "seal" will be regarded as attached to His covenant promise, with the inscription or legend, on one side of its round surface, "The Lord knoweth (it is 'knew' in the Septuagint, Nu 16:5, to which Paul here alludes, altering it for his purpose by the Spirit) them that are His"; on the observe side, "Let every one that nameth (as his Lord, Ps 20:7, or preacheth in His name, Jer 20:9) Christ."

depart—Greek, "stand aloof."

from iniquity—(Isa 52:11). In both clauses there may be an allusion to Nu 16:5, 26, Septuagint. God's part and man's part are marked out. God chooseth and knoweth His elect; our part is to believe, and by the Spirit depart from all iniquity, an unequivocal proof of our being the Lord's (compare De 29:29; Lu 13:23-27). St. Lucian when asked by his persecutors, "Of what country art thou?" replied, "I am a Christian." "What is your occupation? … I am a Christian." "Of what family? … I am a Christian." [Chrysostom, Orations, 75]. He cannot be honored with the name Christian, who dishonors by iniquity, Christ, the Author of the name. Blandina's refreshment amidst her tortures was to say, "I am a Christian, and with us Christians no evil is done" [Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 5.1]. Apostasy from the faith is sure soon to be followed by indulgence in iniquity. It was so with the false teachers (2Ti 3:2-8, 13).

Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure; notwithstanding that these two men (possibly of some note in the church of Ephesus) have fallen from the faith, and have been ill instruments to subvert the faith of others, yet God hath a number in the world, who are built upon the rock Christ Jesus, Matthew 7:25; these are founded surely,

having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his; sealed, and confirmed in their state by the eternal decree and counsel of God, who hath foreknown his elect, both as to their number and perseverance; but God hath from eternity known who are his, and therefore such as truly are so must be kept through faith by his power to salvation, and it is not possible that these should be totally and finally deceived.

And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity; and every one that nameth the name of the Lord must depart from the tents of wicked men, who have made shipwreck both of faith and a good conscience. Therefore let not the apostacy of these men be a temptation to thee to think that the church of God may or shall fail; that cannot be, there can be no more lost than the sons of perdition, such as God never knew as his, though they put on a mark of Christianity and godliness, and deceived many. Those who have God’s seal upon them, and are of his foundation, shall stand and keep themselves from those damnable errors. Only, to let us know that neither the certainty of God’s decree or promise doth excuse our endeavours and using means for obtaining the thing decreed or promised, the apostle puts the verb in the imperative mood: Let him depart, &c.

Nevertheless, the foundation of God standeth sure,.... That faith, which is the faith of God's elect, is of the operation of God, and is the gift of his grace, and of which Christ is the author and finisher, is firm and immovable as a foundation; it is solid and substantial; it is the substance of things hoped for; and it is permanent and abiding; it stands sure, being supported by the power of God, and prevalent mediation of Jesus Christ; and so cannot be overthrown by false teachers, when an historical faith, or the faith of temporary believers may: or the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead is here meant, which was said to be past by the above false teachers; which is a fundamental doctrine of the Gospel, without which the preaching of it is vain, and faith is vain; and which is a doctrine of God, of pure revelation; and this will be effected by his power: this stands sure upon the testimony of the patriarchs, prophets, and of Christ, and his apostles; upon the sure word and writings both of the Old and New Testament; and will stand its ground against all opposition, and will have its certain effect; for the Lord Jesus knows who are his distinctly and perfectly; nor will he lose them, nor anything that belongs to them; not their bodies, any more than their souls, nor any dust of theirs, but will raise it up at the last day. Or else the doctrine of eternal election may be here designed; which is the foundation of all spiritual blessings, of faith and of holiness, of joy and comfort here, and happiness hereafter, and even of complete and everlasting salvation; and is of God's laying, and is owing to his sovereign pleasure and free rich grace; and stands sure, not on the foot of works, but upon the unchangeable and unfrustrable will of God; and this secures from a final and total deception by false teachers: and also into the account may be taken the persons of God's elect themselves; who are of God's founding, and are as immovable as the firmest foundation whatever, even as rocks and mountains, and stand sure upon the rock of ages, Christ Jesus, and shall never perish; nor can they be deceived by false Christs and false prophets, but will remain safe and sound, when the faith of ever so many is subverted by them.

Having this seal, the Lord knoweth them that are his: faith is sealed and insured to God's elect, by his foreknowledge and predestination of them; so that they certainly have it, and shall never lose it: and their election is according to God's foreknowledge of them; which designs not a foresight of their faith, holiness, and good works, as the motives of his choosing them; nor a bare prescience of their persons; but such a foreknowledge as includes special love to them, which is distinguishing, unchangeable, and everlasting; and this being a seal affixed to all the elect, shows the distinguishing grace of God in their election, the secrecy of it, and its firmness and irrevocableness, and also the safety of the chosen ones; things being sealed, to distinguish one thing from another, and to keep things secret, or to render them firm and authentic. So, among the Jews, seals were used in buying and selling, that it might be known what was bought, and to confirm the purchase (i). The inference from this comfortable doctrine is,

and let everyone that nameth the name of Christ; "or of the Lord", as the Alexandrian copy, and others, the Complutensian edition, the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions read; that is, whoever either are called by the name of Christ, or Christians, or whoever call upon his name: let them

depart from iniquity; both from doctrinal iniquity, the errors and heresies of the above false teachers, which increased to ungodliness, and ate as a gangrene, and were the subversion of the faith of some; and from all practical iniquity, which those men, and their followers, especially the Gnostics, were guilty of; and, generally speaking, when men make shipwreck of faith, they put away a good conscience: and the apostle may also mean, that all such should depart from iniquitous men, from men whether of bad principles or practices, or both, and have no fellowship with them, it being unworthy of the name by which they were called. Some reference seems to be had to Numbers 16:5 and so the false teachers, and their followers, may be compared to Korah, and his company, and the elect of God to Moses, and the Lord's people, who were bid to depart from the tents of those wicked men; and who stood firm, sure, and safe, when the earth opened, and swallowed up the others.

(i) Maimon. Hilchot Mechira, c. 7. sect. 6, 7, 8.

{11} Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that {g} nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.

(11) A digression, in which he heals the offence that rose by their falling away. Firstly, he shows that the elect are out of all danger of any such falling away. Secondly, that they are known to God, and not to us: and therefore it is no marvel if we often mistake hypocrites for true brethren. But we must take heed that we are not like them, but rather that we are indeed such as we are said to be.

(g) That serves and worships him, and as it were named of him, a faithful man or Christian.

2 Timothy 2:19. As a contrast to the unsettling action of the heretics, we have ὁ μέντοι στερεὸς θεμέλιος τοῦ Θεοῦ ἔστηκεν] θεμέλιος (properly an adjective, supply λίθος) is originally the foundation-stone of a building; if that signification be retained here, the building can only mean the church of Christ. The question then arises, what is its foundation-stone? and to this various answers have been given. Ambrosius understands it to be God’s promises; Bengel, the fides Dei immota; Heinrichs, the Christian religion; Ernesti, the doctrine of the resurrection (2 Timothy 2:18); Calvin, the election of grace. All this is arbitrary. The θεμέλιος must be something which, according to the next verse, can also be regarded as οἰκία, viz. as Heydenreich says: ἐκκλησια τεθεμελιωμένη ὑπὸ Θεοῦ (similarly de Wette and Wiesinger). Paul, however, calls it θεμέλιος, not because that word denotes a building, which is not the case, but because the church, as it was originally set by God in the world, only forms the foundation of the building which is to be perfected gradually (so, too, van Oosterzee). Chrysostom’s explanation is inapposite: αἱ στερεαὶ ψυχαὶ ἑστήκασι πεπηγυίαι καὶ ἀκίνητοι; for Paul is not thinking here of individual believers, but of the church of which they are members. Possibly the θεμέλιος does not mean anything definite, and the apostle “merely intends to say that the church is firmly founded” (Hofmann); but that is not probable, especially as the attribute στερεός and the verb ἕστηκεν point to a definite, concrete conception in the apostle’s mind.

στερεός and ἕστηκεν form a contrast to ἀνατρέπουσι. Though the faith of some may be destroyed, the foundation of God, i.e. which God has laid, still stands firm, unwavering.

The mark of this is given in the next words: ἔχων τὴν σφραγῖδα ταύτην] σφραγίς, “the seal,” is partly a means of keeping safe, partly a sign of relevancy, partly a form of declaration whereby a document or the like is proved to be valid. Here it is the inscription[38] on the θεμέλιος, according to Wiesinger, “as a guarantee that the ἐκκλησία ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ τεθεμελιωμένη has an existence not to be shaken;” or, better still, as God’s testimony to the peculiar nature of the structure (similarly Hofmann: “because through it God so acknowledges the structure as to declare of what nature He means it to be when thus founded”); van Oosterzee combines the two interpretations.

Paul mentions two inscriptions. The first, with allusion to Numbers 16:5 (the LXX. puts וְיֹדֵעַ for וְיֹדַע), is ἔγνω κύριος τοὺς ὄντας αὑτοῦ. Haec sententia … a parte Dei (Wolf).

ἔγνω] Bengel: novit amanter, nec nosse desinit, sed perpetuo servat suos: a word of comfort for the believers exposed to the destroying influence of the heretics in the church. The other inscription (with which we may compare Numbers 16:26; Isaiah 52:11) runs: ἈΠΟΣΤΉΤΩ ἈΠῸ ἈΔΙΚΊΑς Πᾶς Ὁ ὈΝΟΜΆΖΩΝ ΤῸ ὌΝΟΜΑ ΚΥΡΊΟΥ] Haec sententia … a parte hominum (Wolf). ἈΔΙΚΊΑ is the sum total of everything opposed to God, including heresy.

ὈΝΟΜΆΖΕΙΝ ΤῸ ὌΝ. Τ. ΚΥΡ., according to Wahl, is equivalent to קָרָא בְּשֵׁם יְהֹוָה, nomen Dei invocare. This is incorrect; it corresponds rather to the phrase: ἘΠΙΚΑΛΕῖΣΘΑΙ ΤῸ ὌΝΟΜ. ΚΥΡΊΟΥ (ΤῸΝ ΚΎΡΙΟΝ, 2 Timothy 2:22). Bengel correctly says: quisquis nominat nomen Christi, ut domini sui.

This second inscription is an exhortation to believers to abstain from all unrighteousness notwithstanding the seductive influence of the heretics.

Heydenreich: two truths must likewise characterize the indestructible temple of God, the church, and these denote the comfort and hope, but also the duty and reponsibility of the true worshippers of Jesus.[39]

[38] The figure is founded on the custom of placing inscriptions on the doorposts as well as on the foundation-stones; comp. Deuteronomy 6:9; Deuteronomy 11:20; Revelation 21:14.

[39] Chrysostom understands θεμέλιος of individual believers, and is therefore compelled to give this thought an incorrect reference: πόθεν δηλαὶ εἰσίν; ἀπὸ τοῦ τὰ γράμματα ταῦτα ἔχειν ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων, ἀπὸ τοῦ γνωρίζεσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ μὴ συμπαραπόλλυσθαι, ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀφιστάναι ἀπὸ ἀδικίας, ταῦτα τὰ γνωρίσματα τοῦ θεμελίου.

2 Timothy 2:19. “We will not fear. The city of God … shall not be moved” (Psalm 46:2; Psalm 46:4; cf. Hebrews 12:28). The Church of the New Covenant is like the Church of the Old Covenant: it has an ideal integrity unaffected by the defection of some who had seemed to belong to it. “They are not all Israel, which are of Israel.… All Israel shall be saved” (Romans 9:6; Romans 11:26). “They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us” (1 John 2:19). The Church, as existing in the Divine Knowledge, not as apprehended by man’s intellect, is the firm foundation of God (R.V.), i.e., that which God has firmly founded. It is called here θεμέλιος τοῦ θεοῦ rather than οἶκος τ. θεοῦ, so as to express the better its immobility, unaffected by those who ἀνατρέπουσι, κ.τ.λ.; cf. στύλος καὶ ἑδραίωμα τῆς ἀληθείας (1 Timothy 3:15). There can hardly be an allusion to the parable with which the Sermon on the Mount closes, Luke 6:48-49. With στερεός compare the use of στερεόω, Acts 16:5, and of στερέωμα, Colossians 2:5.

ἔχων τὴν σφραγῖδα: It was noted on 1 Timothy 6:19 that in the two places in which θεμέλιος occurs in the Pastorals, there is a condensation of expression resulting in a confusion of metaphor. Here the apostle passes rapidly from the notion of the Church collectively as a foundation, or a building well founded, to that of the men and women of whom it is composed, and who have been sealed by God (see reff. and also Ezekiel 9:4; John 6:27; 2 Corinthians 1:22; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:30; Revelation 7:3-8). They are marked by God so as to be recognised by Him as His; and this mark also serves as a perpetual reminder to them that “they are not their own,” and of their consequent obligation to holiness of life (1 Corinthians 6:19-20). There is no allusion to the practice of carving inscriptions over doors and on pillars and foundation stones (Deuteronomy 6:9; Deuteronomy 11:20; Revelation 21:14). The one seal bears two inscriptions, two mutually complementary parts or aspects: (a) The objective fact of God’s superintending knowledge of His chosen; (b) the recognition by the consciousness of each individual of the relation in which he stands to God, with its imperative call to holiness.

Ἔγνω Κύριος κ.τ.λ.: The words are taken from Numbers 16:5, ἐπέσκεπται καὶ ἔγνω ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ὄντας αὐτοῦ, “In the morning the Lord will shew who are His”. The intensive use of know is Illustrated by Genesis 18:19, Exodus 33:12; Exodus 33:17, Nahum 1:7, John 10:14; John 10:27, 1 Corinthians 8:3; 1 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Corinthians 14:38, R.V.m., Galatians 4:9.

Ἀποστήτω κ.τ.λ.: The language is perhaps another echo of the story of Korah: Ἀποσχίσθητε ἀπὸ τῶν σκηνῶν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῶν σκληρῶν τούτωνμὴ συναπόλησθε ἐν πάσῃ τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ αὐτῶν. καὶ ἀπέστησαν ἀπὸ τῆς σκηνῆς Κόρε (Numbers 16:26-27). But Isaiah 52:11 is nearer in sentiment, ἀπόστητε ἀπόστητε, ἐξέλθατε ἐκεῖθεν καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅψησθε, … οἱ φέροντες τὰ σκεύη Κυρίου, cf. Luke 13:27. Also Isaiah 26:13, Κύριε, ἐκτὸς σοῦ ἄλλον οὐκ οἴδαμεν, τὸ ὄνομά σου ὀνομάζομεν. The spiritual logic of the appeal is the same as that of Galatians 5:25, “If we live by the Spirit, by the Spirit let us also walk”. Bengel thinks that ἀπὸ ἀδικίας is equivalent to ἀπὸ ἀδίκων, the abstract for the concrete; cf. 2 Timothy 2:21, “purge himself from these”.

19. Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure] R.V. alters into the less strong ‘howbeit’; the same conjunction, which St Paul does not use elsewhere, occurs five times in St John’s Gospel, and is rendered by R.V. ‘nevertheless,’ in John 12:42 (but with another conjunction added), ‘yet’ in John 4:27, John 20:5, ‘howbeit’ in John 7:13, John 21:4. The adjective ‘sure’ or ‘firm’ from its position must be attribute not predicate, the firm foundation. What is this ‘firm foundation’? St Paul’s thought is still of Timothy as chief teacher, of his true teachers, and of the false teachers; not (except by the way) of private believers or the whole Church. The passage then is parallel to 1 Timothy 3:14-16, where we have seen the Church is called the ‘pillar and ground of the truth’ with reference to the way in which office bearers ‘ought to behave themselves,’ ‘holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience,’ and avoiding ‘the snare of the devil.’ The foundation is therefore the Church built on apostolic doctrine, ‘strong in the strength which God supplies through His eternal Son’; cf. ‘on this rock—the apostolic confession of a true faith—I will build my church,’ Matthew 16:18. And we may paraphrase, ‘Nevertheless the holy Apostolic church continueth stedfast, having these two marks of a faithful ministry, the Apostles’ teaching and the Apostles’ fellowship, a pure doctrine and a holy life.’

this seal] The Lord’s acknowledgment of His true ministers; ‘God knoweth His own, not Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, but Moses, the servant of the Lord,’ Numbers 16:5; and His warning to unholy teachers; ‘Ye shall knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us; and he shall say to you, I know not whence ye are; depart from me all ye workers of iniquity,’ Luke 13:27. The former quotation is exact from LXX., with the alteration of ‘the Lord’ for ‘God’; the latter freely turns St Luke’s record into a maxim, adopting precisely the same Greek words for ‘depart’ and for ‘iniquity’. This is the more natural, as we recall the solitary pair of friends the inspired historian and the inspired correspondent, interchanging ‘comfortable words’ in that prison cell at Rome. ‘Only Luke is with me,’ ch. 2 Timothy 4:11. Cf. 2 Timothy 2:26 note on ‘taken captive.’

Alford justifies the adding of a ‘seal’ in this metaphor of the ‘foundation’ by regarding it as ‘probably in allusion to the practice of engraving inscriptions over doors (Deuteronomy 6:9; Deuteronomy 11:20) and on pillars and foundation stones (Revelation 21:14).’

the name of Christ] The ms. authority is almost unanimous for the Lord instead of Christ; and this fits in remarkably with the above passage in St Luke.

2 Timothy 2:19. Ὁ μέντοι στερεὸς [‘nevertheless,’ Engl. Vers.], indeed sure) The antithesis is, they subvert, 2 Timothy 2:18 : add by all means the note on 1 Timothy 3:15. Indeed (μέντοι) has its Apodosis in the δὲ, but, 2 Timothy 2:20.—θεμέλιος τοῦ Θεοῦ, the foundation of God) Hebr. עיקר, foundation, that is, the subject which is the point at issue (the matter in question); for example, in a contract [the subject-matter, which is the foundation on which the contract rests], as Sam. Petitus observes, Var. Lect. c. 10. The foundation of God, on which they who are His depend, so that they cannot be overthrown, is the immoveable faithfulness of God.—ἕστηκεν, hath stood and stands) It is said to stand, for to remain unmoved as a sentence, a decree, is said to stand [to be fixed]. The word desist, presently occurring, corresponds to it [Ἀποστήτω and ἕστηκεν are conjugates]. Paul expresses the meaning of הקים to be firm, sure.—σφραγῖδα, the seal) Sentences in former times were wont to be engraven on seals.—ταύτην, this) to which the whole remaining part of this verse is to be referred.—ἔγνω Κύριος, the Lord knows) ἐπέσκεπται καὶ ἑπέγνω ὁ Θεὸς τοὺς ὄντας αὐτοῦ, καὶ τοὺς ἁγίους προσηγάγετο πρὸς ἑαυτόν, God has looked upon and knows them that are His, and draws His saints near to Him, Numbers 16:5. He knows His own in love, nor ceases to know them, but always preserves them as His; and that fact יו̇דַע He will make known, ibid.—καὶ, and) Observe, says Petitus, according to Paul, that some words were written on both sides on the round surface of the seal; for on the one face of the seal these words are read, the Lord knows, etc., but on the other, let him desist, etc.—ἀποστήτω ἀπὸ ἀδικίας, let him desist from iniquity) Ibid., 2 Timothy 2:26 : ἀποσχισθητε ἀπὸ τῶν σκηνῶν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῶν σκληρῶν τούτων, be separated from the tents of these wicked men. Paul uses the abstract, iniquity, for the concrete; comp. 2 Timothy 2:21 (note), if a man by purging himself shall go forth from these; and at the same time he has regard to that passage of Isaiah 52:11, ΑΠΟΣΤΗΤΕ, etc., “DEPART YE, DEPART YE, touch no UNCLEAN THING (ΑΚΑΘΑΡΤΟΥ); be ye clean that bear the VESSELS (ΣΚΕΥΗ) of the Lord.” The Imperative, let him desist, pronounced in the name of God, implies power to depart; and also implies the blessedness of those who depart.—πᾶς ὁ ὀνομάζων) every one that names the name of Christ, as his Lord: comp. Acts 19:13, note. That is done by preaching, Jeremiah 20:9, and by celebrating His name, Psalm 20:7.—τὸ ὄνομα, the name) Concerning the name of the Lord, concerning the Lord knowing none save His own, concerning unrighteousness, comp. Matthew 7:22-23.

Verse 19. - Howbeit for nevertheless, A.V.; firm foundation of God standeth for foundation of God standeth sure, A.V.; this for the (1611 copy), A.V.; the Lord for Christ, A.V. and T.R.; unrighteousness for iniquity, A.V. The firm foundation of God standeth; i.e., though the faith of some is thrown down like a wall built with untempered mortar, the foundation which God has laid fast and firm stands unmoved and unmovable. This is equally true of individual souls (the at στερεαὶ ψυχαί of Chrysostom), and of the Church, against which the gates of hell shall not prevail. Compare our Lord's saying, when the Pharisees were offended at him, "Every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted up" (Matthew 15:13); and those in John 10:28, 29; and 1 John 2:19. Θεμέλιος in classical Greek is always an adjective agreeing with λίθος expressed or understood. In the New Testament it is used only as a substantive (Luke 6:48; 1 Corinthians 3:10; 1 Timothy 6:19, etc.). Here the word seems to be employed, not so much to denote a foundation on which a house was to be built, as to denote strength and solidity. The elect of God are like foundationstones, which may not be moved. Having this seal. In Revelation 12:14 the twelve foundationstones of the new Jerusalem were each inscribed with the name of an apostle. In like manner there are inscriptions, of the nature of seals, on God's strong foundations, showing their immutable condition. One is, "THE LORD KNOWETH THEM THAT ARE HIS," taken verbatim from the LXX. of Numbers 16:5: the other is, "LET EVERY ONE THAT NAMETH THE NAME OF THE LORD DEPART FROM UNRIGHTEOUSNESS," This is nowhere to be found in the Old Testament. The first part of the verse is indeed equivalent to Κύριε τὸ ὀνομά σου ὀνομάζομεν in Isaiah 26:13, but there is nothing to answer to the second part. The passages quoted by commentators from Numbers 16:26 and Isaiah 52:11 are far too general to indicate any particular reference. Possibly the motto is one of those "faithful sayings" before referred to. The two inscriptions, taken together, show the two sides of the Christian standing - God's election, and man's holiness (comp. 1 John 1:6; 1 John 3:7, 8). 2 Timothy 2:19Nevertheless (μέντοι)

Mostly in John. oP. Only here in Pastorals.

The foundation of God standeth sure (ὁ στερεὸς θεμέλιος τοῦ θεοῦ ἕστηκεν)

Wrong. Στερεὸς sure is attributive, not predicative. Rend. the firm foundation of God standeth. The phrase foundation of God, N.T.o. Θεμέλιος foundation is an adjective, and λίθος stone is to be supplied. It is not to be taken by metonymy for οἰκία house (2 Timothy 2:20), but must be interpreted consistently with it, and, in a loose way, represents or foreshadows it. So we speak of an endowed institution as a foundation. By "the sure foundation of God" is meant the church, which is "the pillar and stay of the truth" (1 Timothy 3:15), by means of which the truth of God is to withstand the assaults of error. The church has its being in the contents of "the sound teaching" (1 Timothy 1:10), which is "according to godliness" (1 Timothy 6:3), and which is deposited in it. "The mystery of godliness " is intrusted to it (1 Timothy 3:16). Its servants possess "the mystery of the faith" (1 Timothy 3:9). In 1 Corinthians 3:11, Christ is represented as " the chief corner-stone." In Ephesians 2:20, the church is built "upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets," with Christ as the corner-stone, and grows into a "holy temple (ναὸν) in the Lord." Here, the church itself is the foundation, and the building is conceived as a great dwelling-house. While the conception of the church here does not contradict that of Paul, the difference is apparent between it and the conception in Ephesians, where the church is the seat of the indwelling and energy of the Holy Spirit. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16,1 Corinthians 3:17. Στερεός firm only here, Hebrews 5:12, Hebrews 5:14, and 1 Peter 5:9 (note). Ἕστηκεν standeth, in contrast with overthrow (2 Timothy 2:18).

Seal (σφραγῖδα)

Mostly in Revelation. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Romans 4:11; 1 Corinthians 9:2. Used here rather in the sense of inscription or motto. Comp. Deuteronomy 6:9; Deuteronomy 11:20; Revelation 21:14. There are two inscriptions on the foundation stone, the one guaranteeing the security, the other the purity, of the church. The two go together. The purity of the church is indispensable to its security.

The Lord knoweth them that are his (ἔγνω κύριος τοὺς ὄντας αὐτοῦ)

The first inscription: God knows his own. Comp. Numbers 16:5; 1 Corinthians 13:12. For ἔγνω knoweth, see on Galatians 4:9. Them that are his, his ἐκλεκτοὶ chosen; see 2 Timothy 2:10; Titus 1:1; Romans 8:33; Colossians 3:12; 1 Peter 2:9 : Revelation 17:14. Not, however, in any hard, predestinarian sense. Comp. John 10:14; Matthew 7:23; Luke 13:25, Luke 13:27.

Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity

The second inscription, concerning the purity of the church. For of Christ rend. of the Lord (κυρίου). Ὁνομάζων nameth, only here in Pastorals. It means to give a name to, to style, as Mark 3:14; Luke 6:14; 1 Corinthians 5:11 : to pronounce a name as having a special virtue, as in incantation, as Acts 19:13 : to utter a name as acknowledging and appropriating what the name involves, as a confession of faith and allegiance. So here. Comp. Romans 15:20; 1 Corinthians 5:11; Isaiah 26:13. For ὄνομα name, see on 2 Thessalonians 1:12. Ἁποστήτω ἀπὸ ἀδικίας depart from iniquity. For the verb, see on 1 Timothy 4:1. Mostly in Luke and Acts. Comp. Numbers 16:26; Isaiah 52:11. Whatever may be implied in God's election, it does not relieve Christians of the duty of strict attention to their moral character and conduct. Comp. Philippians 2:12. The gift of grace (Ephesians 2:8) is exhibited in making one a coworker with God (1 Corinthians 3:9). The salvation bestowed by grace is to be "carried out" (Philippians 2:12) by man with the aid of grace (Romans 6:8-19; 2 Corinthians 6:1). What this includes and requires appears in Philippians 3:10; Philippians 4:1-7; Ephesians 4:13-16, Ephesians 4:22 ff.; Colossians 2:6, Colossians 2:7.

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